The “names” on the ancient Greek vases are there for everyone to see, but only the Scythic speaking people can read the hidden message of these scytales! What a revealing name! that goes unnoticed by scientists for two and a half thousand years.The small cup from Corinth (1883 or earlier), now in Paris, Louvre MNC 332, has these “names” added to the boxing scene:
> Víjó (vívó) ki elbukta fél vége. (The fighter, who lost it, fears his end.)

CONTENTS Amazons & Scythians 'Nonsense Inscriptions'?! Making Sense Etruscan=Hungarian Cretan Hieroglyphs Linear A Sundry MY HUNGARIAN PAGES
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Blog : Making SenseKeywords : Penteskouphia, pinakes, nonsense inscription, Pitsa

Making Sense after Rudolf Wachter IX (Pinakes2)

NĂ©vtelen 1

The transliteration into modern Greek from the different ancient handwritings is done by H. R. Immerwahr and others, which in turn is transcribed by me, using this simple ABC table, at the same time backfilling the left out vowels, to reconstruct the inscriptions in today's spelling.

“Introduction: In 1879 in a clandestine excavation by farmers near Penteskouphia on the slope of Acrocorinth, several hundred fragments of painted clay tablets were found in what seems to have

been a waste deposit. They were illegally sold in Athens and the vast majority went to Berlin where they still are (the rest, viz. sixteen, are in Paris).” Wachter

The inscriptions on tablets are dedications as the researchers, including Wachter, have rightly supposed. Most of the tablets have holes through which they were attached, as it turns out by the reading of the dedications, to the offered food-samples such as dishes of quail, duck, heifer, boar, fried meat, rice, millet, or often just named commonly as drink, sweet or fasting food. But the identity of the dedicated god(s) is very questionable as Poseidon (on the tablets Potida, Poteda, Potda, Poteidan) and Amphitrite (Anphitrita, Afirita, Afitretan) turns out to be fasting food, feast of food-abundance, quail-dish, etc. when read in Scythic-Hun-Hungarian. How, when and why did these expressions personify as gods?

In this part only a few tablets are concerned with feasting, the rest are short sayings, signboards and mnemonic tool for the ABC.


f. Labels of Potters and Other Humans

~ @ COP 62 (= COR 40A) ~

Fr. pinax from Penteskouphia, probably by the Ophelandros P. (Amyx) (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 672+684+770.

Scene: Joined by Pernice. Top-l. part; an old and a young man walking to r. (towards a kiln?).

Date: after mid-6th cent. (Payne).

(a) Φυσϙο .[. . . ?] > Φυσϙολ > Fi ÜSZKÖLő > Fi üszkölő (ösztökélő). (The lad is encouraging.)

(b) [. . .]ρνεσιος > [Ι]ρνεσιος > [I]RáNY ESZéLYöS > Irány eszélyös (célravezető). (The direction is purposeful.)

Wachter's interpretation: Labels (probably workmen).

~ @ COP 64 ~

Fr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 629.

Scene: Top-l. corner and most of l. margin; part of a kiln (to its r. there will have been a figure working at it, whose label the inscr. would be). The reverse is plain. Date: —.

Δερις > DERŰS > Derűs (Cheerful)

Wachter's interpretation: Probably label of a workman.

~ @ COP 65 ~

man is chopping a treePinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Paris, Louvre MNB 2858.

man working at kilnScene: Complete. On one side a man is chopping a tree with a double-axe (a), on the other another one (b) is working at a kiln, wielding a stick. Both are facing r. ‘C’est sans doute le nom du potier représenté, comme 'Ονύμων est celui de son associé le bûcheron. Mais je ne connais aucun autre exemple de ces deux noms’ (Rayet). Date: —.

(a) Ονυμον > ÖNNü' VáMO'Na > önnül (önzően) vámolna (he would selfishly tax it)

(b) Σορδις > S Ő éRDi IS > s ő érdi is (and he deserves it as well)

Önnül (önzően) vámolna, s ő érdi is. (He would selfishly tax it and he deserves it as well.)

Wachter's interpretation: Labels (workmen).

~ @ COP 66 ~

Fr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 804.

Scene: On one side (bottom-r. corner) a man (a) working at a kiln.466 On the other side (top-l. corner) Poseidon with inscr. (b) next to his figure. Date: —.

(a) Στιπον > SZéTTÍPŐN/SZéTTIPON > széttípőn/széttipon (crushed/torn to pieces)

(b) υιϙ > ÚJiK > újik (restates/renews)

Széttípőn/széttipon (széttépve/széttaposva) újik (újul). (It restates/renews crushed/torn to pieces.)

