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Mihaly Mellar :
Making Sense of Nonsense Inscriptions Interpretations Associated with Amazons and Scythians on Athenian Vases


Making Sense of Nonsense Inscriptions Interpretations

The A. Mayor, J. Colarusso and D. Saunders trio of authors has taken up the task to shed some light on the more than 2000 “nonsense” inscriptions on ancient Greek vases. They investigated the presumptively meaningless strings of Greek letters associated with Scythians and Amazons depicted on the vases, and they deciphered – this is their belief – those inscriptions as “appropriate names and words in ancient forms of Iranian, Abkhazian, Circassian, Ubykh, and Georgian.” But are they right?


All the citations taken from the paper Making Sense of Nonsense Inscriptions Associated with Amazons and Scythians on Athenian Vases, Version 2.0 , July 2012 by Adrienne Mayor, John Colarusso and David Saunders are not marked, while the citations from Attic Vase Inscriptions database are marked as AVI (their author is Henry R. Immerwahr, but it is made accessible on the web by Rudolf Wachter).


The triad of authors has taken up the task to shed some light on the more than 2000 “nonsense” inscriptions on ancient Greek vases. They investigated the presumptively meaningless strings of Greek letters associated with Scythians and Amazons depicted on the vases, and they deciphered – this is their belief – those inscriptions as “appropriate names and words in ancient forms of Iranian, Abkhazian, Circassian, Ubykh, and Georgian.

Their first “analysis involved a mysterious word on an important red figure calyx krater that was produced outside of Athens, in South Italy, in about 400 BC. A significant scrap of ancient “foreign talk” in the context of theatrical comedy appears on the so-called New York Goose Play Vase in the Metropolitan Museum. Attributed to the Tarporley Painter, this krater is extraordinary as the only surviving vase painting to transcribe theatrical dialogue on stage. It depicts three masked actors in a kind of “law court” scene. An old man poses on tiptoe with his hands above his head, about to be flogged by an authoritative young man in an “ugly” mask holding a stick, identified by scholars as one of the Scythian policemen of Athens. On the right, an old woman gestures toward them; beside her are a dead goose and two goat kids in a basket. It is generally assumed by scholars that the old man has stolen the objects on the right and that he is about to be punished by the policeman on the left. All three actors speak lines of dialogue, shown issuing from their mouths. The old man says, in Attic Greek, “I am strung up [for a beating].” A typical legalistic phrase, also in Attic Greek, issues from the old woman’s mouth: “I hand him over.” But the actor brandishing the stick utters a “nonsense” word: ΝΟΡΑΡΕΤΤΕΒΛΟ, “Noraretteblo.” His utterance has been variously interpreted as “pidgin Greek,” a “foreign language,” “noises that sound like a foreign language,” or even “the words of a magic spell.” Remarkably, however, the phonotactics of this word are recognizable as the sound patterns of an ancient form of Circassian. Speaking in his native tongue, the barbarian character is saying something like “This sneak thief steals from them over there.”


The linguistic analysis identifies the text by the sequence of r-s as a Cirkassian verb and a high fetched, very “scientific” explanation follows, no one could follow, let alone to contradict, of which the more interesting part is this: “The <O> of the first syllable remains unexplained. It might reflect an “emotomorph,” a morpheme expressing the speaker’s feelings toward the state of affairs. In this case, it might be a Circassian cognate of an “incredulity” emotomorph, /-awǝ-/, still preserved in Bzyb Abkhaz, as in /d-awǝ-šyt-na-x-wa-z/ him-incredulity-upwards-it-lift-aspect-past.participle, “how could that one hold him (up)?!”” All this is an <O> in the middle of a syllable! It far outdoes the Aussie “emotomorph”: the-bloody-kanga-bloody-roos crossed the-bloody-road in-bloody-front of me! 

Now, let us read the “verb” with a very simple reading rule of the so called defective notation of vowels typical for the Carian, Lydian, Lycian and other languages of the time, just across the Aegean see, in Asia-Minor (de missed vowels are in lower case):


ΝΟΡΑΡΕΤΤΕΒΛΟ > NŐRe ÁRa ETeT/É’TeT EBBőL Ő > Nőre ára! Etet/éltet ebből ő. (Pay the price to the woman! She feeds/gives life from this.)


The man may have killed the goose or may have stolen the goods. Whatever is the story, he has to pay the woman. This reading is contextual and accurately describes what measures the main actor, the Scythian policeman takes and the reason for it is worded perfectly, it expresses the moral of the depicted scene faultlessly.

This is simple reading, the way you would read and comprehend any other text, say, this very sentence. It is not “the sound patterns of an ancient form of Circassian” and it is not “something like “This sneak thief steals from them over there.””, but the exact and legible wording the Scythian policeman utters! And there is no “scientific” smudging with gizmos only a few people (if anyone) can follow, just straightforward reading any Scythian-speaking layman in ancient Greece could and/or in today’s Hungary can read.

No one should wonder: if the policeman in Athens could provide the law in Scythian then the Greek population of the time was at least bilingual, but as a matter of fact, a big percentage of the population still belonged to the Scythian speaking substratum R. S. P. Beekes and others are talking about.


Case Studies on which the three authors base their conclusion about the languages of the “nonsense” inscriptions are the followings:


CASE 1. “On the red-figure Euthymides vase (510-500 BC, from Vulci /BAD 200161, Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2308/), … the non-Greek name ΧΥΧΟΣΠΙ, pronounced Khukhospi, appears next to the Scythian archer whose companions have the Greek names Euthybolos and Thorykion … Khukhospi would mean “Enthusiastic Shouter” or “Battle-Cry”” This is the interpretation by the authors, but with the defective notation of vowels it reads:


ΧΥΧΟΣΠΙ > GYÜGYe ŐSi BŰ > Gyügye ősi bű (Simple-minded/naïve ancient charmer)


Still dressing in a naïve, imbecile pose when the Amasons already around makes one really the least simple-minded, and this backed up by the whole story of which the authors analysed only this 7-letter “word”:

Inscriptions: A: to right of the left archer: Μαε[..4..]γ[.] vac. To right of his legs: χυχοσπι. To lower left of the arming youth, not facing: Θορ̣υκιον{1}. To his lower right, vertically, non-stoich.:   h[ο Πολ<λ>ι]ο  ε[γρα]φσεν Ευθυμιδες{ες}. I.e., Ευθυμιδες{ες} | ε[γρα]φσεν | h[ο Πολ<λ>ι]ο. To left of the right archer's face: Ευθυβο[λος]{2}…

Footnotes: {1} Cf. PA 7419-21. {2} see Pape. Perhaps punning on Ευθυβουλος, which may occur in Attica: see Immerwahr (1971), 56/3.” AVI 5259



μαε[..4..]γ[.] > MA E[LéG LeN]Ge > ma e[lég len]ge (today (he is) rather light and loose)

ΧΥΧΟΣΠΙ > GYÜGYe ŐSi BŰ > gyügye ősi bű (Simple-minded/naïve ancient charmer)

θορ̣υκιον > CSÓRéÚ' Ki JÖN > csóréul kijön (he comes out naked)

ευθυμιδεσ{εσ} > E ViCCéVe' MI' üDE SZESZ > e viccével mily üde szesz (with this his joke how fresh is this excuse)

ε[γρα]φσεν > É[G RÁ] FeSSEN/FeSE'Ne > É[g rá] fessen/feselne (Heaven should collapse on him)

h[ο πολ<λ>ι]ο > H[Ó' áPOLóJa] Ő > h[ol ápolója] ő (where she is his nurse)

ευθυβο[λοσ] > É' ViCCéVe' BÖ[LŐS] > él viccével bö[lős] (he with balls misuses his joke)

Ma e[lég len]ge gyügye (együgyű) ősi bű. Csóréul (meztelenül) kijön, e viccével mily üde szesz, é[g rá] fessen/feselne! H[ol ápolója] ő, - él viccével bö[lős]. (Today the simple-minded/naïve ancient charmer is rather loose. He comes out naked, with this his joke how fresh is this excuse, heaven should go to scraps (collapse) on him! Where she is his nurse, he with balls misuses his joke.)


