The “names” on the ancient Greek vases are there for everyone to see, but only the Scythic speaking people can read the hidden message of these scytales! What a revealing name! that goes unnoticed by scientists for two and a half thousand years.The small cup from Corinth (1883 or earlier), now in Paris, Louvre MNC 332, has these “names” added to the boxing scene:
> Víjó (vívó) ki elbukta fél vége. (The fighter, who lost it, fears his end.)

CONTENTS Amazons & Scythians 'Nonsense Inscriptions'?! Making Sense Etruscan=Hungarian Cretan Hieroglyphs Linear A Sundry MY HUNGARIAN PAGES
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Blog : Making SenseKeywords : Corinthian vases, Hercules' labours, Paris & Helene, wedding

Making Sense after Rudolf Wachter III. (Corinth 1.)

The transliteration into modern Greek from the different ancient handwritings is done by H. R. Immerwahr and others, which in turn is transcribed by me, using this simple ABC table, at the same time backfilling the left out vowels, to reconstruct the inscriptions in today's spelling.

The main period of Corinthian vase-painting is relatively short, and the inscribed pieces span just over a century, most of them no more than about 30 years (approximately 580–550). Towards the end of the period, Corinthian workshops started imitating Attic fashion.

For the Corinthian alphabet, which is of a common type (similar to East Ionic) but contains a distinctive series of less common letter-forms (mainly beta, iota, san, and the special, though frequent, epsilon).

As the Corinthian vase-inscriptions make up quite a large part of Wachter's book, I did break this part up into five subheadings, plus a separate blog for the Kypselos chest, which actually COR 66 in Wächter's book.


~ @ COR 1A ~

Fr. of an oinochoe from Aigina (found ?). Aigina, Mus. 2061.

Scene: Warrior to r. (no inscr. preserved), woman to l. (labelled) wearing helmet and holding bow, stretching out her r. arm towards the warrior’s face (or his chin, to plead for mercy?). Date: PC, c.640 (LIMC; Schefold).


Αµασζον > AMA SZűZÖN > ... ama szűzön ... (... on that virgin ...)

R. Wachter's interpretation: Unidentified battle of Amazons (with Herakles or Achilleus?) (label).

~ @ COR 3 ~

Aryballos from ? (1953 or earlier). Basle (private).

Scene: Warrior (named) behind a charioteer (unnamed) in a chariot.

Date: c.630 (Schefold); c.625 (Friis Johansen); 630–615 (Arena, p. 69); ‘Übergangsstil’ (Lorber, p. 16); no date in Amyx.

Pατροϙλος > BÁToR ÖKLÖS > Bátor öklös (Brave fist-fighter)

R. Wachter's interpretation: Unspecified scene with Patroklos (label).

~ @ COR 6 ~

Heracles'fight with the HydraAryballos124 from Aigina (c.1830–42?); lost in World War II, formerly Wroclaw, Arch. Mus. (similar to or the same as Corinthian Aryballos with Herakles Fighting the Hydra in the Getty Villa, July 2008)

Scene: A chariot to l.; on the reins an owl (unnamed) and on a spear a Siren (a) are sitting. Behind the chariot a woman to r. (b), seconding Herakles (c) who is fighting some six heads of the Hydra, while a crab (unnamed) is attacking his foot. From the other side a warrior (d) is fighting two other heads of the monster, watched by his charioteer (e) who is waiting in a chariot to r., looking back over his shoulders.

Date: EC (Lorber, p. 18); 615–600 (Arena, p. 70); ‘Corinthien Ancien/Moyen’ (c.600–595) (Amandry–Amyx, p. 102); Amyx (1988), by placing it before COR 8 and 13, seems to disagree with his and Amandry’s earlier view; c.600–595 (LIMC v); c.580 (LIMC vi).

(a) Ϝους > iVó ÖVeZi > ivó övezi (drinker/taproom surrounds him1)

(b) Αθανα > A' úTJÁN Á' > a' útján áll (stands in his way)

(c) Ηερακλες > Ha E RÁK LESi > ha e rák(fene) lesi (when this cancer lies in wait for him2)

(d) Ϝιολαϝος > VÍ ÖLi A' iVÓS > ví öli a' ivós (he struggles with it, harasses him the drinker)

(e) Λαπυθος > Λαπυθϙς > iLLA BUTYKoS > illa butykos (the bottle (pitcher with narrow neck) runs away)

Ivó övezi, a' útján áll, ha e rák(fene) lesi. Ví (vív), öli (gyötri) a' ivós. Illa butykos! (Drinker/taproom surrounds him, stands in his way, when this cancer lies in wait for him. He struggles with it, harasses him the drinker (in himself). The bottle3 (pitcher with narrow neck) runs away.)