Wachter's interpretation: (a) Label (workman). (b) Nonsense inscription.

g. Other Heroic or Non-heroic Labels

~ @ COP 75 ~

Fr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 403+405+490.

Scene: Joined, with addition of an unnumbered fr., by Pernice. Two dressed figures with dark feet facing each other. One of them is holding a stick. The inscr. is running downwards between them. Pernice suggested that the other figure is Poseidon. Date: —.

Ξευς > KéZZE' ÜSS (Ξ=K_S/Z) > Kézzel üss! (Hit with bare hands!)

Wachter's interpretation: Label (Zeus).

Even if the two figures are Zeus and Poseidon themselves, it would be fair to fight the unarmed opponent on equal terms: barehanded!

~ @ COP 78 ~

inscriptionFr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 555 (incised).

Scene: Horses walking to r.; inscr. (a) is underneath, along the margin. The reins are held by a little jumping man, labelled (b) between his legs and partly on his body. On the reverse (no inscr. preserved) a kiln (Pernice). Date: —.

(a) Δευς > DÉVáS > dévás (divatos) (fashionable)

(b) Λυσιπος > Λυσιμος > LoVáSZI MOSó > lovászi mosó (washer for horseman)

Dévás (divatos) lovászi mosó. (Fashionable washer for horseman.)

Wachter's interpretation: (a) Note of destination (?). (b) Label (probably a non-heroic marching scene).

~ @ COP 79 ~

inscriptionFr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 565.

Scene: Two horsemen galloping. Only their horses are named, (a) and (b). Date: —.

(a) Πυρϝος > BŰ RoVÓS > bű rovós (magic carver/writer)

(b) Ταχυδρο[. . .] > Ταχυδρο[ϝστ] > áTADJa ÜDe RO[VáSáT] > átadja üde rovását (hands over his/her fresh carving)

Bű rovós átadja üde rovását. (Magic carver/writer hands over his/her fresh carving.)

“Epigraphy: (a) In front of the second horse’s head. (b) Under the leading horse’s head; the name must have been continued under the leg.” Indeed, the ϝ is clearly visible.

Wachter's interpretation: Labels (horses in a non-heroic riding scene).

~ @ COP 81 ~

Fr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 482+627+943.

inscription on chimneyScene: Joined, with addition of an unnumbered fr., by Pernice. Man (no name preserved) working at a kiln (named).471 Date: —.

Καμινος > κάμϊνος > caminus (in Latin) > KéMéNYÖS > kéményös (chimney-worker/equipped with chimney)

'flint' – καυ- 'burn, light'; MéN 'going (away/out)'; KőMeNő > KéMéNY 'CHiMNey' (K>CH) = heat/smoke flue/conductor, (most often) made of stone.

“Epigraphy: Label, written upside-down instead of retrograde.”

Wachter's interpretation: Label (kiln).

h. Unusual Inscriptions

~ @ COP 83 ~

Fr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 356+609.

Scene: Joined by Geagan. Man standing in front of a kiln; the inscr. does not start at his head. The reverse is plain. Date: —.

Ποτεδανδεμι > BŐ éTE' iDÁN DEMŰ' > Bő étel idán demül (tömül=hízik). (On the feast of food-abundance one puts on weight.)

Wachter's interpretation: ‘Label’ of imaginary Poseidon (?).

~ @ COP 84A-B ~

men working at a kilnEntire and fr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 608 & F 612 (incised).

Scene: (A) Almost fully preserved. Two men working at a kiln, one in front of it, the other (with long fair hair, a hump-back and something on his head) standing on the stoking tunnel. The inscr. is hardly a label of either of the two figures, since it starts in the corner. (B) Youth working at a kiln, on which the inscr. is incised (‘flüchtig in grossen Buchstaben’, Furtwängler). Date: —.

(A) Ποτεδαạ > Πϙτε{Δ+Ϝ}αϝ > PéK-éTE' De VADo'Va > Pék-étel, de vadolva. (Bakers meal, but with game.)

(B) Ποτεδαν > BŐ éTE' iDÁN > Bő étel idán. (On the feast of food-abundance.)

Epigraphy: (A) In view of the uneven script, the omicron with an odd horizontal ground line, the oddly shaped delta, and the fact that the ‘real’ alpha is properly closed, whereas the last letter is open, the latter has to be considered a miswritten nu (for a similarly miswritten mu see COR 24Bc).” The scene depicts the bakers working on the oven. The second letter is a clear koppa, in the “δ” the digamma is “highlighted”; the last letter is also a digamma (reversed?).