The text perfectly complements the picture, just look at the posture of the „charmer”.


On the B side: „two young athletes and a bearded trainer.” Inscription „to lower right of the left youth: Πενταθλ[ο]ς{3}. To right of the second youth's middle: Φαϋλ<λ>ος{4}. To left of the trainer's face: Ορσιμενες, retr.{5}. On his lower left, non-stoich. two-liner: Ευθυμι(δ)ες(6) . . . . . . . . .  hο Πολ<λ>ιο. ... Both lines are retr.

Footnotes: {3} see Pape, but here also punning; not in PA, but listed (here only) in LGPN ii. {4} see CB ii. {5} PA 11,492 (4 B.C.); see also LGPN ii. {6} the delta is D-shaped. AVI 5259



Πενταθλ[ο]ς > BENT A CSaLÓS > bent a csalós (the deceptive is inside)

Φαϋλ<λ>ος > Οαυλος > Ő A VaLÓS > ő a valós (it is the real)

Ορσιμενες > ŐRZI MENÉS > őrzi menés (the footprint saves it)

Ευθυμι(δ)ες > Ευθυμιρες > E VéTJéVe' íM ÜRES > e vétjével ím üres (with this his fault, look, it is void)

hο Πολ<λ>ιο > hο Πολιο > Ha Ő aBBÓL JŐ > ha ő abból jő (when it comes from that)


Left athlete: – Bent a csalós. (The deceptive is inside.)

Right athlete: – Ő a valós. (It is the real.)

Trainer: Őrzi menés! E vétjével (vétkével) ím üres, ha ő abból jő. (The footprint saves it! With this his fault, look, it is void when it comes from that.)

By the testimony of the reading, the old man is training the athlete in the middle about honesty in sport: cheating leaves it footprints in the sand.



CASE 2. “A fragmentary red figure cup attributed to Oltos (525-500 BC) shows Heracles and Hermes labeled in Greek on one side, but on the other side several clusters of letters around a group of Amazons running into battle appear to be nonsense … The longest complete string of letters, ΠΚΠΥΠΗΣ, Pkpupes, looks impossible to pronounce. … “Worthy of Armor,” an appropriate name for an Amazon.


ΠΚΠΥΠΗΣ > BéKéBŰ’ BESZe > Békéből besze. (Story from peace.)


This may be the right place to say that AMAZON ( Ἀμαζών, Ἀμαζόνες) is a straight forward transcription or rather transliteration of the Scythian/Hun/Magyar expression ÁM-ASSZON(Y) where ÁM is a conjunction or interjection: well, then, really and ASSZON(Y) is woman, so, it would translate into ‘real/true woman’. Ez ÁM ASSZONY a javából! Shi is a true woman of the best!


CASE 3. “A red figure hydria signed by Hypsis (510-500 BC, from Vulci / Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2423; BAD 200170;  AVI 5287/) shows three Amazons preparing for battle. (FIG 3) The one on the left, holding a spear and helmet, is labelled with the Greek name Andromache. Her comrade on the right is named Hyphopyle, perhaps a misspelling of a Greek name. Between them, the Amazon blowing a trumpet has two inscriptions: her name Antiopea (which might call out the famous Amazon Antiope) and a “meaningless” word ΧΕΥΧΕ, pronounced “Kheukhe.”


ΧΕΥΧΕ > eGY-E ÜGYE? > Egy-e ügye? (Is her case the same?)


The question is legitimate, trumpeting is not the best combat strategy, but we should read the lot to comprehend what really is the depicted story about. The trumpeting Amazon is not Antiopea, but:


Αντιο(π)εα > A NóTa JÓ BE/DE A > a nóta jó, be/de a (the song is good, but the)


Neither is the third girl’s name Hyphopyle, but the end of the question started in previous “name”:


Ηυψοπυλε > HíVó FŐ’éPÜL-E > hívó fölépül-e? (will the caller recover?)


Getting so far, we have to pose also a question: is than the first word still a name? Of course not, it reads as:


(Α)νδ(ρ)ομαχε > [?](β)νδ(ρ)ομαχε > [SZe]BBeN/[Jo]BBaN DuRRO' MA uGYE > [sze]bben/[jo]bban durrol (durrog) ma ugye (nicer/better she bangs/mutters today, doesn’t she)


There is a place in the damaged area for a letter, and the first readable letter is definitely is not Α, it is small b like β. On the right hand margin the “painter's signature” reads as:


Ηυφσις εγραφσεν > HíVe VéSZ IS ÉG RÁ FeSSEN > híve vész is ég rá fessen (foszoljon) (her beloved is a calamity heaven should fall on him)


Under the foot in Greek (Etruscan):


ΛΗΚ.ΛΗ.ΜΕ > LéHa Ki NáLa HÍME' > léha ki nála hímel (mentegetőzik) (light-minded is who makes excuses to her)


So, the whole (love)story reads as:


Szebben/jobban durrol (durrog) ma ugye? Egy-e ügye? A nóta jó, be/de a hívó fölépül-e? Híve vész is, ég rá fessen (foszoljon)! Léha ki nála hímel (mentegetőzik). (Nicer/better she bangs/mutters today, doesn’t she? Is her case the same? The song is good, but will the caller recover? Her beloved is a calamity, heaven should fall on him! Light-minded is who makes excuses to her.)


On the shoulder of the  hydria there are two boys on horseback and a chariot with the charioteer mounting. The inscriptions on this part are “under the tail of the rear horse: Σιμος. Below the head of the other horse: Π̣εδιο̣ς(?){2}. To right of the driver's head, at a distance: κ(α)λος. To right of the chariot horses: (χ)αιρε.” AVI


Σιμος > SZó ÍM ÖSZi > szó ím öszi (word tortures him)

Π̣εδιο̣ς > ePEDő JÓ SZó > epedő jó szó (languishing good word)

κ(α)λος > κελος > KELŐS > kelős (selling)

(χ)αιρε > βαιρε > BÁJ-ÍRRE' > báj-írrel (with love-potion)


S ím öszi, epedő jó szó kelős báj-írrel. (Word tortures him, languishing good word with selling love-potion.)


Unfortunately, Henry R. Immerwahr in his book CORPUS OF ATTIC VASE INSCRIPTIONS doesn't give us the “misspelled” letters, only the “corrected” one's in (), and the available pictures are unreadable, but I am quite sure about right spelling I propose above.


CASE 4. “A red figure amphora (that recalls the Euergides Painter, 525-500 BC, from Vulci /London, British Museum E 253; BAD 200204; AVI 4537/) shows a Greek-named warrior Hippaichmos, leading a horse toward an Amazon or Scythian (it is often difficult to distinguish gender) whose non-Greek name is ΣΕΡΑΓΥΕ, Serague.


ΣΕΡΑΓΥΕ > SZER AGGÚ’-E > Szer (itt: a férfi fegyvere) aggúl-e? (Is the weapon ageing?)


The “Greek-name” Hippaichmos actually above the warrior's head and curving behind him reads as:


hιππαιχμ[ος] > hιππαιχμ[ολ] > HŰ BaBÁJa GYáMOLi > hű babája gyámolja (His faithful fiancé protects him.)


So, it is not the aging of the “weapon”, but the faithful fiancée makes the warrior refrain from the young Amazon’s tempting offer!


The other decoration (A: Dionysus between a satyr and a dancing maenad) has this inscriptions: A:


Διονυσος > DIONÜSZOSZ/(DűJJÖN ISZOS) > Dionüszosz/(Dűljön iszos) (Dionysos/(Let the drunkard fall))

Βριαχος > BáR ÍjA GYŐZ > bár íja győz (although his bow wins)

Ηροφυλλις > HúRRa Ő FÜLeL IS > húrra ő fülel is (he listens to the string(s) too)


Dionüszosz/(Dűljön iszos), bár íja győz, húrra ő fülel is. (Dionysus/(Let the drunkard fall), although his bow wins, he listens to the string(s) too (the sinew of the bow doubles as a string on an instrument).)



