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Mihaly Mellar :
Making Sense after Rudolf Wachter V. (Corinth 3.)


The transliteration into modern Greek from the different ancient handwritings is done by H. R. Immerwahr and others, which in turn is transcribed by me, using this simple ABC table, at the same time backfilling the left out vowels, to reconstruct the inscriptions in today's spelling.


As the Corinthian vase-inscriptions make up quite a large part of Wachter's book, I did break this part up into five subheadings, plus a separate blog for the Kypselos chest, which actually COR 66 in Wächter's book.

In this part COR 70 is significant, because Wachter is here, in his own words, tempted to interpret the names as afterthoughts, but he resists the temptation and sticks to his misconception. The other challenge to this “labelling” business is COR 74 where the “labels” contain a moral tied irrefutably to the Trojan war. COR 79A is also about the Trojans, the departure to the war of the man who is the most responsible for this tragic war. But again, Wachter thinks that the painter's main concern, 6-7 hundreds years  after the event, is the name of one of the horses in the quadriga Paris departed on.



~  @ COR 64 ~


Column krater from ?, near the Hippolytos P. (see Amyx) (1931 or earlier). Oxford, Ashmolean Mus. 1965. 99.

Scene: Two quadrigae heading towards each other, the names (a) and (b) are the charioteers’. On the reverse three horsemen, the first two named (c) and (d).272

Date: c.580 (Hamilton); LC (Lorber); c.570–550 (LIMC).


(a) Πολυδοριδος > aPÓ LÚ üDŐRe IDŐS > Apó, lú üdőre idős. (Father, the horse old for procession.)

(b) Κιsιππος > KI SZÍP BŐSZ > Ki szíp bősz. (The nice is ferocious.)

(c) Λαιδος > LúA IDŐS > Lova idős. (His horse is old.)

(d) Διο > De JÓ > De jó! (But it is good!)


Wachter's interpretation: Non-heroic chariot and riding scenes (labels).



~ @ COR 66 ~


For this sensational column krater see a separate writing titled: Kypselos chest in Olympia and the Amphiaraos krater.



~ @ COR 67 ~


Frs. of a column krater from ?, by the Amphiaraos P. (see Amyx) (found ?); most of the frs. were lost in World War II. Formerly Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlung Inv. 6568.

Scene: A (lost) warrior to r. (a) (the label written on the white anta), another one (b) in a chariot to r. with charioteer (c), a third warrior (d) (labelled on the tail of one of the white horses), facing a woman (apparently unnamed). Finally, (e) is written in front of a dark (purple?) and a white horse’s head (of which one is therefore unnamed).

Date: LC (Lorber).


(a) Ϝαχυς > VÁGY ŰZi > vágy űzi (the desire drives him)

(b) Λαιδας > oLAJ iDe A SZó > olaj ide a szó (here the word is oil on fire)

(c) Ϝιον > VÍjON > víjon (let him fight)

(d) [Π]ολυ[β]ος > [Η]ολυ[λ]ος > HOL VaLÓS > hol valós (where real thing)

(e) Ξανθο[ς] > Ξανθο[δ] (Ξ=K_S/Z) > KuSZA NYiTJa Ó'D > kusza nyitja old (the lock of confusion dissolves)


Vágy űzi, olaj ide a szó! Víjon (vívjon) hol valós kusza nyitja old. (The desire drives him, here the word is oil on fire! Let him fight where the lock of real  confusion dissolves.)


Wachter's interpretation: Non-heroic departure scene (labels).


~ @ COR 69 ~


Column krater from Nola or Capua, near the Amphiaraos P. (see Amyx) (1825 or earlier). Naples, Mus. Naz. 80996.