Wachter's interpretation: (A) ‘Label’ of imaginary Poseidon (?). (B) Note of destination (?).

~ @ COP 85 ~

Fr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 838.

Scene: Top part, full width preserved; to the l. a bird on a twig, to its r. the inscr. There is much plain space. On the other side (no inscr. preserved) head of Poseidon with trident. Date: —.

Περαοθεννιϙομεσ[. . . ?] > Περαϝοθεννιϙομεσ[τρ] > éBER A'VÓ CSENő NYIKÓ MES[TeRe] > Éber alvó csenő nyikó (nyikkanó) mes[tere].1 (Vigilant sleeper is a small thief's creaking master.2)

inscriptionIt is evident from the facsimile that the fifth letter is ϝ. (For a two column page length Wachter argues about what the reading hypothetically should or shouldn't be, seemingly, without ever looking at the actual inscription itself.)

Wachter's interpretation: Victors’ inscription (metrical?), perhaps followed by a dedication.

~ @ COP 86 ~

Fr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 662.

Scene: Man with spear and flower. Date: 600–550 ( Jeffery).

[. . .]εϝζηθικλμνοπξϙρστ[. . .] > [αβγδ]εϝζηθικλμνοπξϙρστ[υφψχε] > [A VéGeD] É'VeZi Ha CSIKLóMoN Ő BöKöZ KeReSZT[Ű' Fő'BaSZ úGY E] > [A véged] élvezi ha csiklómon ő bököz kereszt[ül, fölbasz úgy e.] (Your limb enjoys it when pokes through my clitoris, arousing me that way.)

Epigraphy: The mu has two vertical hastas of almost the same length (see COP 1A). After the pi, having just finished the loop, the writer decided to put the tablet back in its first position and to work retrograde (was it because he wanted to place his fist outside the tablet rather than on its wet surface?). In doing so, he produced the rho in reversed shape.

Wachter's interpretation: Abecedarium.

i. Nonsense Inscriptions

~ @ COP 90A-C ~

Two fr. pinakes and one entire pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung (A) F 900 & (B) F 938; Paris, Louvre MNC 216.

Scene: (A) Sketches. Two men, the bigger one as if named with the short inscr., furthermore a bird, a snake (?) and, floating in the top-r. corner, a small horse with horseman. On the other side from inscriptiontop to bottom a bull, a second bull, perhaps a kiln, in front of it two men. (B) Top-r. corner; no figs. recognizable. (C) Sketch (kiln from above?). On the reverse two crossed diagonals. Date: —.


(a) αοοιετ > αο{T_S/Z}ιετ3 > A' Ő'Tő SIET > A' öltő siet! (The dresser (of the pinax) hurries!)

(b) aβοιετθριλοβαββ > γζοιετθριλοζαζβ{T_S/Z}4 > iGaZoJJa E TeTTJe eRRŰ' oLLÓZZa A ZaBoT iS > Igazolja e tettje erről: ollózza a zabot is. (This his act justifies about that: clips/trims the oat (Zab) as well (both the Z and b!).)


 [. . . ?]οεẹο . .

(C) No text.

Epigraphy: (A) (a) The second omicron is just a round dot. The iota is reversed. (b) The iota is again reversed. The beginning reminds us of an abecedarium. Although most signs exist, the whole is nonsense. It is interesting that (a) is almost identical with the beginning of (b).

Wachter's interpretation: Nonsense inscriptions.

j. Inscriptions of Uncertain Interpretation

~ @ COP 93 ~

inscriptionFr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 481.

Scene: Poseidon and Amphitrite. Date: —.

[. . .]ροκαμια > RÓKA MaLYA > róka malya (rókamál) (… fox-fur (collar))

Wachter's interpretation: Not clear; perhaps a gen. of a name (father of a donor?).

~ @ COP 94 ~

Fr. pinax from Penteskouphia (1879). Berlin, Antikensammlung F 942.

Scene: Top-r. corner; indistinct scene. The reverse is plain. Date: —.

[. . .]. ανοτοδεονε > A NŐ uTÓDÉ' Ő'NE > A nő utódé(rt) ölne! (The woman would kill for an offspring!)

Wachter's interpretation: Not clear.

APPENDIX: The Wooden Pinakes from Pitsà

~ @ COP APP. 1 ~

wild text

vertical textWooden pinakes from Pitsà (August 1934). Athens, Nat. Mus. A 16464-16467.