CASE 5. “A clearly labeled Heracles and an Amazon named ΒΑΡΚΙΔΑ, Barkida, appear on a red figure amphora (in the manner of Euphronios, 510-500 BC, / Paris, Louvre G 107; BAD 200088. RF neck amphora./). The name Barkida appears to derive from eastern Iranian, or Indo-Aryan, with a loan into Circassian, meaning “Princess/Noble Kinswoman,” a reasonable name for an Amazon.



ΒΑΡΚΙΔΑ > VÁR Ki IDe Á' > Vár ki ide áll. (He, who stands here, waits.)

Under her foot is a very clear explanation about her identity:


ΥΑΙΑΣ > Ű A JÁSZ/Í(j)ÁSZ* > ű a jász/íjász (she is the Jassic (Jazygian)/archer (bow-woman).

The Greeks used to call the ΙΑΣ (Jassic/Jazyges) also by their other name: ION.


Inscriptions: A: [hερα]κλεες. On the base on which Heracles stands, in BG: δοκεῖ :* Σμίκ̣<ρ>ο̅ι :* ἰναι (for εἶναι){2}. B: behind the Amazon: Βαρκιδα. Under the foot, Gr.: ΥΑΙΑΣ{3}.

Footnotes: {2} for long iota = ει see Threatte (1980), 190f. Beazley suggests ναι as an alternative, but that seems unlikely. I take the inscription to be an incomplete kalos-statement of a not uncommon type: hο δεῖνα καλὸς δοκεῖ Σμίκρο̅ι εἶναι, with the first half on a companion piece, as Beazley suggested in BSA, rather than on the same vase (Beazley later suggested [καλος hερα]κλεες, etc., not very happily). The inscription does not prove that the vase was painted by Smikros; that attribution must be based on style. Bothmer calls the base on which the inscription is written a cartellino; but important figures are often placed on bases by the vase painters.” AVI 6451


[hερα]κλεες > [HÉRe A]KóL-E ÉSZ > [Hére a]kól-e ész? (Is the mind pen/kraal for fierceness?)**

δοκει : Σμικ̣<ρ>οι : ιναι > δοκει : σμι : οι : ιναι > DŐ' KÉJ : SZeMeJJ : ŐJJ : INAJJ > Dől kéj: szemelj, őlj, inalj! (Pleasure/delight wanes: do make eye (aim), do kill, do run away!)

It is all about fighting a war with bows (nowadays with firearms and bombs), do what you supposed to do: kill the enemy without the pleasure of the face to face fighting, just take aim, kill him and run for your life.

* A bécsi codexben j nélkül áll” CzF. In the Wiener Codex (XIII. cent.) the word is written without j, as ias.

** If it has anything to do with Heracles, it is indeed his name, which stands for the appearance and representation of the new masculine era. His name confirms that with a vengeance: HERACLES > (H)ÉRA KeLÉSe > Héra/éra kelése (an abscess on Hera / the rise of an era) or HÉRA KüLÉSe > Héra külése (the outing of Hera). For this last, see his other name: HERKULES (HÉRa KÜLÉSe). “Hera, vexed by Heracles’s excesses, drove him mad. … the Pythoness then told him: ‘You shall no longer be called Palaemon! Phoebus Apollo names you Heracles, since from Hera you shall have undying fame among men!’ - as though he had done Hera a great service. … When Heracles recovered his sanity, ... and, finally, when the passage of time had somewhat alleviated his pain, he placed himself at Eurystheus’s disposal.” and executed those labours Eurystheus asked for. (R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 122.c, d, e.)



CASE 6. “A fragmentary red figure amphora, attributed to the Kleophrades Painter very early in his career (ca 510-500 BC, from Vulci / Würzburg, Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität 507; BAD 201654/), shows a typical “leave-taking” scene, a Greek warrior preparing for battle, flanked by a Scythian archer, a boy, a dog, and a young woman. This painter shows as basic degree of literacy on his later vases, but these inscriptions are not Greek: ΤΛΕΤΥ in front of the boy; ΙΤΕΙΣ before the warrior’s head; ΕΙΟΣ above the dog; and by the woman ΙΣΛΕΙ; pronounced “tletu,” “iteis,” “eios,” “islei.”


ΤΛΕΤΥ > TőLe ÉTŰ’ / éTeL ETTŰ' / éTeLE úTÚ' > Tőle étül. / Étel ettől. / Étele útul (útravalóul). (From him (the Scythian archer) to eat. / Food from this. / Food for the road.)

ΙΤΕΙΣ  > ÍTE ŰZ > Íte (ítélete) űz!  (His  judgement chases me away (holds me for a hungry robber)!)

ΕΙΟΣ  > E JÓ űZi > E jó űzi? (This good drives him away?)

ΙΣΛΕΙ > ÍZZeL ÉJJ > Ízzel élj (élj az alkalommal)! (Use the time/opportunity (go in piece)!)


The warrior is getting the food-offer to depart in piece, while the woman reassures him with her double talk, the dog asks wondering how can be someone driven away with good bites. Every word is right on the spot, explains and complements perfectly the picture, contrary to the “translation” which adds nothing to it: “These phrases have an archaic, but natural translation, which appears to reproduce casual speech: The warrior is “standing here” and the dog is “by him.”

On the B side is komos of two bearded men with a hetaera with these inscriptions: “above the left komast: ιυι. To right of the amphora: εισ, retr. To left of the hetaera's head: ισυτ. On her right, similar: ισε.” AVI 8122.


ιυι; εισ; ισυτ; ισε > IVó Ű; E’ISZi; ISZi ŰT; ISZi E’ > ivó ű; eliszi; iszi űt (az amfóra tartalmát); iszi e’ (He is a drinker; drinks it up; s/he drinks this (the content of the amphora); this one drinks it)


It is all about drinking, as is usually the case with komasts (revellers) and komos (merrymaking). If one wonders on what basis I have transcribed υ into V one should think about naming of w (double V) in English. But I think, the first word should be ινι (it is very easy to mix up υ and ν) > INNI > inni (to drink). Which ever is the case, it is drinking anyway.


CASE 7. “The fragmentary black figure olpe (pitcher) was described above (attributed to the Leagros Group, 525-510 BC / Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 86.AE.130; BAD 41928; AVI 4995/). It shows two Amazons setting out on foot. Trotting alongside is a dog with a red collar (Amazons, like Greek warriors and hunters, are often depicted with dogs). The first Amazon turns to her companion, giving the impression of conversation, although dialogue usually issues from mouths as “bubble” inscriptions. The letter strings painted next to the women, ΟΗΕΥΝ ΚΕΥΝ, pronounced “oheun” or “oe:eun” and “keun,” can be deciphered as ancient forms of Abkhazian. Depending on the pronunciation of the eta, ohe(u)n signifies either “(They/She/ were/was over there,” or in the case of oe:eun, “We are helping each other” perhpaps a face-to-face injunctive with loss of pronomial inflection, “Let us be helping one another.” Ke(u)n means “Set the dog loose.”


ΚΕΥΝ ΟΗΕΥΝ > Ki E ÜNő? Ő HËU/HÉU Nő > Ki e ünő? Ő hëu/héu (hiú) nő. (Who is this doe? She is a vain woman.)


An obvious play with words: ünő – ű nő (‘doe’ – ‘she is woman’)


CASE 8. “A red figure amphora attributed to the Dikaios Painter (510-500 BC, from Vulci / London, British Museum E 255; BAD 200175; AVI 4539/) has Greek names of gods—Athena, Apollo, and Artemis—on one side. On the other side, five unknown words are associated with a Greek warrior flanked by a Scythian archer, a dog, and an old man. Behind the Scythian’s head, ΚΙΣΙ; to the right of his head and shoulder, ΓΕΧΓΟΥΧ(Κ?); at his feet above the dog, ΧΛΕΣΙ?; along the Greek warrior’s back, ΧΕΧΓΙΟΧΕΧΟΓΕ; along the old man’s back, ΧΛΕΙΟΠΧΙΟ, pronounced “kisi,” “gekh-goukh,” “khle . . . si,” “khekh-gee-okh-ehkho-ge,” “khleiopkhio,” respectively.