Scene: A warrior (a) rushing to l. (as all figures in this scene). Of a second warrior only a shield was painted but no head, and the painted sketch of his leg and foot has been transformed into a horse’s leg and hoof in the final stage of engraving. Label (b) cannot therefore have been meant to designate this second warrior. Also it was not begun next to any part of his body. It must belong to one of the front horses of the following quadriga, probably to the only white one to the l. (fully visible). Beyond the horses of the quadriga there are two other footwarriors. Labels (c)–( f ) must be attributed to these figures as follows: (c) to one of the horses which are throwing their heads back,290 (d) to one of the horses or the first warrior beyond, (e) to another one of the horses, ( f ) to the second warrior beyond; one name, either the first warrior’s or one horse’s, will have been lost with the missing part below. After that, the attribution is easier. In the chariot there are the charioteer (g) and a warrior (h), the latter labelled next to his r. arm. A second quadriga follows, again accompanied by two warriors beyond the horses. The attribution of the remaining labels: (i) belongs to one of the horses (two are white, two dark); ( j), which is written under the horses and next to the front foot of the first warrior, cannot belong to the latter, who has label (k) next to his head, but designates a horse. There must have been enough space around the horses in the now missing parts to have contained another label, but hardly enough for two. Also the second warrior’s and the charioteer’s labels will have been on parts now missing, whereas the name of the warrior in the chariot is preserved (l ).

Date: LC (Lorber; LIMC iv); c.570–550 (LIMC iii; v, ‘Hippolytos’); c.560 (LIMC v, ‘Kebriones’).


(a) Ευρυμας > E ÜRÜ MÁS > e ürü más (this wether is different)

(b) [...]ρυμεδον > [μγυ]ρυμεδον > [MeGÜ]RÜ' MEDDŐN > megürül meddőn (it empties infertile)

(c) Ηιπο[ς] > Ηιπο[μ] > HIáBa Ö[Mö'] > hiába ömöl (in vain flows)

(d) Δαμ[...] > Δαμ[τζ] > DÁM [TüZe] > dám tüze (the fire of the ewe)

(e) Ϝioν[. . . ?] > VaJON > vajon (if)

(f) Δαμον > DÁMON > dámon (on the ewe)

(g) Κεβ.[.]oνας > Κεβρ[σ]oνας > Ki ÉBeR [oS]ONÁS > ki éber osonás (who is vigilant sneakiness)

(h) Κετορ > Κετοδ > KETTŐD > kettőd (second)

(i) Λευ[ϙς] > Λευ[ος] > LEV[ÖSZi] > levöszi (takes it down)

(j) Γαυϙος > iGÁVa' KOS > igával kos (ram with some effort)

(k) Ευρυλοχος > E ÜRÜ eLŐ' GYŐZ > e ürü elől győz (away from this wether wins)

(l) Ηιππολυτ[...] > Ηιππολυτ[λλ] > HIBáBÓ' eLÜTi [eLŐLe] > hibából elüti előle (by mistake takes it away from it)


E ürü más, megürül meddőn, hiába ömöl dám tüze. Vajon dámon, ki éber osonás, kettőd (másod)? Leveszi igával kos e ürü elől, győz, hibából elüti előle.(This wether is different, it empties infertile, in vain flows the fire of the ewe. Is it on the ewe, who is vigilant sneakiness, second? Takes it down the ram, with some effort, away from this wether, wins, by mistake takes it away from it.)


Wachter's interpretation: Probably Herakles and Kyknos (label).


~ @ COR 70 ~


Column krater from Caere (ex Campana inv. 32; 1855 or earlier). Paris, Louvre E 638.

Scene: An old man (a) and a woman (b) to r. are facing a warrior (c). Behind his back two women to r., (d) and (e), are facing a quadriga to l., of which only one horse is named ( f ).293 Beyond the horses there are two unnamed women to r. facing a warrior (g). In the chariot there is the charioteer (h) and behind the chariot an unnamed warrior seems to be about to climb up. Behind his back there are two white horses to l., of which one is named (i), and the other carries a horseman, next to whom a warrior is standing, also facing l.; only one of these two men is named, viz. ( j), written under the horse. They are being followed by two women (k) and (l). On the other side there are three youths on a black, a white, and another black horse, respectively. The middle horseman is named (m), the label starting behind his back and running down the horse’s back and tail.

