The transliteration into modern Greek from the different
ancient handwritings is done by H. R. Immerwahr and others, which in turn is
transcribed by me, using this simple
ABC table, at the same time backfilling the left out vowels, to reconstruct
the inscriptions in today's spelling.
Four rf. vases, which are thought
to be of local Etruscan fabric and attributed to one painter, bear painted
inscriptions. It will be argued that the painter was a Greek, not an Etruscan.
~ @ ETR 1 ~
Rf. amphora from Vulci, by the same
painter as ETR 2–4, probably named Praxias(March 1829). Paris, Cabinet des
Scene: On one side a youth
to l. (a) holding a baby to r. in his hands; on the other side a Centaur to l.,
labelled (c) behind his head, likewise holding a baby, (b), the name starting
above the child’s head and leading downwards to the l. Inscr. (d) is painted on
the edge of the lip on the Centaur’s side; on the other side there is nothing on
the lip. (e) is painted on the handle next to the Centaur’s tail.
Date: c.480–460 (Dohrn, p.
80); mid-1st h. 5th cent. (LIMC i); 480–460 (LIMC iii, vii).
(a) Πελει >
ebbe leül (he
sits on it)
(b) Αχιλες >
Ű LE S >
ű le s (he dropss it into and)
Χιρον > íGY ŰRÖN
( this way over the void)
(d) Πραξιας >
BáR A'KuSZI A SZ-
a sz- (although the shit negotiates it)
> -AR öNTSE
> -ar öntse
(pour it out)
goes before (b) as it follows from the scene description.
így űrön adja
ű le s bár alkuszi
a szar, öntse!
(He sits on it and drops it into this
way over the void, and although the shit negotiates it, pour it out!)
Wachter's interpretation: (a)–(c) Chiron receiving the baby Achilleus
(labels). (d) Probably painter’s (and donor’s?) name. (e) Probably (human)
can call it amphora but it is actually a potty and the child, whatever is his
name, shits into it!
~ @ ETR 3 ~
amphora from Vulci, by the same painter as ETR 1 (1852 or earlier600); lost in
World War II. Formerly Berlin, Antiquarium V. I. 3363.
Scene: A youth, wreathed, and a
dog, both to l.; inscr. (a) starts near the boy’s head and leads down to the
dog’s. On the other side a bearded man to l. talking to a dog to r. which is
listening with attention; inscr. (b) starts above the dog’s head, rises above
the man and falls down the latter’s back again. Date: c.480–460 (Dohrn, p. 80).
(a) Μεαιταιε >
íME A' ITA' JE'
> íme a'
ital jel (look it is the
(b) . ιο . κοροι. >
iDe JÖSSZ aKÓRÓ'
ide jössz akóról
inni (you come here to
drink from the barrel)
Ime a' ital jel.
jössz akóról inni! (Look,
it is the drink sign. You come here to drink from the barrel!)
Dedications to humans and gods (?), added to non-heroic domestic scenes with men
~ @ ETR 4 ~
Rf. amphora from Vulci, by the same painter as ETR 1 (March 1829).
Sévres, Mus. Nat. de Céramique 3114.
Scene: An Amazon rushing to
l. (named), on the other side one to l. laying down or picking up her shield
(obviously unnamed; the surface is badly worn).
Date: 1st h. 5th cent.
Ανδρομα χε >
ANDa eRŐ MA üGYE'
erő ma ügyel. (Gentle
force is today on lookout.)
Unspecified scenes with Amazons (label).
15. Achaian Colonies
Introduction: A small number of
vases from Achaian colonial contexts are grouped here, and one from a tomb at
Nola (ACC 4), whose very likely production place in an Achaian colony has not been
recognized until now.
~@ ACC 3 ~
jug (‘poseidoniate’ according to Pontrandolfo, p. 62) from Fratte di Salerno, t.
26/1963 (17 May 1963). Salerno, Mus. Provinciale inv. ?
Scene: None. Date: 480–470 (Pontrandolfo, p. 58).