ΚΙΣΙ > KISÜ' > kisül (it will come out )

ΓΕΧΓΟΥΧ > iGE őGYe'GŐ VaGY > ige őgyelgő vagy (does the word loafs around or)

ΧΛΕΣΙ > eGGYé LE[SZ-E] SZŰ > eggyé le[sz-e] szű (the hearts become one)

ΧΕΧΓΙΟΧΕΧΟΓΕ > üGYE íGY aGGáLY Ö'GYE üGYÖ'GGE' > ügye így aggály ölgye ügyölggel (his case is anxiety mixed with billing and cooing this way)

ΧΛΕΙΟΠΧΙΟ > üGYeL E JÓ eB íGY JÓ > ügyel jó eb így jó (this good dog guards well, so it is good)


Kisül ige (szó) őgyelgő vagy eggyé lesz-e szű. Ügye így aggály ölgye ügyölggel (enyelgéssel). Ügyel jó eb, így jó. (It will come out does the word loafs around or the hearts become one. His case is anxiety mixed with billing and cooing this way. This good dog guards well, so it is good.)

This is a perfectly constructed, very clever text, the writer could imbibed this mastery of the Scythian/Magyar language only from infancy, with mother’s milk. The word is about the always actual question of “multiculturalism”: anxiety mixed with adulation. Only a watchdog can guaranty the the piece between the Greek warrior and the Scythian archer represented people.


And what “science” says about all this? “The letter strings with many kh/g sounds are suggestive of Caucasian languages. “Kisi” is Circassian, indicating something like (?) “here is his friend” referring to the archer’s name, Gekhgoukh, “Brave Adversary” in Abkhazian. The label for the hoplite, Khekhgeeokhehkhoge, translates as “One Chosen from Among the Brave” in Circassian, an appropriate description of a warrior. The old man’s name, Kleiopkhio, seems to identify him in Circassian as the descendant of “the daughter of a big man.” The incomplete word above the dog is unclear – perhaps it is the dog’s name.As you can see, it is a nonsensical blabber, compared with the deep-rooted thoughts we have got only by direct and simple reading of the inscriptions.



The decoration on side A is The Struggle for the Tripod, which is the most famous tripod from which the Pythian priestess took her seat to deliver the oracles, that is the predictions or precognition of the future inspired by the gods. But why is that tripod, a simple chair with three legs  worth fighting for? Believe it or not, the answer is in its Scythian/Hun/Hungarian name:


HáRoMLáBú SZéK > HáRaMoL aBBú'/Bű SZó Ki > háramol (háramlik) abból/bű szó ki (sorrow/spell word comes out of it).

The inscriptions on this side are


Αθεναια > ATHENA/A CÉ'NÁ' Í(j)A > Athena/a célnál í(j)a (Athena’s bow/at the aim her bow)

παλοσ > PALLOS(JOG) > pallos(jog) (broadsword (the right to doom capital sentence))

δεχιοι > De EGY JÓ Í(j) > de egy jó íj (but it is a good arrow)

Απ̣[ολ]λον > AP[OL]/ÁP[OL] iLLŐN > apol/ápol illőn (it kisses/cultivates properly)

Αρτεμις > ARaT-E MI SZó / ÁRT E MŰ SZó > arat e mi szó / árt e mű szó (Does word reap harvest? / This artificial word harms!)

Athena/a célnál í(j)a pallos(jog), de egy jó íj apol/ápol illőn! Arat e mi szó? / Árt e mű szó! (Athena’s bow / at the aim her bow is broadsword (the right to doom capital sentence), but it is a good arrow, it kisses/cultivates (nurses) properly! Does word reap harvest? This artificial word harms!)



Athena’s bow is baleful, which strikes as the consequence of a (mis)deed and, as a symbolic arrow, shows the right direction to take! But the tripod from/out of which the oracle has been delivered changes the flow of time, and is actually harmful.

If this reading is only a distortion of the original meaning or a fanciful interpretation, then one has to acknowledge that it is masterly done, because it is impossible to state more clearly the absurdity of predictions or oracles. While one accepts responsibility for one's actions, and is punished for the bad ones, one can learn from the mistakes, whereas the prediction would be an artificial intervention into the flow of time without any personal responsibility.

On the technical level, these two sentences – in which only the two consecutive E’s are short-handed with just one and one very obvious o is added – should be enough proof for my reading’s correctness and appropriateness, since more adequately, more precisely and more concisely no one could express the essence of the oracles. The “distortion of meaning”, “fanciful interpretation” or the “scientifically not sound” labelling here is only mud-slinging which will fall on the one who throws the mud. (Talking about distortion, if one takes a close look at the writing on the vase, one will see an intentional smudging of the letters in Αμυλον to make the label more in line with the myth.)



CASE 9. “Yet another clearly labeled Heracles battles Amazons on the red figure Morgantina krater painted attributed to Euthymides (515-500 BC, from Morgantina). One of the Amazon archers is labeled Andromache, but one of the fallen Amazon’s names is unknown: ΧΑΣΑ, Khasa. In Circassian, Khasa means something like “One Who Heads a Council.” Another label, ΣΟΣΙΑ, Sosia, appears to belong to another Amazon archer.


ΣΟΣΙΑ ΧΑΣΑ > SZÓS ÍjA GYÁSZ A’ > Szós íja – gyász a’. (Talkative is her bow – it is mourning.)


Science says: ΣΟΣΙΑ and ΧΑΣΑ are personal names of Circassian, Kabardian, Greek, Iranian, Sosruquo, Ossetian, Khotanese or Saka, Indo-Aryan, Sanscrit, … origin. I take this as a scientist’s joke and I have looked into all the “names” on the Morgantina krater (AVI 5121):

Decoration: Neck: A: Heracles and the Amazons: 11 figures. At the extreme left, the toes of a fallen Amazon, who is lost. A Greek to left, partially preserved, is probably Telamon (cf. Euphronios' Arezzo krater (1465)). The opponent of Heracles (who has fallen to the ground) should be Andromache{1}. B: symposium: six symposiasts reclining.

Inscriptions: Neck: A: a crouching Amazon archer shooting; starting at her chest: Ανδρο^μαχε{2}. To right of Heracles' chest, along his outstretched left arm: hερακ^<λ>ες{3}. At H.'s right, an Amazon with a large shield (device: octopus): there are some letters at her left that show in the ph., fig. 9, but are not drawn in fig. 3,a. Further to the right is an Amazon archer and a group of a Greek and an Amazon fighting. Between the archer and the Greek, facing the archer: Σοσια<ς>{4}. Above the duel's fallen Amazon: Χαρα{5}. B: the leftmost symposiast (head missing) holds up a cup: between his lost head and a hung-up basket on his right, facing the basket: χα[ι]ρε. The second symposiast, bearded, wears a turban and hold a cup: to left of his head: χαιρ^ε{6}. The third symposiast, bearded and facing left, plays the lyre: behind his head and to left of a hung-up basket: (Σ)οσια[ς]{7}. The fourth man, bearded, turns to a young flautist and holds out a cup; a flute case is hung up: at its right: [...]ιος. The sixth symposiast, also bearded, is vomiting: he has no inscription.

Footnotes: {1} but that name is given to an archer on the left; Neils does not explain. {2} the leg of a Greek intervenes. {3} the body of the fallen Amazon intervenes and seems to have led the painter to forget the lambda, if the dr., fig. 3,a, is correct. Neils prints: hερακ[λ]ες. {4} Neils thinks this refers to the Greek to the right of the inscription; she thinks it is nominative as after the alpha a piece of the pot is missing. {5} so Neils and the dr.; this is considered by her the name of the Amazon, I think. I have χασα, nonsense, with reversed three-stroke sigma. χαρα should also be nonsense. The third letter is unclear. {6} the turban intervenes. The dr., fig. 3,b, omits the epsilon which is clear in the photo, fig. 11. {7} Neils prints Σοσια. The photo, fig. 12, shows a blot by a break, which may be the remains of a sigma: Σοσιας̣(?). The dr. shows Σοσια, which could be voc.; or final sigma is omitted.