Date: c.570–560 (Schefold (1964) and (1966); LIMC); LC (Lorber); c.580–570 (Schefold (1993) ).


(a) Πριαμος > PáRJA Mi ÖSZi > párja (melege/tüze) mi ëszi (the heath/fire what eats them)

(b) Ϝεκαβα > FÉK ABBA' > fék abban (the break in that)

(c) Εϙτορ > E KeTTő ŐRe & E KeTTŐRe[1] > e kettő őre e kettőre (the guardian of these two for these two)

(d) Αινοι > ÁJJoN OLY > álljon oly (let stand such)

(e) Κιανις > Ki JÁNY ŰZi > ki jány űzi (is this girl drives her)

(f) Ϙοραξς > KORA KöZöS > kora közös (age common/joint)

(g) Ηιππομαχος > HIBáBÓ' Mi ADJa ÖSSZe > hibából mi adja össze (out of mistake that joins up her)

(h) Κεβριονας > KE' Vő eRRe JÖN A SZó[2] > kell vő erre jön a szó (son-in-law is needed for this comes the word)

(i) Ξανθος > Ki SZÁNTJa ÖSSZe > ki szántja össze (összeszidja) (who gives her a scolding)

(j) Δ[α]ιφονος > Δ[ρ]ιφονος > Do[R]Ja FONOS > dorja (hasadéka) fonos (fanszőre kinőt) (her crack is grown with pubic hair)

(k) Πολυξενα > BOLYU' KéSZEN Á' > bolyul (bolyhul) készen áll (gets woolly stands ready)

(l) Κεσαν[δ]ρα > Κεσαν[α]ρα > KÉSZ ANY[Á]RA > kész anyára (ready for motherhood)

(A) Ϝιονις > Fi JÖN IS > fi jön is (here the boy comes)


Párja (melege/tüze) mi ëszi, fék abban e kettő őre e kettőre álljon. Oly ki jány, űzi kora, közös hibából mi adja össze. Kell vő erre, – jön a szó – ki szántja össze (összeszidja). (A jány) dorja (hasadéka) fonos (fanszőre kinőtt) bolyul (bolyhul) készen áll, kész anyára. Fi jön is (fehér lovon!). (The heath/fire what eats them, the break in that is the guardian of these two, let it stand for these two. Such is this girl, driven with her age, out of common/joint mistake that joins up her. Son-in-law is needed for this, – comes the word – who gives her a scolding. Her crack is grown with pubic hair gets woolly, stands ready, ready for motherhood. Here the boy comes.)


Wachter's interpretation: Departure of Hektor (mixed?) (labels). Non-heroic riding scene (label).

About this departure story Wachter himself expresses some reservations: “Perhaps the conception of the whole was the departure of only two warriors X (Hector) and Y (Hippomachos), each shown twice in chronologically distinct scenes.” But “in the Iliad Hektor takes leave not of his parents but of his wife, who does not appear on this vase at all. The scene cannot be the famous departure in Iliad 6, then, and we may be tempted to interpret the names as afterthoughts.” Just one more step, Mr. Wachter, let us interpret the names as thoughts in the first place! The first warrior stands as a guardian ('őr') and if any connection to Hector, it is the '~or' ending. The second warrior's name is “difficult to justify” but for his (in fact Hector's) charioteer (see footnote 18.) as his only appearance in Iliad is his death. The name of Hector's mother Hekabe is misspelled. It is also interesting that in each of the names of his brother (j) (already misspelled: Δ[α]ιφονος for Δηιφοβος) and sister (l) one letter is difficult to read, exactly those which, with another possible values, make up the meaningful text in our reading.


~  @ COR 71 ~


Column krater from Caere (ex Campana inv. 52; 1857 or earlier). Paris, Louvre E 637.