R. Wachter's interpretation: Herakles and the Hydra (mixed) (labels).

When you look at this nonsensical fight with the Hydra, after reading and comprehending the inscription, which complements the picture, you will see it in different light. The fight is not mythical at all, but a symbolic one, with a very realistic problem, namely the drunkenness.

~ @ COR 7 ~

Aryballos, from Karystos (?) (1845 or earlier). Athens, Nat. Mus. 341.

Scene: A warrior (a) walking behind two horses, on one of which his page (b) is sitting.

Date: EC (Lorber); 4th q. 7th cent. (LIMC).

(a) Ηιπποβατας > HIBáBÓ' VÁ'TÁS > Hibából váltás. (Change by mistake.)

(b) Ηιποστροφος > HIBa OSZT RŐFÖS > Hiba oszt rőfös. (Error deals in yards.)


R. Wachter's interpretation: Non-heroic marching scene (labels).

~ @ COR 8 ~

Fr. of an aryballos from Corinth (1971). Corinth, Arch. Mus. C-71-321.

Scene: Several heads of the Hydra, three of which are being attacked by a man to l. (named).

Date: ‘Corinthien Ancien’ (c.610–600) (Amandry– Amyx); Amyx (1988), by placing it after COR 6 and before COR 13, seems to disagree with his and Amandry’s earlier view; c.610–600 (LIMC).

Ϝιολαϝος > Ví ÖLi iVÓS > Ví, öli ivós. (He struggles, (but) harasses him the drinker.)

R. Wachter's interpretation: Herakles and the Hydra (label). (See COR 6.)

~@ COR 10 ~

Aryballos from Greece, Warrior Group (see Amyx) (acquired 1922, ex Arndt coll.). Amsterdam, A. Pierson Mus. 480.

Scene: Fight between two warriors, one with a spear (a), the other with a stone (b).

Date: EC (Lorber; LIMC); EC (i.e. 620/615–595/590) (Amyx).

(a) Αεϝας > Ah E VAS > Ah, e vas! (Ah, the steel!)

(b) Εαορ > Εϙτορ{after Wachter} > E Kő TÖRi > E kő töri! (This stone brakes it!)

R. Wachter's interpretation: Hektor and Aias (labels).

~ @ COR 12 ~

Krater from Caere, the Eurytios Krater (ex Campana inv. 33; 1856 or earlier). Paris, Louvre E 635.

Conversation in SymposionScene: Four klinai, on the two to the l. two men each, (a) and (b), (c) and (d), on the two to the r. one man each, (e) and the guest (g); between the two latter, standing to r. but turning her head to l., a woman (f ). Under one handle two warriors (h) and (j), between them the dead Aias (i) over his sword. Also, a fight over the dead body of a warrior and a cooking scene, uninscribed.

Date: c.600 (Schefold; LIMC i); EC, ‘an der Schwelle des Mittelkorinthischen’ (Lorber, p. 24); 600–590 (Simon– Hirmer; LIMC iii–vi); EC (i.e. 620/615–595/590) (Amyx).

(a) Τοξος > TŐKe-íZÖS > Tőke-ízös. (It has a grape-vine taste.)

(b) Κλυτιος > oKKaL ÜTi JÓ SZó > Okkal üti jó szó. (The good word beats it with reason.)

(c) ∆ιδαιϝον > De ÜDe A' IVÓN > De üde a' ivón. (But it is refreshing on the drinker.)

(d) Ευρυτιος > E ÚR/ÜRü ÜTI ÖSSZe > E úr/ürü üti össze. (This gentleman/lamb brings it well together.)

(e) Ϝιφιτος > VÍ FIT ŐS > (vív) fit (fiút) ős. (The old struggles with the young.)

(f ) Ϝιολα > éVÜ' ÖL A' > Évül öl a'. (That kills in years.)

(g) Ηερακλες > HÉRAKLÉSZ/HÉRA KeLL ÉSZ > Héraklész/Héra, kell ész! (Heracles/Hera, brain is needed!)