Bibliography: Stillwell (1959), 172, pls. 43-44, figs. 24-27. ARV[2] (1963), 28/10, 1620. Keuls (1985), 46, fig. 26. Miro (1985), figs. 25-26. Raffiotta (1985), 73 (detail of A). Add.[2] (1989), 156. AttScr (1990), no. 376. Schleiffenbaum (1991), 392/V 345. Neils (1995), 427-44, figs. 1-18 (figs. 1-2, 3,a-b (drs.), 4, 7-13, are of the krater). Wehgartner (1997), 209 and n. 52.  Author: H.R.I.” AVI 5121


Ανδρο^μαχε > A Nő DuRRÓ iMÁDJa-É > a nő durró imádja-é (the woman is thunderous/roaring, does adore her)

hερακ^<λ>ες[4] > HÉRA Ki ÉSZ (!) > Héra ki ész (Hera who is the brain)

Σοσια<ς> > SZóS Í(j)ÁSZ/JÁSZ > szós í(j)ász/jász (talkative is the bow-woman/Jassic (Jazygian))

Χαρα/χασα[5] > üGY ÁRA/GYÁSZ A’ > ügy ára/gyász a’ (price for the case/it is mourning)


 A nő durró, imággya-é Héra ki ész?  Szós í(j)ász/jász, ügy ára/gyász a’. (The woman is thunderous/roaring, does Hera who is the brain adore her? The bow-woman/Jassic (Jazygian) is talkative, the price (to pay) for the case/it is mourning (her bow is deadly).)


Here the price of the case is the bow, which executes Hera’s wish by the hands of the Amazons, which makes the case known as that of the fight for supremacy between Hera and Zeus (“a rebellion of the pre-Hellenic population, described in the Iliad as a conspiracy against Zeusbut as a matter of fact, a revolt against “the patriarchal Hellenes who invaded Greece and Asia Minor early in the second millennium BC as it described by Robert Graves in The Greek Myths).


Side B, the symposiasts conversations:


χα[ι]ρε/χαιρ^ε > iGYA/iGYÁ' ÍR E > Igya/igyál, ír e (orvosság ez) (Drink it, it is medicine)

(Σ)οσια[ς] > (SZ)ÓS ÍjÁSZ/JÁSZ > (sz)ós íjász/jász (talkative/old archer/Jassic (Jazygian))

[...]ιος > […]JÓS > […]jós ([…] seer)


 Igya/igyál, ír e (orvosság ez)! (Sz)ós íjász/jász. […]jós. (Drink it, it is medicine! (Talkative) old archer/Jassic (Jazygian). […] seer)


CASE 10. “A fragmentary red figure vase (rhyton) attributed to the Sotades Painter (475-450 BC, found in Susa, ancient Persia / Paris, Louvre SB 4143; BAD 209476; AVI 6724/) depicts Amazons labeled ΓΥΓΑΜΙΣ, Gugamis, and ΟΙΓΜΕ, Oigme.


ΓΥΓΑΜΙΣ > éG VíGA'Ma IS > ég vígalma is (Heaven's gaiety is also)

ΟΙΓΜΕ > OLY iGe ME' > oly ige mely ... (such word which ...)


Ég vígalma is oly ige mely ... (Heaven's gaiety is also such word which ...)



Science says nothing about “Gugamis”, while  “Oigme” is Ubykh “Don’t You Fail!”



CASE 11. “Paris, Louvre E 855 /AVI 6269; BAD 310052/. BF Tyrrhenian neck amphora. From Cerveteri. O.L.L. Group{1}. Third quarter sixth.  550-530. 

Decoration: A: Heracles and the Amazons. B: warriors.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: above the head of a kneeling Amazon: γογοιοιγι{2}. On Heracles' right: hερακλες. To right of the back of the second Amazon's head: γογιϝικι, retr.{3}. Between the legs of the left Greek of the pair on the right: ν(.)οσιοσιν{3}.

Commentary: The second letter of the last inscription may be omicron (so CVA) or triangular rho.

Footnotes: {1} see Oxford 1913.164. {2} uncertain reading. {3} a good reading.

Bibliography: E. Pottier, CVA Louvre 1, France 1 (1923), III H d, pl. 5,1,9. ABV (1956), 99/53, 684. Bothmer (1957), 6/5, pl. 4,1. Add.[2] (1989), 26. 

Author: H.R.I.” AVI 6269



γογοιοιγι > GŐG ÖLJe OLY éGI > Gőg ölje, oly égi! (Let arrogance/pride kill him, he is so heavenly!)

hερακλες > HERAKLESZ/HÉRe AKoL ÉSZ > Heraklesz/hére (hevességre) akol ész (Heracles/the mind is pen for his fierceness)

γογιϝικι > GŐG ÍVI KI > Gőg ívi (puhítja) ki (Pride softens him up.)

ν(.)οσιοσιν > νκoσιοσιν{commentary} > NeKi ŐSi JÓ SZÍN > Neki ősi jó szín(hely, látszat) > (For him the ancient is good scene/guise.)


Out of this meaningful and contextual conversation by the two Amazons and the Greek onlooker, the scientist have got only this much: These gogo/goi syllables bring to mind the word for “girl” or “maiden” in Georgian. Tyrrhenian vases often have nonsensical inscriptions, however, and we note that this reading could be a coincidence arising from repetitive sounds distinctive of Georgian patterns


CASE 12. „Another Tyrrhenian black figure vase in the Louvre (Tyrrhenian Group, ca 550 BC) features Heracles, Telamon, and other Greek warriors (all labeled with names) battling Amazons. Some of the inscriptions were restored in modern times. But seven of the names of the Amazons are believed by vase experts Beazley and von Bothmer to be ancient, original, unrestored: [An]dromache “Manly Fighter”), Toxophile (“Loves Arrows”), Pisto (“Trustworthy”); Glauke (“Blue-Gray Eyes”), Hegeso (“Leader, Chief,”) Kleptoleme (“Thief”), and Kepes. ΚΕΠΕΣ, Kepes, is a non-Greek name. The phonemes sound like an ancient form of Circassian. If the name is Circassian, the meaning would be something like “Hot Flanks/Enthusiastic Sex.” Notably, Amazon encounters on vases were often eroticized.


     Κεπες > KÉPES > képes (able/capable(!)/illustrated/figurative/metaphorical)


The dinos is scraped and repainted, consequently it is hard to say what is old, what is modern, so, no use for further investigation.


CASE 13. „A black figure column-krater attributed to the Leagros Group (550-500 BC, from Monte Sannace, Apulia /BAD 9009482/), shows a clearly named Heracles fighting Amazons. One is named Andromache, but ΟΑΣ ΟΑΣ (possible lambda after the final sigma?), Oas oas, inscribed beside another Amazon, is unknown. A name beginning with Oas oas sounds like an Iranian-derived Ossetian word for “Sacred” or “Spirit.” As noted earlier, the Leagros Group vases contain much “nonsense”—so again, this incomplete sequence of sounds could be accidental.

By the AVI (3817) the inscriptions are: „to right of the left Amazon's helmet: nonsense: οασ^οασ(.){1}. To right of the second Amazon's helmet: hιπ<π>οσοιΛς{2}. Above, and to right of, Heracles' head: hερακλες. Coming from the lost head of his adversary and running into Heracles' head: [Αν]δρομα(χ)<ε>, retr.{3}.

Footnotes: {1} the last letter resembles the `Argive' lambda. {2} The sixth letter is a theta showing the dot on the circle in the ph. {3} the chi is a blob; the final epsilon was never written.

Bibliography: BADB 9009482. Juliis et al. (1983), 87, fig. 155 (A). A. Ciancio, CVA Gioia del Colle, Italy 68 (1995), pls. 21,1-2 and 22,1-4; fig. 4 (facs. of inscriptions) (no bibl.).  Author: H.R.I.


οασ^οασ(.) > οασ^οασ(λ)> Ő ASZó Ő A SZóLó > ő aszó, ő a szóló (she is shrivelling, she is the talking one)

hιπ<π>οσοιΛς > HŰBŐ’ SZÓ ILLőS > hűből szó illős (from the faithful word is polite)

hερακλες > Ha ERő AKLa ÉSZ > ha erő akla ész (if mind is the pen for force)

[Αν]δρομα(χ)<ε> > δρομαχ > DuRRÓ Ma AGY > durró (durrogó/dörgő) ma agy (the brain is thunderous/roaring today)


Ő aszó6, ő a szóló. Hűből szó illős: ha erő akla ész, durró (durrogó/dörgő) ma agy. (She is shrivelling, she is the talking one. From the faithful word is polite: if mind is the pen for force, the brain is thunderous/roaring today.)