Scene: Four people to r. are walking behind a chariot: a man with spear, a woman, another man with spear, and another woman, next to whom we read (a). In the chariot a man (b) and a veiled woman (c) are standing. Beyond the horses a woman (unnamed) and a man, both facing l., seem to be talking to the couple in the chariot. Between the man’s head and the horses’ manes there is (d). A boy to l. (e) is stroking one of the horses’ nose (or is he feeding it?). Behind the boy are a man with spear, a woman, and another man with spear (all to l., unnamed).

Date: LC (Lorber); c.570–550 (LIMC iv).


(a) Φιλοι > Fi ILLŐ OLY > fi illő oly (the boy is matching)

(b) Ευρυβα > ÉVű áRUVA' > évű áruval (with such age-group commodity)

(c) Ϝιοι > óVI OLY > óvja oly (protects her such)

(d) Ηιποι > HŰ aPOLJa > hű apolja (faithful kisses her)

(e) Ηολοιυς > HOL Ő JUSSa > hol ő jussa (where he can get)


Fi illő oly évű áruval. Óvja oly hű, apolja hol ő jussa (ahová jut). (The boy is matching with such age-group commodity. Protects her such faithful, kisses her where he can get.)


Wachter's interpretation: Non-heroic wedding scene (labels).


~ @ COR 74 ~


Column krater from ?, the Astarita Krater (1957 or earlier). Rome, Vatican, Mus. Gregoriano Etrusco 35525 (Coll. Astarita 565).

Scene: Three men to r., (a) and (b) with spears, (c) with petasos and kerykeion, all sitting on stone steps. From the r. four women, (d)–(g), are approaching, the first being the tallest. They are followed by a pair of horses with horsemen; label (h) is under the horses’ heads, (i) between their forelegs. Next another such pair is following, ( j) written under the horses. Behind these, two black horses with horsemen, (k) written behind the shield and down the horse’s tail. Under the handle, yet another pair of (mostly) black horses with horsemen, (l) written under the horses. A single man (m) is walking behind them. The rest of the escort is unnamed.

Date: LC, c.560 (Beazley, Picard, von Bothmer); c.570–560 (Schefold); LC (Lorber); shortly before 560 (LIMC).


(a) Μενελαϝος > MÉN ELő A VŐ SZó > mén elő a vő szó (the groom/son-in-law goes in front word)

(b) Ολισευς > ÖLI SZÉ' ŰZi > öli szél űzi (kills/pesters him wind drives him)

(c) Ταλθυβιος > á'TAL úTJáVa' BaJJÓS > által útjával baljós (over he is ominous with his journey)

(d) Θεανοι > CSE' A NŐJé > csel a nőjé (nőé) (the ruse is with woman)

(e) Δια > DÍjA > díja (its price is)

(f) Μαλοι > MA iLLÓ I' > ma illó ily (today volatile such thing)

(g) Τροφος > Τροϙος > uTóRa OKOZZa > utóra okozza (causes on posterity)

(h) Ηαρματιδας > HÁRMÁT ÜDe A SZó > hármát üde a szó (its harm the word is fresh)

(i) Γλυϙος > áGáLóVa' KÖZ > ágálóval köz- (with a contender common)

(j) Ερυμαχος  > ERőVe' MA GYŐZ > erővel ma győz (with force today he wins)

(k) Ϝιλιονες > éVÜL JŐ öNESZű > évül jő öneszű (with years comes the self-willed/headstrong)

(l) .[.].τας > Ο[κ]ιτας  > O[K]ÍTÁS > o[k]ítás (moral/teaching)

(m) Πολυφ.[...] > Πολυφλ[μας] > áPOLóU' Fa-Ló [MÁS] > ápolóul fa-ló [más] (as a carer the wooden horse is unlike)


Mén elő a vő, szó öli, szél űzi által, útjával baljós. Csel a nőjé (nőé), díja ma illó, ily utóra okozza hármát. Üde a szó ágálóval, közerővel ma győz. Évül jő öneszű okítás: ápolóul fa-ló más. (The groom/son-in-law goes in front, the word kills/pesters him, the wind drives him over, he is ominous with his journey. The ruse is with woman, its price is today volatile, such thing causes its harm on posterity. The word is fresh with a contender, with common force, today he wins. With years come the self-willed/headstrong moral/teaching: as a carer the wooden horse is unlike.)