(h) ∆[.]οµ.[.]ες > ∆[ι]οµε[δ]ες > De [J]Ó Mi É[D]ES > De [j]ó mi é[d]es! (But sweet is so good!)

(i) Αιϝας > Á' IVÁS > Ájj ivás! (Drinking, stop!)

(j) Ολισευς > ÖL IS E ŰZő > Öl is e űző. (This practice torments/kills too.)


R. Wachter's interpretation: Herakles at Oichalia (labels). Suicide of Aias (labels).

The chat in the symposium is not the most enlightening conversation, but still there is some moral in it, valid even today. Contrary to this lifelike talk with a universal, although not earthshaking message, what R. Wachter and the other scientists suggest are only meaningless name tags. One should imagine the painter going into a symposium to take a snapshot ("Don't move! Keep smiling!"), than next day he offers the vases for sale: "Yes, I put your name next to your face, so, nobody can deny that it is you there, throwing up behind Heracles' back! You can have it this small aryballos size or enlarged on a pelike." Just ask yourself, who else would buy a krater depicting Toxos Nobody, but Toxos Nobody himself. It sounds very scientific that these or similar "names" are "attested" in many other places, so, this must be also a name. No, this reasoning is ridiculous. The name Ronda is "attested" all over the world, and the word(!) “ronda” is attested in many writings in Hungary, but no mother in her right mind would name her daughter by this name, because it stands for 'ugly' in Hungarian.

~ @ COR 13 ~

Aryballos from ?, near the Boar-Hunt P. (Amandry, Amyx) (found ?), Athens, P. and A. Canellopoulos Mus. 392.

Scene: An archer to r. (a), who has left his bow behind, and his companion to l. (b) are fighting the Hydra between them. To the r. a horse is waiting.

Date: EC (Lorber); ‘Corinthien Ancien’ (c.600) (Amandry–Amyx); Amyx (1988), by placing it after COR 6 and 8, seems to disagree with his and Amandry’s earlier view; c.600 (LIMC).

Ηερακλες Ϝιολαϝος > Ha ÉRi AKi LESi VÍ ÖL A' iVÓS > Ha éri aki lesi (a szomj), ví, öl a' ivós. (When befalls him what eyes him (the thirst), the drinker struggles, kills.)

R. Wachter's interpretation: Herakles and the Hydra (labels). (See COR 6.)

~ @ COR 15 ~

Aryballos from Caere, by the Boar-Hunt P. (see Amyx) (1865 or earlier). Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Mus. 3473.

Scene: Two warriors (one named, the other not) fighting with spears, behind their backs their pages on horses.

Date: MC (Lorber); c.590–580 (LIMC); MC (i.e. 595/590–570) (Amyx).

Αινεας > ÁJJoN-E SZó > Ájjon-e szó? (Should one keep one's word?)

R. Wachter's interpretation: Unspecified fight involving Aineias (label).

~ @ COR 16 ~

Aryballos from Greece (bought by C. T. Seltman in the Athens market), recalling the Käppeli, Wellcome, and Akrai Painters (see Amyx) (1949 or earlier). Liverpool, Nat. Mus. and Galleries on Merseyside, Liverpool Mus. 49. 50. 3.

Scene: Two horsemen, (a) and (b), on dark horses, unnamed and (c), galloping to r. An unbearded figure to r. (d), holding a lyre, is facing a bearded one (e); a huge krater or lebes is standing between the two.

Date: probably early MC (Amyx).

(a) Καστορ > aKASZTÓRa > akasztóra (for hanging)

(b) Ιποµαχιδας > hŰBŐ' Mi ADJa ÜDe A SZó > hűből mi adja üde a szó (from faithful what makes one the word is fresh)

(c) Αιθον > Διθον > DICSŐN > dicsőn (on glorious)

(d) Φορβος > Fű-ORVOS > fű-orvos (herb-doctor)

(e) .αστυποτας > Ϝαστυποτας > iVÁSTÚ' áPO'TASS > ivástól ápoltass (save me from drinking)

Akasztóra hűből mi adja? Üde a szó dicsőn. Fű-orvos ivástól ápoltass. (From faithful to hang what makes one? The word is fresh on glorious. Herb-doctor, please, save me from drinking.)