Scene: (A) Sacrificial procession to r. involving a man (head and beard almost invisible, on his ‘label’ see below), two women (a) and (b), three boys (unnamed), two playing music and the smallest, in front, leading the sacrificial lamb. He is preceded by a woman (unnamed) – perhaps the priestess of the Nymphs? – who carries the utensils on a tray on her head and is pouring a libation on to the altar. (B) Part of a woman’s head to l. (no name preserved), two groups of women facing each other, (a)–(d), another woman to l. (e)/( f ). (C) Three women to r. in beautiful clothes. (D) Three women; very badly preserved.

Date: c.540–520 (Payne); 2nd h. 6th cent. (EAA); 3rd q. 6th cent. (Lazzarini); all very similar (Lorber).


(c) [. . . α]ṇεθεκεṭαισṣ . .φαισεθeλονχε . . [. . .] > [Ητϝα]νεθεκεταισμινφαισεθeλονχεχα > [HaTVÁ]N E CSEKÉ' iTA'-ÍZ MIN Fű AJZó E CSELÖN üGYE' aGYA > hatván e csekély ital-íz min fű ajzó e cselën ügyel agya (this trifling drinking jelly on which is doping grass takes effect on this trick/contrivance his brain takes care)

v. text(a) Ευθυδικα > EVVe' CSUDáJJa oKKA' > evvel csudálja okkal (with this admires it with reason)

(b) Ευϙολις > E VaK ÖLÜ iS > e vak ölü (ölyv) is (this blind hawk (owl!) also)

(d) [. . .].[. ?]ḥοϙορινθιος > [Βεσο]ηοϙορινθιος > [BE SZÓ'] Ha Ő KÖRINCSI ŐS > be szól ha ő körincsi (korinthi)5 ős (but one calls if he is the Corinthian forefather)


(a) Θαε .[. . .] (b) Ηα . . [. . . ?] (c) Καχ . . ο . (d) . λιυ (e) . ḥ . (?)

(f) Τελεσοιο > íTÉL ÉSZ Ő JÓ > … ítél ész, ő jó! (… reason judges, it is good!)


[. . .]. ta .[. . . .]. εθεκεταιςνυμφασ[. . .] > … E CSEKÉ' iTA'-ÍZ NYŰ iMáVA' iS > e csekély ital-íz nyű imával is. (… this trifling drinking jelly wears out with prayer as well.)


[. . .]ẹν . . ελλον[. . . ?]


Hatván e csekély ital-íz, min fű ajzó, e cselën ügyel agya, evvel csudálja okkal e vak ölü (ölyv) is, be szól ha ő körincsi (korinthi) ős. (This trifling drinking jelly, on which is doping grass, takes effect, his brain takes care on this trick/contrivance, this blind hawk (owl!) also admires it with reason, but one will call if he is the Corinthian forefather.)

Wachter's interpretation: Sacrificial procession and festival scenes. (A) Labels and dedication (metrical?). (B) Nonsense labels. (C) and (D) Dedications.



1Aki a nyikkanás-mentes lopásra tanítja.

2Who teaches him stealing without giving up any sounds.

3The second omicron is just a round dot,” exactly!, that is a ToSZ in Scythic, the same as in Linear A where it also stands for TíZ (ten), and marks the two-letter T_S/Z.

4How unfortunate for science that the man, writing a lengthy book (part of it as D. Phil. thesis) about epigraphy, didn't understand the only inscription talking about epigraphy. Notably, the previous line states that the painter/dresser is in hurry, so, he writes the three-stroke zeta with just one zigzag Z!

5Körbe csaló/incselkedő 'lures/teases into a circle', just look at the map of isthmus Corinth is in.

Mihaly Mellar

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The Scythian language resurrects as Scythic-Hun-Magyar.


Making Sense

This work is based on Rudolf Wächter's book, entitled Non-Attic Greek Vase Inscriptions. He sets out the goal to identify “the linguistic and epigraphical features” of the inscriptions, but makes himself lame at the outset for the linguistic aim by declaring that al the inscriptions are only names (labels): heroic, non-heroic, or even good for nothing “throwaway” names.

On the contrary, we read these “names” and conceive them as explanatory and complementary words to the drawn scene. What the ancient painters could not express with their pictorial means, they have added in words without any prudery. As a matter of facts, without reading and understanding these inscriptions one cannot really comprehend what the drawing is all about.

The vases in Wachter's book are categorised epigraphically, by the locally used variant of the alphabet, into 22 groups named after these localities. We will follow this line, only breaking the text up into more easily manageable pieces. Due to the limitations of our browsers, we use only the transliterations of vase inscriptions to modern Greek alphabet, which in turn we transliterate, using the table in the Alphabets blog, into Magyar ABC and read the inscriptions by backfilling the left out vowels.



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