Wachter's interpretation: Embassy to Troy about Helene (Έλένης άπαίτησις) (labels).

The painting and the inscriptions show that the painter had a thorough knowledge of the story. Yet, a Trojan called Harmatidas (h) never occurs anywhere.” Shouldn't this and similar statements warn about the dead end street of of this “labelling” business? Or at least question the method which treats the inscriptions uniformly as labels. There is no doubt that the scene on the vase depicts Menelaos' embassy to Troy and the above reading confirms that unquestionably as it even has a moral tied irrefutably to that war. By degrading the inscriptions to mere labels of nobodies, like: Δια and Μαλοι, maids of Theano or even horses: Ηαρματιδας, this ever actual teaching, meant for posterity, would be forever lost.


~ @ COR 77 ~


Hydria from Caere, by the Damon P. (see Amyx) (ex Campana inv. 60; 1857 or earlier). Paris, Louvre E 643.

Scene: Ten women mourning over a dead man on a kline, six to r., viz. (a)–(c), nameless, (d), and (e), and four to l., of which only the third is named, ( f ). The fourth to seventh are standing beyond the kline. The fifth, (d), holds a lyre above the kline. The first of those facing l. embraces the head of the dead hero. His weapons are depicted in front of the kline.

Date: LC (Lorber); c.570 (Schefold; LIMC i; vi, ‘Nereides’); c.570–550 (LIMC iv–vi, except ‘Nereides’).


(a) Διοι > DÜ' OLY > Düh oly! (Rage is such!)

(b) Κλεοπ.[.]τα > Κλεοπα[ρ]τα > KiáLL-E Ő BA[Rá]TTA' > Kiáll-e ő baráttal?  (Will he stand out with a friend?)

(c) Ϝιοι > VÍ OLY > Ví(v) oly! (Such will fight!)

(d) Ηαμαθοι > HAMuA oCSÓJa > Hamva ocsója (ébreszti). (His ashes wakes him.)

(e) Ϙυματοθα > KUM A TOTYA > Kum (hum/huny) a totya. (The doddery dozes.)

(f) Ϝιοι > VÍ OLY > Ví(v) oly! (Such will fight!)


Wachter's interpretation: Lamentation over the dead Achilleus (labels).


~ COR 78 ~


Hydria from Caere, by the Damon P. (see Amyx) (ex Campana inv. 58; 1857 or earlier; see above, n. 320). Paris, Louvre E 642.

Scene: A woman to r. (a) behind a quadriga to r. A warrior (b) is stepping into the chariot, in which the charioteer (c) is waiting. Beyond the horses there is a man to l. (d). Behind his back two women, (e) and ( f ), are facing each other. (g) is written under the horses’ bellies (apparently designating the white one in front, which is the most visible), and (h) above the heads of the two in front (and at the same time in front of the heads of the two behind). In front of the horses there are another woman and a warrior facing each other.

Date: LC (Lorber); c.560–550 (LIMC iii, ‘Charon’); c.570–550 (LIMC iii, ‘Dion’).


(a) Διοι > iDe JÖJJ > ide jöjj (come (back) here)

(b) Διον > iDő JÖN > idő jön (time will come (for that))

(c) Δαμον > De Á'MON > de álmon (but in dream)

(d) Χαρον > GYÁRÓN > járón (walking)

(e) Διοι > De JÓ Ű > de jó ű (he is really good)

(f) Ϝιοι > óVi JÓ' Ű > óvi jól ű (she protects him well)

(g) Ξανθος > Ki SZÁNaTOS > ki szánatos (szánalmat gerjesztő) (who is pitiable)

(h) Βαλιος > BALJÓS > baljós (ominous)


Menyasszony (fiancée): Ide jöjj! (Come (back) here!)

Vőlegény (fiancé): Idő jön. (Time will come (for that).)

Kocsihajtó (charioteer): De álmon járón. (But in dream-walking.)