R. Wachter's interpretation: Scene of return (?), probably non-heroic (i.e. pseudo-heroic) (labels).

~@ COR 17 ~

Aryballos from Corinth, related to the Liebighaus Group (see Amyx) (1954). Corinth, Arch. Mus. C-54-1.

Diaulos-player and the dancersScene: A diaulos-player to r. (a) is playing for a single dancer facing l., who is leaping high in front of a queue of six more dancers standing behind him in pairs. Inscr. (b) begins in front of the leading dancer’s face, and then, in a wavy line, passes under him, above the first pair of his companions, under the second pair, and finally ends in front of the third pair. On the handle there is a woman’s face as on COR 18 (ph. in Roebuck–Roebuck).

Date: MC (Roebuck–Roebuck, Lorber); 580–575 (Arena, p. 83, referring to Roebuck-Roebuck, p. 160); c.580 (Guarducci (1987) ); MC (i.e. 595/590–570) (Amyx).

(a) Πϙλυτερπος (ο>ϙ!) > BóKoLó ŰT ÉRi BŐS > Bókoló űt éri bős! (He is receiving a lot of compliments.)

(b) Πυρϝιασπρϙχορευοµενοσαυτοδεϝοιολπα (ο>ϙ!) > BŰRFI A SZaPoRa KíGYÓ-RÉVŐ MENŐS AVaTÓ De ÉVŐ JÓ LáBBA' > Bűrfi4, a szapora kígyó-révő, menős avató, de évő jó lábbal. (Bűrfi (Pyrwi), the quick snake-charmer, the top initiator, but with aging good legs.)


Wachter's interpretation: Nonheroic dancing scene. (a) Label. (b) Label and - at the same time - dedication (metrical, with property formula) to a human artist: ‘(This is) Pyrwias the leading dancer, and his (is) the olpa.’

~ @ COR 18 ~

Aryballos from Corinth (c.1852, Rhousopoulos). London, British Mus. 1865. 12-13 I.Woman with a list of "boyfriends"

Scene: On the handle there is the head of a woman (a); below, on the body of the vase, a list of men’s names, (b)–(j).

Date: c.625 (Jeffery); EC (Lorber);180 the number in Amyx suggests that he even considers it MC (i.e. 595/590–570), which seems most reasonable (see COR 17).

(a) Αινεταεµι > ÁJJoN E úTTA' E MŰ > álljon e úttal (utalással) e mű (Let this writing stand with this allusion)

(b) Μενεας > MÉN E' A SZó > mén el a szó (the word goes away)

(c) Θερον > úTJa E íRÓN > útja e írón (its way on this writer)

(d) Μυρµιδας > Mi ÚRi MŰ De A SZó > mi úri mű de a szó (what is a gentleman's work but the word)

(e) Ευδιϙος > ÉVőDIK ŐS > évődik ős (wrestles with ancestor)

(f ) Λυσανδριδας > LÜSZÁN DáRIDó A SZó > Lüszán (Lycián) dáridó a szó (on Lycia carousal is the word)

(g) Χαρικλιδας > GYÁRI KaLLI aDÁS > gyári (járja) kalli (kallja/koptatja) adás (goes about wears it away giving)

(h) ∆εξιλος > DE KöZ ILLÓS > de köz (közösség) illós (but the community is volatile)

(i) Ξενϝον > KéZEN VONi > kézen voni (vonja) (pulls it by hand)

(j) Φρυξ > Fa-RÜKöS > fa-rükös (fa ivókürt) (wooden drinking horn)

Álljon e úttal (utalással) e mű. Mén el a szó, útja e írón, mi úri mű, de a szó évődik ős Lüszán (Lycián). Dáridó a szó, gyári (járja), kalli (kallja/koptatja) adás, de köz (közösség) illós, kézen voni (vonja) fa-rükös (fa ivókürt). (Let this writing stand with this allusion. The word goes away, its way is by the aid of this writer, what is a gentleman's work, but the word wrestles with ancestors of Lycia/Lucia. Carousal is the word, goes about, giving wears it away, but the community is volatile, pulls it (down) by hand the wooden drinking horn (drunkenness).)

Wachter's interpretation: Probably a love-gift. (a) Label of the woman represented. (b)–( j) List of men’s names.

~ @ COR 19 ~

Skyphos from Attica (Kouvara), by the Samos P. (see Amyx) (1944 or earlier). Paris, Louvre CA 3004.