: ξυλλας : εραται >
ABBÓL : iLLÓ DŐ' eRŐS : KéSZÜL LASS : ÉR ÁT A Jó
illó dől erős készül lass ér át a jó (volatile
pours from it hot/heady is in making the good ripens slowly trough)
Ϝολχας : απυγιζε : απολλοδορον
S : A PÜGe ÍZE : ABBÓL iLLŐ iDŐRe ÖNNi >
s a püge íze abból illő időre önni (carefully
dissolves it and the taste of figs comes from it is suitable to eat on time)
(c) Ονατας : νιξδς
: εραται >
ONNA' iTASS :
iNNI íGY DúS : ÉR ÁT A Jó >
onnan itass inni
így dús ér át a jó (from there thirsty to
drink this way the good comes trough rich)
(d) Ηυβριχος : παρμυνιος : ηραται >
Ha ÜBöR ÍGY OSSZa
: BÁR MŰN JÓ SZó : Ha RÁ uTA' Ű >
ha übör így ossza
bár műn jó szó ha rá utal ű (if the jug
distributes it this way albeit good word is due to the work if refers to it)
Abból illó dől,
erős készül, lass ér át a jó, óva oldja
s a püge
íze abból. Illő időre önni onnan, – itass inni, – így dús ér át a jó, ha übör
így ossza, bár műn jó szó, ha rá utal ű. (Volatile
pours from it,
(something) hot/heady is
in making, the good ripens slowly trough, carefully dissolves it and the taste
of figs comes from it. It is suitable to eat on time from there, – the thirsty
to drink, – this way the good comes trough rich, if the jug distributes it this
way, albeit good word is due to the work if refers to it.)
Epigraphy: (a) What looks like a
dot after the first lambda is hardly deliberate; not only is it too high up, but
there is also a break going right through it. (c) The penultimate letter in the
word is not a normal omicron, it
looks more like the deltas. (Both observations are
Wachter's interpretation: Love statements.
the overall meaning of the inscription, to which Cerri contributed a wider
context, see §§308, 310 : “But what is the meaning of the other two statements,
(c) and (d)? At first sight, they come as a disappointment, since they simply
refer to four different people – two lovers and their sweethearts. There might,
however, be some excitement in them if we imagined, for example, that Nixo, with
whom Onatas is said to be in love, was in fact the girl-friend of Parmynis, who
in turn was being pursued by Hybrichos . . .” (If this is
science, than I don't want to be involved in it!)
~ @ ACC ~
Bf. belly-amphora from Nola (ex Torrusio; 1829?). Munich,
Staatliche Antikensammlung SH 834 Scene: A man to r. (unnamed)
greeting a naked youth to l. (named), between them a cock to r. The youth is
being crowned by one of two women to l. (both unnamed and variously
identified). On the other side Herakles is chasing Nessos,
who is carrying Deianeira (no labels).
Date: c.500–480 (LIMC).
áGÁN Ű Mi ÉDES
ű mi édes' (On his
stem how sweet he is!)
Wachter's interpretation: Zeus and Ganymedes (label).
16. Doric Colonies
Introduction: Seven vases from different Doric places in
southern Italy and Sicily are grouped here. Only the first shows a
~ @ DOC 1 ~
Messapian trozzella from near Grottaglie (Taranto)
(shortly before 8 Aug. 1969). Copenhagen, NY Carlberg Glyptoteket 3417.
Scene: Athena (unnamed or at least no name preserved) seconding a warrior
(Diomedes, unnamed or at least no name preserved) in an attack with his spear on
an opponent (a), behind whom a woman (b) is approaching. In an independent scene
Zeus (unnamed) is slaying a man (c) with his thunderbolt.
Date: 1st h. 5th cent. (Tiverios, p. 520 with n. 46); c.460 (LIMC i); c.
mid-5th cent. (LIMC v).
(a) Αινιας >
Á' INNi ÍjAS/JÁSZ
inni íjas (Stop for drinkig, bowman/Jazigian)
(b) Αφροδιτα >
A VéRÖD ITA'
a véröd ital
(Your blood is drink)
> KAP A
kap a n[eves]
(The named gets it)
a n[eves]! (Stop for drinkig,
bowman/Jazigian! Your blood is drink. The named gets it!)
Diomedes and Aineias (labels). Punishment of Kapaneus (label).
~@ DOC 2 ~
hydria from Montagna di Marzo (Ερβησσος) (shortly before 1968). Syracuse, Mus.
Arch. Regionale 'P. Orsi' (?)
Scene: None. Date:
late 6th to early 5th cent. (Manganaro); c.500 ( Johnston).
The two inscriptions are identical
only in the scientists' imagination! What one could see is the following:
(a) Γελοιο ακασεραται >
éGGEL Ő JÓ A
> éggel ő
jó a kasé(rt)
(s/he is good with heaven s/he stands up for the price of
(b) Γελοιο σακασ ρατ >
éGGEL Ő JÓ
SZAKASSZa áRÁT >
éggel ő jó
szakassza árát (with heaven s/he casts a
(c) [Ε]υμαχοσδεμισφοt[. . .] >
íGY SZeDi E' MI őSi FÓ'T [VÓ'T] >
ma így szedi el
mi ősi folt
(with this s/he takes away what an ancient
Éggel ő jó, a
éggel ő jó
szakassza árát. [E]vvel ma így szedi el mi ősi folt [volt]. (S/he
is good with heaven, s/he stands up for the price of the cage with heaven by
casting a good deal. With this s/he takes away what an ancient blame was.)