In the conclusion, even though the scientists acknowledge that “Herodotus and others describe bilingual Scythians and Greeks. Multilingualism may have been more common than generally recognized.” They look for the Scythians in the wrong direction: “Although literary evidence supports the presence of individual Scythians in Greece in the late sixth and fifth centuries BC, these foreign inscriptions on vases cannot, prima facie, be taken to confirm historical reports of a large “official” force of Scythians in Athens.” That large “official” force of Scythians in Athens is actually the substratum, the native Scythian population of Greece. So, th attempt of the authors to display the “nonsense” inscriptions on vases as that of some Caucasian languages is also nonsense! Scythian language is still alive and well, but nowadays it is called Hungarian. As you could see on the examples before, and on the followings, you can read the “nonsense” inscriptions directly, without any linguistic trickery, just by filling in the here and there left out vowels by the applied method of writing, the so called defective notation of vowels.

The 13 cases above were chosen by the three authors of the essay and in contrast to the fussy scientific interpretations and translations, we could read all the “nonsense” inscriptions with no problem at all, but they did mention some more “nonsense” inscriptions they could not crack.

The following inscriptions Colarusso could not identify with any of the Northwest Caucasian or ancient Iranian dialects, but as you will see they read just as easily, they make sense in the depicted context, not just describing the picture, but complementing it for better understanding. There is no need for any science to be involved in this, the least of all linguistics, because we simply read the texts and only translate it into English for those who don’t speak Scythian/Hun/Hungarian

So, neither of the following is our picking, what makes the readings even more trustworthy and generally applicable for all “nonsense” inscriptions.



AVI 3921; 352403

 “Harvard 1972.40. RF hydria (kalpis). Unattributed Pioneer{1}. Last quarter sixth.  510-500. 

Decoration: The ransoming of Hector.

Inscriptions: Πριαμος. χεχι, retr. χετοι, retr. χινι. τετλ, retr. χετει.

Commentary: Ex Watkins. The inscriptions after Auktion 34. The nonsense inscriptions are of Euthymidean type; see AttScr (1990), 71 n. 35.

Footnotes: {1} recalls Euthymides and the earliest Kleophrades Painter (Para.).

Bibliography: M&M-Auction (1967), 76, pls. 46 and 47, no. 149. Para. (1971), 324/13 bis. Ashmead–Phillips (1973), no. 19. Add.[2] (1989), 157. AttScr (1990), no. 422.  Author: H.R.I.


Πριαμος > PRIÁMOSZ > Priámosz (Priam)

χεχι > íGY EGYÜ' > így együl (unites this way)

χετοι > üGYET OLY > ügyet oly (the cause with such)

χινι > χενι > eGYÉNI > egyéni (personal)

τετλ > TETTeL > tettel (with deed)

χετει > íGY É’TE Ű > így élte ű (he lived it this way)


Priámosz így együl, ügyet oly egyéni tettel így élte ű (mármint Hector). (Priam unites this way, he (Hector) lived the cause with such a personal deed this way.)


AVI 4290; BAD 320013

London B 336. BF hydria. From Vulci. Antimenes Painter. Last quarter sixth.  Ca. 520. 

Decoration: Shoulder: warriors leaving home, one in a chariot. Body: Women at the Fountain (seven women).

Inscriptions: Body: ten nonsense inscriptions, two for each woman (where applied), one near the head, the other by the legs: αρχνομ{1}. πογυοννον. - πσι(π)ο{2}. νυχεονο. - (.)εοσεο{3}. πο(σ)νο(.)(.)ν{4}. - στονσν{5}. εγ(.)ποσγ. - By the head of the fifth woman: (Σ)(ι)με καλε{6}. χαργκεχσ{7}. - No inscriptions between the sixth and seventh women. The inscriptions are not directly related to the individual women. Under the foot, Gr.: ΣΟ (three-stroke sigma). The omicron is drawn with a compass, showing the central dot. See Johnston (1979), 21A/49.

Footnotes: {1} the last letter looks more like a low mu than a four-stroke sigma turned 90 degrees. {2} with four-stroke sigma. {3} sigma three-stroke. {4} sigma three-stroke? {5} sigma three-stroke twice? {6} four-stoke sigma reversed? The iota is a thick blob. I do not think that this inscription refers to either figure. H. Mommsen (1997a), 50 and n. 354: thinks this is a servant or a hetaera rather than a citizen "wegen des abwertenden Namens"; she refers to Hannestad (1984), 254. [But there are other names of respectable persons that make fun of them; e.g. Pordax]. Sime occurs on the Exekias plaque fr. F 1814, probably as a servant's name, and as a maenad name on Naples Stg. 172. {7} done from CVA.

Bibliography: CIG 4 (1855–77), no. 8035. Beazley (1927), 90 and n. 11. H.B. Walters, CVA London 6, Great Britain 8 (1931), III H e, pls. 90,4 and 93,2. ABV (1956), 266/3, 678. Add.[2] (1989), 69. Burow (1989), 42, 43.122, pl. 120. AttScr (1990), no. 1091. Robertson (1992), 12, fig. 7.  Author: H.R.I.


  1. αρχνομ πογυοννον > αρχνομ ποπυοννον > ARa iGYa NŐ íM aBBÓ' BűVÖ'Ni NŐNe > ara igya nő ím abból bűvölni nőne (Let fiancèe drink it! Look, woman from it would grow to charm)

  2. πσι(π)ο νυχεονο > πσινο νυχεονθ > BőSÜ' aBBÓ' iNNi ViGYE ÖNTSe > bősül abból inni vigye öntse (she should carry plenty from it to drink, let she pour it)

  3. (.)εοσεο πο(σ)νο(.)(.)ν > (.)εοσεο πολνο(.)(.)ν > [üD]E ÖSSZE Ő aPOLóN O'[VaD]Na > [üd]e össze ő apolón ol[vad]na (together freshly; he would meld caressing)

  4. στονσν εγ(.)ποσγ > eSZéT ÖNöSeN ÉGe[SSe] BŐSéG > eszét önösen ége[sse] bőség (let his mind burn selfishly with fullness)

  5. (Σ)(ι)με καλε χαργκεχσ > S íME KALÉ' áGYÁRa éG KEGYeS > szű íme kalél ágyára Ég kegyes (heart already strolls on his bed. Heaven is gracious!)

Ara igya! Nő, ím, abból bűvölni nőne, bősül abból inni vigye, öntse [üd]e össze. Ő apolón ol[vad]na, eszét önösen ége[sse] bőség: szű íme kalél ágyára. Ég kegyes! (Let fiancèe drink it! Look, woman from it would grow to charm, she should carry plenty from it to drink, let she pour it together freshly. He would meld caressing, let his mind burn selfishly with fullness: heart already strolls on his bed. Heaven is gracious!)



The typical women chat suits the scène perfectly: the young women at the well watching and commenting on the departing handsome warriors!


AVI 3217; BAD 201758

Compiègne, Musée Vivenel 1068. RF psykter. From Vulci{1}. Kleophrades Painter. Ca. 500.  Very early (Beazley). 

Dioniszosz és egy íjászDecoration: Heracles and Dionysus, in front of a platform running around the whole scene; on the platform, satyrs; in front of the platform, kraters and a kantharos (the latter is between Heracles and Dionysus).

Inscriptions: Nonsense: ιολελε ιαλινιυνε λυν. ισυπ.υλις{2}. Under the foot, Gr.: ligature ΚΛ [[lig.]]. See Johnston (1979), 110/12C 3 and comm., p. 202.

Footnotes: {1} so ARV[2]; CVA says from Cavalupo, Canino. {2} so CVA, index, apparently treating the letters as two inscriptions [they probably need to be broken up]. The text has: ιολεγειαλιυιλυνελυν..ισυρ..υλισ in capital letters.