Herakles fighting drunkennessScene: On one side a chariot to l. (a), waiting (the label starts under the bellies of the horses), Athena (b) with a jug, Herakles (c) fighting the Hydra from the l., while his companion (d) is helping from the r. On the other side six padded dancers, (e)–(i), one standing next to a dinos plunging his hand into it, and five dancing. The question as to which name designates which figure in the dancing scene has never been seriously addressed, as far as I know. The men, one (1) standing next to the dinos under the handle, the rest (2–6) dancing, are all dressed in the same way, but unlike the mythical figures. Only five names are available for the whole group of six men. Beginning at the r., the first dancer (6) is clearly (i), the second (5) (h). If we then jump to the l. and try to figure out whose name (e) is, at first sight it must be attributed to the man who is not dancing, but is turned towards the krater (1). We then realize that the second dancer from the l. (3) actually seems to bear two names, (f ) and (g), at least one of which cannot be his but must belong to either (2) or (4). From the arrangement of the inscrs. the most probable solution is that (2) is (f ) (the name actually starts to his r. and ends to his l.), (3) is (g), and (4) lacks a name.

Date: mid-1st q. 6th cent. (Amandry, p. 32); c.580 (Schefold); MC (Lorber); Corinthien Moyen avancé, c.580–570 (AmandryAmyx; LIMC).

(a) Ηερακλεος > Ha ÉRi AKoLó E ŐS > ha éri akoló e ős (When touches him the akoló (the measuring stick for vine capacity) this ancestor)

(b) [. . .] α > ??

(c) Ηερακλες > Ha ÉRi AKi LESi > ha éri aki lesi (when touches him who eyes on him)

(d) Ϝιολας > VÍ ÖLi ASZú > ví öli aszú (struggles, the aszú (wine) torments him)

(e) Λορδιος > LŐRe DŰ' ŐS > lőre dűl ős (the plonk flows ancient)

(f ) Ϝηαδεσιος > iVó HA iDÉZ JÖSSZ > ivó ha idéz jössz (drinker when calls you come)

(g) Παιχνιος > aBBA' ÍGYeN JÓS > abban ígyen jós (this way in that he is a seer)

(h) Ϙοµιος > KOMa JÓ iSZa > koma jó isza (the old friend is a good drinker)

(i) [.]οξιος > [B]ŐKeZŰ ŐS (ξ>K_Z) > [b]őkezű ős (ancestor is generous)


Ha éri akoló e ős ... ha éri aki lesi ví, öli aszú. ( When touches him the akoló (the measuring stick for vine capacity) this ancestor ... when touches him who eyes on him he struggles, the aszú (wine) torments him.)


Lőre dűl, ős ivó ha idéz jössz, - abban ígyen jós. Koma jó isza, bőkezű ős. (The plonk flows, ancient drinker when calls you will come, - this way in that he is a seer. The old friend is a good drinker, ancestor is generous.)

Wachter's interpretation: Herakles and the Hydra (labels). Padded men dancing (labels).

~ @ COR 20 ~

Fr. of a cup from Delphi (29 June 1896). Delphi, Arch. Mus. 4050.

Scene: Upper half of a (named) youth to l., extending his hands. Behind him a pair of hands holding a wreath.

Date: MC (Lorber); MC (according to the place in Amyx’s list).

Απελλον > A PELeLŐN > a pelelőn (szelelőn) (on the sifting/sieving by the wind)

Wachter's interpretation: Unidentified scene with Apollon (label).

~ @ COR 22 ~

Fr. of a cup from Perachora (1930–3). Athens, Nat. Mus., Perachora 2529.

Scene: Lower part of three women to r. and one to l.; in between is the inscr.

Date: LC (Lorber); apparently still MC (according to the place in Amyx’s list).

Χαριτες > GYÁR ÍTÉSZ/ÜTÉS > gyár (jár) ítész/ütés (judge/beating is due)

Wachter's interpretation: Unidentified scene with Charites (labels).

~ @ COR 24 ~

Column krater from Italy (Payne; Lorber, n. 256), by the Detroit P. (see Amyx) (1928 or earlier). New York, Metropolitan Mus. of Art 27. 116.Wedding of Alexandros and Helene

Scene: Two couples, each a warrior in long robe and his lady in long exquisite dress, facing each other: (a) and unnamed, (b) and unnamed. In a chariot to r. the bridal pair, (c) and (d), are faced by a man and a woman to l., unnamed and (e), standing beyond the four horses, (f) (under their bellies) and (g) (between their forelegs). In front of the horses another couple (a warrior and woman) with only one name (h) in between them,210 and finally a naked warrior (i) approaching from the r.