Wachter's interpretation: Love
statements (with added specification).
~ @ DOC 3 ~
Fr. of a local plate in Corinthian
style, from Megara Hyblaia, colony of Megara (1949–61).
Scene: Dogs chasing a hare
(see PCO 1). The inscr. (on the rim) is not related.
Date: 625–600 (Manni
Piraino; Cordano; SEG; Johnston).
… ÁLMA HO' KÖRŰ' NiCS JÓ SZó …
> … álma,
hol körül nics
jó szó … (… one's
dream, where around there isn't a good word ...)
Interpretation: Probably a
~ @ DOC 4 ~
Frs. of a ‘Melian’ (Parian?), or
rather local, amphora from Selinus, colony of Megara Hyblaia (probably
1874–1915: see Gàbrici, pp. 8–12). Palermo, Mus. Arch. Reg. N. I. 1693.
Scene: Two women walking to
r. (not related to the inscr.).
Date: 7th/6th cent.
(Gàbrici, taking the vase for Melian); 7th cent.? ( Jeffery); corresponding in
style to MPC II (down to c.650), with a possible ‘attardement provinciel’
(Vallet–Villard, p. 21, who consider the clay and fabric to be Sicilian rather
than Cycladic Melian; see also Amyx (1988), 408 f., 418); therefore probably 2nd
h. 7th cent.
[...]. : μεεποιεσε >
… íME ÉPP OLY
… íme, épp oly
ésszel. (… look, with
exactly such mindset.)
Epigraphy: The end is complete. At
the beginning, Gàbrici hesitates between -ας and -ις, but neither can be
correct, since what he interpreted as a sigma is a colon, and the only tiny
trace of a letter before that may be anything (of course a sigma is most
Wachter's interpretation: Potter’s signature.
~ @ DOC 5 ~
lekanis from Selinus, Manicalunga, tomba 138 (‘negli anni sessanta’ according to
Heldring, p. 29). Palermo, Banco di Sicilia, 'Collezione Moramino' 2239.
Scene: None. Date:
early 5th cent. (to be concluded from Heldring, p. 31); 2nd q. 5th cent. (SEG).
> A RaGYa ENNi
JÓ-E IMITTŐ' KüLE ÖSSZe >
A ragya enni
jó-e? Imittől küle össze. (Is
the pock-marked good to eat? Its outside is full
Wachter's interpretation: Owner’s inscription or dedication to a human.
~ @ DOC 7 ~
Krater of local fabric from Monte Sannace (1957).
Scene: Back of a deer; above it the inscr. Date: similar to a krater
in tomb 5, which is mid-4th cent. (Scarfì, p. 255); therefore early 4th cent.?
Γνοθι > áGáN-ÖCS
(szójátékként egybeírva: agancs
brother on his branches” instead of “They are small/cheap antlers”.)
Wachter's interpretation: Address to the reader (?).
17. Ionic Islands
A few painted inscriptions have
been found on vases of local production on Ionic Aegean islands. Grouped with
these is a vase of probably Attic fabric but with non-Attic inscriptions, which
point to an Aegean-Ionic provenance of the painter (IOI 2).
~ @ IOI 2 ~
Bf. neck-amphora from Caere (ex
Campana inv. Cp 105; 1857 or earlier).
Scene: Two warriors (a) and
(b) fighting Zeus (d), while their companion (c) is already lying on the ground.
To the r. a woman, labelled (e) in front of her mouth, is stabbing a warrior;
his label ( f ) is far away from him, above (e)’s helmet. On the other side a
warrior (g) is being stabbed by Hermes (h), a woman (i) is slaying a warrior (
j), and Poseidon (no name preserved) is stabbing another warrior (k).
Date: c. mid-6th cent.
(Hanfmann); c.570 ( Jeffery); late 6th cent. (LIMC ii); 2nd q. 6th cent. (LIMC
iii, ‘Ephialtes’; iv, ‘Gigantes’); c.550 (LIMC iv, ‘Hera’); c.540 (LIMC v,
‘Hermes’); c.560–550 (LIMC v, ‘Hyperbios’).