Bibliography: M. Flot, CVA Compiègne, France 3 (1924), III I c, pls. 13,7-8, 15,4, 16 (old bibl.). ARV[2] (1963), 188/66. Drougou (1975), 17/25, *48, 63-64, pl. 15,1-2 (includes facs. of Gr.). Rouen Musée Dép. (1982), 54/7 and 256/106. Add.[2] (1989), 188.  Author: H.R.I.


As you can see, the text has two different transcriptions, done by researchers not speaking the Scythian/Hun/Hungarian language. The inscriptions should be looked at again”, now with the “hindsight” knowledge of  the “nonsensical” language the text are written in. To help this here is the more probable reading, the most suited to the context of the depicted scene:


ιολεγειαλιυιυνελυν[π]ισυρ[ικ]υλισ > JÓ LÉGELY ÁLL INNI VaN-E Lé VaN [B]IZ ÚR[I Ki]VáLó IS > Jó légely (kis hordószerű csobolyó) áll, inni van-e lé? Van biz, úri kiváló is! (The good canteen/flask stands, is there juice to drink? Yes, there is, furthermore some excellent gentlemanly.)



AVI 4976; BAD 16321

discus throverMalibu 84.AE.63. RF neck amphora. Euthymides. Last quarter sixth.  510-500.  520-510 (Houghton). Closer to 510 (Guy). 500 (Ohly-Dumm). 

Decoration: A: discus thrower. B: athlete with javelin.

Inscriptions: The inscriptions vertically down on either side of the figure. A: on the left: Φαυλ<λ>ος̣ [..2..?] v. ιο{1}, probably complete at end. On the right: κοτελο, the last two letters very faint, but probably complete at end. B: along the lower left: εχοπει. Along the lower right: χοισι. Both complete.

Commentary: My readings: a mixture of sense and nonsense. It is uncertain whether any letters are missing on A, as the surface is not in good condition. Since Phayllos was famous in the pentathlon he may be represented on both sides (GMusJ). I have omitted the readings in GMusJ, which are inferior.

Footnotes: {1} or λο(?).

javelin throwerBibliography: Houghton (1985), 168/17 (A). Knudsen Morgan (1986), 48. AttScr (1990), no. 375.  Author: H.R.I.



Φαυλ<λ>οσ̣ >FÁVaL ŐS > fával ős (the ancestor with wood)

[..2..?] v. ιο > [δπ] ιο > [DoB] JÓ' > [dob] jól (throws well)

κοτελο > KŐ íTÉLŐ > kő ítélő (stone is the judge)

εχοπει > εχθπει > EGY CSePELY > egy csepely (cserje, csemetefa) (a shrub/sapling)

χοισι > χθισι > íGY CSŰSZÜ' > így csűszül (becomes surveyor this way)

Fával ős dob jól – kő ítélő. Egy csepely (cserje, csemetefa) így csűszül (lesz csősz). (The ancestor throws well with wood – stone is the judge. A shrub/sapling becomes surveyor this way.)

The inscriptions are faint, similar letters are easily mixed up, as usual in a handwriting. As always in similar cases, one relays on the context to ascertain the proper reading. Ο and Θ are very similar, only context can sometimes decide between them.


AVI 5808; BAD 200539

Orvieto, Museo Civico 1049. RF cup. From Orvieto. Oltos. Last quarter sixth.  520-510. 

Decoration: Int.: warrior. A: Dionysus with four satyrs and two maenads. B: Dionysus on a donkey with three satyrs and three maenads.

Inscriptions: Int.: in a circle around the scene: Μεμ[ν]ον κα[λο]ς{1}. A: καλος three times among numerous nonsense inscriptions; they are not clear in the photos. CVA's text, gives ελοολο(ς). Above Dionysus' head: μεανε. Between Dionysus and a satyr: αο^γυο. Between one satyr and a maenad: εγο αλ(ς). Under one handle: γκξϙς{2}. B: above the head of the left maenad: καλο(ς). Nonsense inscriptions. Between a satyr playing the flutes and Dionysus: καλο(ς). Under the other handle a lotus bud.

Commentary: The nonsense inscriptions done after CVA, text; the photos are not clear.

Footnotes: {1} κα[λ]ος, ARV[2]. {2} so CVA, text. The xi is probably a zeta with a blot. The koppa may be an omicron.

Bibliography: G. Becatti, CVA Umbria 1, Italy 16 (1940), pls. 1-2. ARV[2] (1963), 64/103.  Author: H.R.I.


ΜΕΜ[Ν]ΟΝ ΚΑ[ΛΟ]Σ > íM E Me[N]ŐN/Me[NNY]ÖN Ki ÁLLÓS > ím e me[n]őn/me[nny]ön ki állós (look, on this going on (movement/change) / sky who/what is constant/stable/standing)

ΕΛΟΟΛΟ(Σ) > ÉLŐ Ő áLLÓS > élő ő állós (the living is constant)

ΜΕΑΝΕ > MÉ’ Á’Na E > (rt) állna e (why would it stand/be constant)

ΑΟ^ΓΥΟ > ΣΟ^ΓΥΟ > SZÓ’ aGGÚ’ Ő > szól aggúl ő (he speaks as an aged)

ΕΓΟ ΑΛ(Σ) > ÉG Ő ÁLLÓS > ég ő állós (heaven is constant)

ΓΚΞϙΣ > ΓΚΟΣ > éG KóKáZÓS > Ég kókázós (összekoccanós) (Heaven is quarrelsome (the bodies often knock against each other))

ΓΚΞϙΣ > ΓΚΖΟΣ (see: Footnotes: {2}) > éG KöZÖS > ég közös (közökkel teli, hézagos) (heaven is imperfect)

ΚΑΛΟΣ > KiÁLLÓS > kiállós (outstanding)[8]


Ím, e me[n]őn/me[nny]ön ki állós: élő ő állós. Mé(rt) állna e? Szól aggúl ő. Ég ő állós. Ég kókázós (összekoccanós) (/ Ég közös (közökkel teli, hézagos)), kiállós. (Look, on this going on (movement/change) / sky who/what is constant/stable/standing: the living is constant. Why would it stand/be constant? He speaks as an aged. Heaven is constant. Heaven is quarrelsome (the bodies often knock against each other) (/ Heaven is imperfect), outstanding.)


AVI 2254 (BAD 302131), the reading only makes sense when the alternate transcriptions/transliterations suggested by the Footnotes: “Gamma and alpha cannot be distinguished in some cases; the same is true of nu and sigma.”, is taken seriously.

Berlin 1845. BF neck amphora. From Vulci. Painter of Würzburg 210 (Leagros Group){1}. Last quarter sixth.  510-500. 

Decoration: A: Heracles playing the cithara, with Hermes and Athena. B: Dionysus with two pairs of satyr and maenad.

Inscriptions: Leagran nonsense: to Hermes' lower left: (ν)δεακ(.). Above Heracles' head: (ν)χδιασ{2}. To left of bema: χδε(α). Above the bema: χδοδ(ε). To the right of the bema: υαχν{2}. To Athena's right: υχοερ(α){3}. Under the foot, Grr.: ligature including pointed beta (2) and retr. pi with cross stroke: see Johnston (1979), 126/5E 1 and 127/6E 3; Hackl (1909), 45/508.

Commentary: Furtwängler's readings are not very accurate. I am not sure that all inscriptions are listed here. B is not inscribed.

Footnotes: {1} see ABV 370/136, where he is said to be near the Acheloos Painter; but on pp. 369 and earlier, on p. 357, Beazley speaks of the `Group of Würzburg 210.' {2} Furtw., text. {3} not in Furtw. Gamma and alpha cannot be distinguished in some cases; the same is true of nu and sigma.

Bibliography: Photo. Furtwängler (1885), no. 1845 (no facs., except pl. 1, the Grr.). ABV (1956), 370/136. Para. (1971), 162.  Author: H.R.I.