Nézők (onlookers): – De jó ű! ( He is really good!); – Óvi jól ű! (She protects him well!)

Jóslat (prediction): Ki szánatos (szánalmat gerjesztő) baljós. (The pitiable one is ominous.)


Wachter's interpretation: Non-heroic departure scene (labels).


~ COR 79A ~


Hydria from ? (c.1979 or earlier). Okayama, Kurashiki Ninagawa Mus.

Scene: A man to r. in long robe (b) facing a quadriga to l., one horse of which bears a label (a), written behind the back of the man, but very close to the first, white, horse’s head. Beyond the horses there are two women to r. Only their upper parts are painted (for a parallel see the second warrior on COR 68). One of them328 is named (c), the label being written under the horses. Also beyond the horses, but nearer to the chariot, there is an old man to r. in a long robe (d), looking back to l. In the chariot there is the

charioteer (e).

Date: LC (Lorber); c.550 (LIMC i); LC, 560/550 (Simon; LIMC iii); c.570–560 (Schefold).


(a) Λευϙος > eLÉVe' oKOZZa > elével (előéletével) okozza (with her past (antecedents) causes)

(b) Παρις > PÁRJa S > párja s (his partner it and)

(c) Ζεξιππα > aZÉ' KéSZŰ' Ba'BA > azé(rt) készül bajba (csatába) (that's way he prepares for battle)

(d) Πριαμος > BíRáJJA íM ŐS > bírálja ím ős (his progenitor, see, judges him)

(e) Βατον > VÁ'TON > válton (incessantly)


Elével (előéletével) okozza párja s azé(rt) készül bajba (csatába), – bírálja, ím, ős válton. (With her past (antecedents) his partner causes it and that's why he prepares for battle, – his progenitor, see, judges him incessantly.)


Wachter's interpretation: Departure of Paris (labels).

Paris is the man whose irresponsible behaviour, by the Iliad, caused the tragic Trojan war. It is more than sensible that the depiction of his departure to the war of his own making deals with the question of the cause of that, for the Trojans so disastrous war. If we only read the labels, we'll get a named horse, a charioteer with a “wrong name” and maybe(?) the “horsey” name of Priamos' mother, who “looks younger than Priamos”! What relevance these labels have to the bloody war about to start? Or staying on personal level: is the horse's and driver's name really matter in a departure which may have no return for the departing warrior?

Here is this painter painting the departure to the war of the man who is the most responsible for this tragic war. He writes Paris' name next to his figure and makes sure that we recognise his father as well to make certain the occasion. But, with all respect, Mr. Wachter, 6-7 hundred years after the devastating war, and with the hindsight on the  gravity of the depicted moment, has one of the horse's name in a quadriga such significance and distinction as to be noted in the first place?


~ @ COR 80 ~


Fragmentary hydria from ?, near the Damon P. (see Amyx) (1961 or earlier). Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery 48. 2230.

Scene: A chariot to l. Beyond the horses a woman to r. (apparently unnamed; there is nothing under the horses, E. Reeder per litt.) with extended arms. The charioteer (a) to l. is looking back to where a warrior to r. (b) is being stabbed by his opponent (c). A chariot to r., in which a charioteer (d), not watching, is waiting. Beyond the horses a woman to l. (apparently unnamed; her arms are not preserved); under the horses inscr. (e). Date: LC (Lorber); c.560 (Schefold); c.530 (sic, LIMC i, iii, vi).


(a) Αυτομεδον > A VéTŐ íME DŐ'Ne > a vétő íme dőlne (look who commits an error should fell)

(b) Μεμνομ > íMe E'MéN Ő Ma > íme elmén ő ma (look, his going today)

(c) Αχιλλευς  > A GYŰLöLő E'ViSZi > a gyűlölő elviszi (the spiteful will take him)

(d) [. . .]. . ς

(e) Ταλον > iTALON/úTÁLÓN/uTALÓN … > ()


A vétő íme dőlne. Íme elmén ő ma, a gyűlölő elviszi … (Look, who commits an error should fell. Look, his going today, the spiteful will take him ...)