Date: early 6th cent. (Alexander); c.580 (Schefold; LIMC); MC (Lorber); MC (i.e. 595/590–570) (Amyx).

(a) ∆αιφον > üDv ÁJJ FÖNN > üdv állj fönn (salvation do hold up)

(b) Εκτορ > E KeTTŐRe > e kettőre (for these two)

(c) Αλεξανδρος > ALEKSZANDROS/ALÉ' oKoZANDóRa ŐS > Alekszandros/alél okozandóra ős (Alexandros/ancestor apathetic on the effect (of his action))

(d) Ηελενα > HELENA/Ha ELLENe Á' > Helena/ha ellene áll (Helena/if stands against)

(e) Αυτοµεδουσα1 > AVaTÓ íM E iDő ÓVáSA > avató ím e idő óvása (look the guarding of this time is initiating)

(f ) Πολυπενθα > aPoLVa BÉNíTTYA > apolva (csókolva) bénítja (she cripples him by kissing)

(g) Ξανθος > Ki SZÁNaTOS > ki szánatos (who is pitiable)

(h) Η[iπ]πο[i] > Η[μσ]πο/ Η[τσ]πο > Ha[MiS]BÓ'/Hi[TeS]BŐ' > hamisból/hitesből (from insincere/wedded wife)

(i) Ηιπολυτος > HŰ aPOLó óVaTOS > hű apoló (szerető) óvatos (faithful lover is cautious)


Üdv állj fönn e kettőre! Alekszandros, alél okozandóra ős, Helena ha ellene áll. Avató ím e idő óvása. Apolva (csókolva) bénítja, ki szánatos; hamisból/hitesből hű apoló (szerető) óvatos. (Salvation do hold up for these two! Alexandros, ancestor apathetic on the effect (of his action), Helena if stands against. Look, the guarding of this time is initiating. She cripples him, who is pitiable, by kissing; the faithful lover, from insincere/wedded wife, is cautious.)

Epigraphy: (h) The space is big enough for two pi-s (Lorber). The last iota was first supposed to exist by Arena. From original detailed photographs this letter is very likely, also because no other letter in which a Greek name can terminate fits better (see dr.: in black are the remains of paint; in outline, the slightly darker shadows indicate where there was once paint; dotted are other marks on the surface). After the iota there are no more letters (Payne’s suggestion, 'Ιππομδων?, is impossible); the surface is no more damaged than higher up where the other letters are. If the reading is correct this agrees with the direction principle (see §105), which suggests that the label belongs to the woman to its r.” Wachter. So, it is all guessing to suit their preconception of labelling. My guessing of missing letters is based on finding a meaningful sentence suited to the well known context.

Wachter's interpretation: Wedding of Paris and Helene (mixed) (labels).

Labels (name-tags) under the horse's bellies? Naming the horses, not the guests on this famous wedding? "Horsey" name for a woman? Come on, be real!

1 The υ becomes a v between two vowels.

~ @ COR 24A ~

Fr. column krater from Sicily (?), attributed by Zimmermann (pp. 7 f.) to the painter of Munich 237213 (1978 or earlier). Berne, Arch. Seminar der Univ. 36.

Scene: Chariot and ‘three maidens’ to r. (no names preserved) watching two warriors, one (a) in front of the other (unnamed), who are fighting against two others, one (c) in front of the other (unnamed), over the body of a dead warrior (b), head to the l. Behind (c) and his companion there are three women to l., the front one named (d), and a chariot.

Date: early MC (Zimmermann); c.580–570 (LIMC).

(a) Μεµνον > Μεµνος7 > íME MéN ŐS > íme mén ős (look, the old man is going)

(b) Αντιλχος > A NőTŰ' eL íGY OSo' > a nőtől el így oson (he sneaks away from the woman this way)

(c) Αχιλευς > A GYŰLő E'ŰZi > a gyűlő (gyülekező jel) elűzi (the sign for assembling drives him away)

(d) Θετις > Οετις8 > Ő ETTŰ' IS > ő ettől is (from this too)

Íme mén ős, a nőtől el így oson. A gyűlő (gyülekező jel)! Elűzi ő ettől is. (Look, the old man is going, he sneaks away from the woman this way. The sign for assembling drives him away from this too.)