(a) ΥπΗρβιος >
ű pohárba jós
(he is a seer in glasses)
(b) Ηιπιαλτες >
(let him his mistake keep alive)
(c) Αγασθευ[...] > Αγασθεν[δς]
> AGGÁS CSEN[DeS]
(grief is peaceful)
(d) ΖΗυς >
(e) Ηε.[...] > Ηερ[ε]
(f) Αρπο.[...] > Αρπονυ[κος]
A RaBON Ű [oKOS] >
a rabon ű [okos]
(He is clever on a slave)
(g) .[...]βιος >
[PoHáR]Ba JÓS >
(he is a seer in glasses)
(h) ΗερμεΗς >
(the herma is hungry)
(i) ΑθεναΗ > ΑθενδΗ
> A CSEND Hí
a csend hí
(the stillness calls)
(j) ΗεκΗελαδος >
Ha E KeHEL
ha e kehel áldós
(if this chalice beneficent)
(k) Πολυβοτες >
aBBÓL Ű BŐ
abból ű bő ítész
(from it he is a full judge)
hibája éltesse! Aggás csen[des], Zéusz . Her[e]
A rabon ű [okos]. Ű [pohár]ba jós.
éhes, a csend hí, ha e kehel áldós, abból ű bő ítész.
is a seer in glasses
let him his mistake keep alive! Grief is peaceful, Zeus. Hera: He is clever on a
slave. He is a seer in glasses. The herma
(a sculpture with a head)
is hungry, the stillness calls, if this chalice beneficent from it he is a full
18. Doric Islands
A single piece with painted
inscriptions is from a Doric Aegean island. It is not even a vase proper.
~ @ DOI 1 ~
Megaron naiskos from Thera (1982?).
Thera, Mus. inv. ?
Scene: None. Date:
2nd h. 7th cent. (Guarducci); c.650–625 ( Johnston).
(a) Ανδριασμε:εποιε >
ANDáRa Ű A
SZeME E BŐ JE' >
andára ű a szeme
e bő jel (for the
day-dreamer it is the eye, an immense sign)
(b) Αρκh ιδικας ημι εγο >
(L)IKAS E MŰ ÉGŐ >
árok híd (l)ikas
e mű égő (the bridge on the ditch/trench is
with holes this work burns/glows)
Andára ű a szeme, e bő jel: árok híd
(l)ikas! E mű égő. (For the
day-dreamer it is the eye, an immense sign: the bridge on the ditch/trench is
with holes! This work burns/glows.)
Potter’s signature. Owner’s inscription or dedication to a human.
19. Ionic Dodekapolis
A good number of pieces from the
Ionic cities in Asia Minor or their colonies bear painted inscriptions. They are
partly taken together under one number.
~ @ IOD 1 ~
Fr. of a dinos from Old Smyrna
(1948–51). Izmir, Arch. Mus. Inv. ?
Scene: None. Date:
1st h. 7th cent. (Akurgal); mid-7th or 3rd q. 7th cent. ( Jeffery); c. mid-7th
cent. (Guarducci); c.650 ( Johnston).
ÜSTRe ÖKLE-HúS íME … >
ökle-hús , íme … (Fish
meat for the kettle, look ...)
Probably a potter’s or painter’s signature, perhaps with a dedication.
Very many fragments, prevailingly
of modest stylistic quality but very often with painted dedicatory inscriptions,
have been found in the trading settlement of Naukratis in Egypt. Their dialect
and local script is East Ionic (see the preceding chapter).
A single piece among the fifty or
so figure-decorated vases which are thought to be of a local fabric of Caere in
Etruria bears inscriptions. Their dialect is probably East Greek.
22. Doric Hexapolis
The Doric south-west of Asia Minor
with Rhodes and some other islands provides three pieces with painted
inscriptions, one of them figure-decorated and labelled.
~ @ DOH 3 ~
Pattern-decorated jar, said to have
come from Rhodes (Siana, according to Hiller) (1906 or earlier). New York,
Metropolitan Mus. of Art 06. 1116.
Scene: None. Date: no
later than 450 ( Jeffery, p. 350).
| hωσεμιν δοκει >
Ki ALuL IS TÁGAS
HABáR A SúLYA iHÓ' SEMMI NO DE Ő KELL >
ki alul is tágas
habár a súlya ihol semmi no de ő kell (What
is wide at the bottom, even though its weight is nothing, now this is what
(b) Δευς Ηερμας | Αρταμις Αθαναια >
Ha ÉR MÁS ÁRuT AMI úSZATJÁN
ide vésse ha ér
más árut ami úszatján
(Do incise it here if you find another ware
which stands to this on its float.)
Ki alul is tágas, habár a súlya ihol
semmi, no de ő kell. Ide vésse, ha ér más árut, ami úszatján
(What is wide at the bottom,
even though its weight is nothing, now this is what needed. Do incise it here if
you find another ware which stands to this on its float.)
Wachter's interpretation: (a)
Kalos-inscription, approximately ‘Brasia / Asia is the most beautiful on earth,
I think’ (metrical). (b) Not clear (list of gods).