Wachter's interpretation: Achilleus and Memnon (labels).


~ @ COR 81A-B ~


Frs. of a hydria and another vase from ? (ex Campana inv. ?; 1857 or earlier). Paris, Louvre CP 10488.

Scene: (A) In the picture to the l. (under the handle) there is a horseman to r. (no inscr. preserved). In the large picture to the r. a quadriga to r. is shown, in the chariot a man (unnamed)331 and a woman, labelled (a) low down on the front of her dress as well as (b) in front of her face. Beyond the horses there are two women to r., labelled (c) and (d) in front of their faces, and one to l., labelled (e) behind her head. In front of the two black horses’ heads is inscr. ( f ). A woman to l., who holds a necklace in her hand, is facing the horses (she is unnamed, unless her name was very low down). Behind her there are the remains of two warriors with spears, labelled (g) and (h) in front of them. (B) Another fr. (Amyx duly thinks that it is from a different vase: it is much thicker) shows two horses to r., one with a rider, whose label (a) runs downwards behind his back; a woman is walking to r., labelled (b) behind her back.

Date: 575–550 (Arena, p. 90, title); LC (Lorber); c.570–550 (LIMC).



(a) Ḍιọị > iDe JÖJJ > ide jöjj (come here)

(b) Ϝιοι > VÍ OLY > ví oly (such will fight)

(c) Δοροι > De ORROJJa > de orrolja (but s/he resents it)

(d) Ọḷ[.?]τοι > Ργ[σρ]τοι > RéGi [SZeRe]TŐJe > régi [szere]tője (her old lover)

(e) Ϝιφις > VÍ Fi IS > ví fi is (the young man will also fight)

(f) Ξανθος > Ki SZÁNaTOS > ki szánatos (who is pitiable)

(g) .αδαμας > Λαδαμας > LÁDD A MÁSé > ládd a másé (look she belongs to someone else)

(h) Ηιπομε[...] > Ηιπομε[τον] > HŰBŐ' MÉ[TŐN] > hűből mé[tőn] (mételyezve, romlottan) (from faithful to poisoned mind)


(a) [...].δοϙος > [Λ]αδοϙος > [L]ÁDD OKOS > [l]ádd okos (look you pig-headed)

(b) Ϝαχοι > VÁGY OLY > vágy oly (the desire is such)


(A) Ide jöjj! Ví(v) oly de orrolja régi [szere]tője. Ví(v) fi is, ki szánatos (szánalmat gerjesztő). Ládd, a másé hűből mé[tőn] (mételyezve, romlottan). (Come here! Such will fight, but her old lover resents him. The young man, who is pitiable, will also fight. Look, she belongs to someone else, from faithful to poisoned mind.)

(B) [L]ádd, okos, vágy oly! (Look, you pig-headed, the desire is such!)


Wachter's interpretation: (A) Non-heroic wedding scene (labels). (B) Perhaps a non-heroic departure scene (labels).


~ @ COR 82 ~


Frs. of a hydria from ? (1966 or earlier). Rome, Vatican, Mus. Gregoriano Etrusco 35617 (Coll. Astarita 653)

Scene: Four legs of warriors striding to l., with only name (a) preserved, between the legs. Behind them an archer (b) to l., clad in a spotted leopard-skin, kneeling and shooting. Behind him a quadriga to l., on the point of driving off, beyond the horses a warrior is attacking to r., labelled (c) down his leg. He is facing a warrior to l., whose label (d) is written in a circle in front of his face. The charioteer is named (e) on his white garment. Behind him and beyond the chariot a huge warrior is rushing to r. (no name preserved) past a dead warrior ( f ), fully armed, who is lying on the ground, head to the l. The fierce attacker, whose upper part is not preserved, is jumping either at a warrior to l. who is already on his knees (g) or at another one whose feet by contrast are lifted off the ground (h). Date: LC (Lorber).