Wachter's interpretation: Achilleus and Memnon fighting over the dead Antilochos (labels).

~ @ COR 24B ~

Frs. of a column krater from Sane on the western peninsula of Chalkidike, placed by Vojatzi (pp. 85 f. with nn. 663–8) near the Cavalcade P. (c.1969–73?, see ibid. n. 586). Panorama (Thessaloniki) Coll. S. Andreadis.

Scene: A naked hero (a) to r. is holding his hands from behind over the eyes of a man (b), who is sitting on a throne to r. From the r. two heroes are approaching, of whose names only (d) is preserved. One of them is holding (b)’s hand. Between them and (b) there is a woman to r. (c). On a second set of frs. there are two letters, (e), next to a winged figure.

Date: MC, c.575 (Vojatzi, pp. 79, 85 f. with nn. 663–8; LIMC).

(a) Ειασον > E JÁSZON/ÍjÁSZON > e jászon/íjászon (on this Jassic (Jazygian)/bowman)

(b) Φiνευς > FI NE ÜSS > fi ne üss (young man do not beat)

(c) Τι.α.dρα > Τιμανσρα > üTI MÁN SoRA > üti mán sora (his fate already beats him)

(d) Πουλυδ(ε)υκ(ε)ς > Πονλυδνκς9 > BŐN LÜDNeK iS > bőn lüdnek is (amply for a Lydian too)

(e) [. . .] αk[. . .] ??

E jászon/íjászon fi ne üss! Üti mán sora, bőn lüdnek is ... (Young man, please, do not beat on this Jassic (Jazygian)/bowman! His fate already beats him, amply for a Lydian too ...)

R. Wachter's interpretation: Argonauts visiting Phineus (labels).

~ @ COR 25 ~

Cup from Corinth, by the Klyka (or better: K(a)lyka?) P. (see Amyx) (1885 or earlier). Athens, Nat. Mus. 992.

Scene: Two women’s heads (named). Round the cup, padded dancers and battle scenes (no labels). Date: MC (Lorber).

Νεβρις Κλυκα > NEVéRe ÜSSe Ki iLUKA/aLUKA > Nevére üsse ki Iluka/Aluka (alvóka). (Put it on her name, what is Iluka/Aluka ('sleepy').)

Wachter's interpretation: Probably two hetairai (labels).

~ @ COR 28A ~

Aryballos from Vulci, Necropolis dell’ Osteria (19 Feb. 1981). Rome, Mus. Etrusco di Villa Giulia (?).

Scene: Two groups of three women walking to r., named (a) behind the first group and (b) across the second. They are being led by a single woman (c) and are following Apollon (d), who is holding a lyre. In front of them a man (e) and a woman (f) in a chariot are greeted by Athena (g) and Aphrodite (h), who are beyond the horses and are holding a crown and an apple, respectively. Behind these two, also to l., there is a pair of women (i). Back to back with them is Zeus (j) on his throne, addressed by Hermes with kerykeion (k), behind whom Hera (l) is sitting on her throne (in frontal view, her head turned towards Hermes and Zeus).

Date: ‘corinzio medio’ related to the ‘show-pieces’ (for which see Payne (1931), 118 ff.), and close to Timonidas (Sgubini Moretti–Pandolfini); early 6th cent. (LIMC).

(a) Μοσαι > Mi Ő SZÁJ > Mi ő, száj? (What is she, a mouth?)

(b) Μουσαι > íM Ő USZÁJ10 > ím ő uszály (look she is a barge/train/under someone's sway)

(c) Καλλιοπα > Ki ALuL JÓBA' > ki alul jóban (who is underneath in good)

(d) Απελλον > ABBa' ÉL iLLŐN > abban él illőn (in that she lives duly)

(e) Ηερακλες > HÉRAKLÉSZ # Hű-E RÁ Ki LES > Héraklész, hű-e rá ki les (Heracles, is she who lies in wait for her faithful)

(f ) Ηεβα > HűEBB A' > hűebb a' (she is more faithful)

(g) Αθανα > ATTYÁNÁ' # ATHANA/ATHENA> atyjánál - Athena (to her father - Athena)

(h) Αφροδιτα > A FőRŐ' üDŰ'T A' # AFRODITA > a főről üdült (épült fel) a' - Aphrodité (she is built up from the head - Aphrodite)