(a) Πολυδαμας > áPOLóÚ' üDe ÁM A SZó > ápolóul üde ám a szó (as a carer the word is fresh)

(b) [...?].αριṣ > [Σο]παριṣ > [SO]PÁR ŰZ > sopár (bíbelődve) űz (drives you with great pains over)

(c) Αιϝας > ÁJJ iVÁS > állj ivás (stop drinking)

(d) [...]ḷẹụβọυλος > [Κ]ḷẹụβọυλος > [Ke]LL-E Ú'BÓ' VaLÓS > kell-e újból valós (is there need again for real)

(e) Αλκιμος > ALKu ÍM ŐS > alku ím ős (bargain look ancestor)

(f) Σαρπαδον > SÁRBA DŐ'Ne > sárba dőlne (would fall into mud)

(g) Πυραιχμας > eB URA ÜGYe MÁS > eb ura ügye más (his dog's master's case is elsewhere)

(h) Γλαυ... > Γλαυϙος > áGáL A VaK ŐS > ágál a vak ős (gesticulates the blind forefather)


Ápolóul üde ám a szó, sopár (bíbelődve) űz: állj ivás! Kell-e újból valós alku? Ím ős sárba dőlne, eb ura ügye más, ágál a vak ős. (As a carer, the word is fresh, drives you with great pains over: stop drinking! Is there need again for real bargain? Look, the ancestor would fall into mud, his dog's master's case is elsewhere, gesticulates the blind forefather.)


Wachter's interpretation: Fight over Sarpedon’s body (labels).


~@ COR 83 ~


Hydria from ? (found ?). Fiesole, Coll. Costantini.

Scene: Five pairs of horses with horsemen, all to l. The third and fourth man are named behind their backs. Date: LC.


(a) Λαλας               >  LeÁLLÁS > leállás  (stopping)

(b) Λαλας                           LóÁLLÁS > lóállás  (stall for horses)

                                                                  LőÁLLÁS > lőállás  (shooting-stand)

                                                                  áLÁLLÁS > álállás  (false standing – as the rider sits on the standing horse!)

                                                                  eLÁLLÁS > elállás  (sticking out/ceasing/stopping/giving up)

                                                                  óLÁLÁS > ólálás  (loitering/lurking around)


Wachter's interpretation: Non-heroic riding scene (labels).


~ @ COR 83BIS ~


Neck-amphora from ?, attributed to the group of the White Horses (Mus. inv.) (found ?). Malibu, J. Paul Getty Mus. 84. AE. 29

Scene: A warrior on foot, two on horseback, and another one on foot (named, in front of his face),335 all to l. The decoration seems very similar to that of COR 83.

Date: c.560 (Mus. inv.).


Λαλας                    (See COR 83.)


Wachter's interpretation: Non-heroic riding and marching scene (label).


~ @ COR 83TER ~


Column krater from Italy (?), near the Hippolytos P. (see Amyx) (1958 or earlier; bought in Rome). Stockholm, Medelhavsmuseet 1958. 12.

Scene: The same scene twice, viz. a horseman galloping to r., a front view of a quadriga with one man in the chariot, and a horseman galloping to l. The inscrs. start next to the heads of the inner two quadriga horses: (a) and (b), (c) and (d).

Date: LC I, c.575–550 (Blomberg–von Heland).


(a) Λαλας > iLLA LA SZó > Illa, la, szó! (The word, look, runs!)

(b) Λαλα > iLLA LA > Illa, la! (It runs, look!)

(c) Λαλα[...?] > iLLA LA > Illa, la! (It runs, look!)

(d) Dιον > De JÖN > De jön. (But it comes.)


Wachter's interpretation: Non-heroic riding and chariot scene (labels). (See COR 83.)


[1] All the researchers are talking about warriors, but we can call them guardians ('őr') just the same, and then we have got this clever double reading where either and both of the readings makes perfect sense in the sentence.

[2] An alternate reading would be: Κεβριονας > Ki ÉBeR JŐ NÁSZ > ki éber: jő nász! (who is vigilant: comes nuptials)