(i) Χαριτε > aGYÁRa ÍTÉ' > agyára ítél (on her brain makes judgment)

(j) Ξευς > KaZEUS # Ki ZEUSZ (Ξ = K_Z) > Kazeus ki Zeusz (Kazeus who is Zeus)11

(k) Ερµας > ERő Ma A SZó > erő ma a szó (power is the word today)

(l) Ηερα > HÉRA > Héra (Hera)

Mi ő, száj? Ím, ő uszály ki alul jóban, abban él illőn. Héraklész, hű-e rá ki les? Hűebb a' atyjánál Athena, a főről üdült (épült fel) a'. Aphrodité agyára ítél Kazeus ki Zeusz. Erő ma a szó, Héra. (What is she, a mouth? Look, she is a barge/train/under someone's sway who is underneath in good, in that she lives duly. Heracles, is she, who lies in wait for her, faithful? Athena is more faithful to her father, she is built up from the head. On Aphrodite's brain makes judgment Kazeus who is Zeus. Power is the word today, Hera.)

R. Wachter's interpretation: Wedding of Herakles and Hebe (labels).

Some of the labels are indeed name-tags, others are words spoken by the depicted persons, or they are both labels and spoken (bubble) words at the same time, notably so when they are "misspelled".

Here we are told about the shifting of power on the Olympus due to Athena and Aphrodite siding with their father, Zeus. This is the fight for supremacy between Hera and Zeus (“a rebellion of the pre-Hellenic population, described in the Iliad as a conspiracy against Zeus but as a matter of fact, a revolt against “the patriarchal Hellenes who invaded Greece and Asia Minor early in the second millennium BC as it described by Robert Graves in The Greek Myths).

1 Just like a Hydra with its six head!

2 Note the crab/cancer = RÁK(fene) at the foot of Herakles!

3 So, the fight is metaphorical, it is actually fight against the bottle, that is against alcoholism!

4 A folyóvizek sodrában hajladozó fonalszerű vízinövény (Conferva). A felirat vonalvezetése ezt a mozgást utánozza. A hajladozó táncost erről a növényről nevezték el. A threadlike water-plant (Conferva) that keeps swaying back and fort in rivers. This swaying is mimicked with the delineation of the inscription. The swinging dancer did get his name from this plant.

5 The first υ becomes a v between two vowels. The second one is a ν-shaped ν!

6 The sign differs from other υ-s, this is a ν-shaped ν!

7 "The last letter was at first a Ϡ and was then corrected (the final stroke is still faintly visible)." Wachter. It seems the correction did occur later, by someone else.

8 "Although there is a break running through the theta, it seems never to have had a proper cross (Q ?)." Wachter. So, it is a simple Ο.

9 The sign differs from other υ-s, this is a ν-shaped ν! " The name Πουλυδυκς is clearly Polydeukes’" No, it is not!

10 Word-play: száj - uszály (j=ly) that is lost in translation with many other peculiarities.

11 Aphrodite, loyal to Paris and the Trojans, could side only with Asia-Minor's Zeus of Mount Aqraa, that is Zeus Kasios/Kazios/Kazeus.

Mihaly Mellar

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The Scythian language resurrects as Scythic-Hun-Magyar.


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The Scythian language resurrects as Scythic-Hun-Magyar.


Making Sense

This work is based on Rudolf Wächter's book, entitled Non-Attic Greek Vase Inscriptions. He sets out the goal to identify “the linguistic and epigraphical features” of the inscriptions, but makes himself lame at the outset for the linguistic aim by declaring that al the inscriptions are only names (labels): heroic, non-heroic, or even good for nothing “throwaway” names.

On the contrary, we read these “names” and conceive them as explanatory and complementary words to the drawn scene. What the ancient painters could not express with their pictorial means, they have added in words without any prudery. As a matter of facts, without reading and understanding these inscriptions one cannot really comprehend what the drawing is all about.

The vases in Wachter's book are categorised epigraphically, by the locally used variant of the alphabet, into 22 groups named after these localities. We will follow this line, only breaking the text up into more easily manageable pieces. Due to the limitations of our browsers, we use only the transliterations of vase inscriptions to modern Greek alphabet, which in turn we transliterate, using the table in the Alphabets blog, into Magyar ABC and read the inscriptions by backfilling the left out vowels.



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