(Ν)ΔΕΑΚ(.) > (Σ)ΔΕΓΚ(T) > SZóD ÉGieKeT > szód égieket (your word, the heavenly)

(Ν)ΧΔΙΑΣ > (Σ)ΧΔΙΓΣ > SZiDJa De JoGoS > szidja de jogos (swears, and rightfully so)

ΧΔΕ(Α) > ΧΔΕ(Γ) > üGYeD ÉGi > ügyed égi (your case is heavenly)

ΧΔΟΔ(Ε) > üGY iDŐDDE' > ügy időddel (case, with your time)

ΥΑΧΝ > Ű aDJoN > ű adjon (S/he should give)

ΥΧΟΕΡ(Α)/ΥΧΘΕΡ(T) > ÜGYCSERéT > ügycserét (change of matter)


Szód égieket szidja, de jogos, ügyed égi ügy, időddel Ű adjon ügycserét. (Your word swears the heavenly, and rightfully so, your case is heavenly case, with your time S/he should make change of matter.)




AVI 4986; BAD 3891

chariotMalibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 86.AE.82. BF neck amphora. Leagros Group (Bothmer). Last quarter sixth.  Ca. 520-510 (Bothmer). 

Decoration: Neck: A: chariot. B: Departure of a Warrior: an old man; warrior; dog; woman. Body: A: Aeneas rescuing Anchises, with son Ascanius(?) leading the way and Aphrodite looking on from behind. B: Dionysus between a satyr flautist and another satyr.

Inscriptions: Neck: A and B: nonsense: to the charioteer's left, along the left margin and facing it: μεχτε̣ετ̣σ. Between the head of the charioteer old man, warrior, dog and womanand the horses' necks: λεβιτ[.]δεσ{1}. At horses' right and facing them: χ̣τ̣ρτο(.)ν. B: behind the old man's back, facing out (like the first inscription): μυχταεν̣. Between the warrior's and woman's heads: (.)[..](h)χω{2}. Behind the woman, along the margin, facing in: 7-8 letters not legible in CVA's photo. Body: A: nonsense: behind Aphrodite, facing out: πετελευχ{3}. Between Aphrodite and Aeneas: Α(φ)ροδιτε καλε. To left of Anchises' forehead (he looks back): Ανχισι. Between the ankles of Aeneas and Ascanius: Αινεα<ς> : καλος.

Commentary: Ex S.82.AE.48. Ex Bareiss 352. Note the kalos' added to divine and mythical names. The writing is very neat (more Antimenean than Leagran) except in some nonsense inscriptions. For the inscriptions see also Schauenburg 48-53.

Footnotes: {1} this looks like a miswritten(?) proper name. {2} it is not clear that this is really an omega. {3} so Bothmer in Greek Vases; the reading in CVA, text, is: πυτελευχ.

Bibliography: BADB 3891. Bothmer (1969a), 433, fig. 9. Schauenburg (1969a), pls. 2 and 3 (A, B). Havelock (1980), pl. 6, fig. 13 (A). J. Paul Getty Museum (1983), 71/44 (not ill.). A.J. Clark, CVA Malibu 1, USA 23 (1988), p. 72, bottom right, pls. 41, and 44,3-4.


Neck A:

μεχτε̣ετ̣σ > Mi EGYü'T E É’TeS > mi egyült e éltes (what had collected/merged, this elderly)

λεβιτ[.]δεσ > eLÉ BŰ Té[P]őDÉS/Tű[N]őDÉS > elé bű té[p]ődés/tű[n]ődés (in front of him, a lot of pensiveness/musing)

χ̣τ̣ρτο(.)ν > íGY TaRTÓ(S)aN > így tartó(s)an (so permanently)


Mi egyült e éltes elé, bű té[p]ődés/tű[n]ődés, így tartósan. (What had collected/merged in front of this elderly is a lot of pensiveness/musing, so permanently.)

Neck B:

μυχταεν̣ > íMe VáGY úTA' É'Ni > íme vágy útal élni (what case to hang on)

πεχτ χ νχπ > éPP EGYüTT eGY NaGYoBB > épp együtt egy nagyobb ... (as a craw)


Íme, vágy útal élni épp együtt egy nagyobb (Look, the desire/urge/longing adverts/reverts to live together just in a bigger )



πετελευχ/πυτελευχ > BŰ-TELE ÜGY > bű-tele ügy (case full of spell)

Α(φ)ροδιτε καλε > A Fi-eRŐ iDÜ'TTE' KALL-E > a fi-erő idülttel kall-e (do the strength of the son kneads/clogs together with the enduring)

Ανχισι > Ανχτσι > A NaGY TeSZI > a nagy teszi (the great makes)

Αινεα<ς> : καλος > ÁLLJoN-E A KiÁLLÓS > álljon-e a kiállós (the outstanding stand)


Bű-tele ügy, a fi-erő idülttel kall-e? A nagy teszi álljon-e a kiállós. (Case full of spell, do the strength of the son kneads/clogs together with the enduring? The great makes the outstanding to stand out.)



It seems from all readings made so far that the “names” of the actors very often double as meaningful parts of the written supplement to the depicted scene. When needed, the names are “misspelled”, like above Αροδιτε for Aphrodite, Ανχισι for Anchises and Αινεα for Aeneas. But are they really misspelled?

The story told in these three consecutive scenes as we understand it, after reading the bubble-words attached to the strip, has nothing to do with the misspelled heroes and the fourth scene summarise it all up depicting the bad conscience of the usurper.


AVI 5245; BAD 31912

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2220. BF band cup. From Vulci. Unattributed; recalls Amasis Painter and Taleides Painter (Fellmann). Third quarter sixth. 

Decoration: Handle zone: A: two boxers facing; between them a Panathenaic amphora as the prize; at left and right, a draped male with his staff (`judge'); handle palmettes. B: similar (the upper part of the right boxer missing).

Inscriptions: Handle zone: mainly nonsense: A: between the left-hand palmette and the left `judge': χεο(.)ο(.). Between the left judge and the left boxer: χονιχ(.)(.), retr.(?){1}. Above the amphora: χαιρε. Betweeen the right boxer and the right `judge': χο(ν)ιχ(ν)(.){2}. Between the right `judge' and the right handle palmette: χνχο(ν)ιχ{3}. B: four similar nonsense inscriptions, partly fragmentary. Over the amphora: χϝι[...].

Commentary: The letters are small and degenerate into blotches. Fellmann notes that all inscriptions begin with chi, and twice on A with χονιχ; on B, χϝι[--] is no doubt for χαι[ρε]. On B, the nonsense inscriptions twice begin with χν, once with χονι and once they end in χονι. Fellmann's connection of the band cup with both the Amasis Painter and Taleides Painter is based on the Getty lekythos Malibu 76.AE.48 by the latter, signed on the foot by Amasis. This is doubtful, as the inscription is I think suspect. Neils connects the subjects with the Panathenaea.

Footnotes: {1} if retr., the inscription faces the boxer and nu is of the regular shape.; if not retr., the nu looks more like a sideways sigma; this is true of all the nu's. {2} if retr., the inscription would face the right `judge', and the nu's would be OK. {3} uncertain reading.

Bibliography: Hackl (1908), 93. B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 11, Germany 57 (1989), pls. 30,6 and 31,1-4, Beilage 7,4. Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), fig. 18.3 (A, large) and 25.4a-b (A, B, small). Neils (1992), 50-51, fig. 20 (A). 

Author: H.R.I.


χεο(.)ο(.) > üGYÉ' O(RR)O(N) > ügyé(rt) o(rr)o(n) (for the cause, on nose)

χονιχ(.)(.) > aGYON ÍGY (VeR) > agyon így (ver) (he beats on brain this way)

χαιρε > iGYA ÍR E > igya ír e (let he drink it, this is medicine)

χο(ν)ιχ(ν)(.) > aGYON ÜGY Ne(Ki) > agyon ügy ne(ki) (on brain, cause for him)

χνχο(ν)ιχ > áGYoN GYÖN ÍGY > ágyon gyön így (comes on bed this way)


Ügyé(rt) o(rr)o(n), agyon így (ver). Igya, ír e agyon, ügy ne(ki) ágyon gyön így. (For the cause, he beats on nose, on brain this way. Let he drink it, this is medicine on brain, cause for him comes on bed this way.)

Play with words: agy-ágy, agyon-ágyon, így-ügy as it noted by Fellmann.



AVI 7944; BAD 310145

Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum 3613. BF hydria. From Cerveteri. Archippe Group (related to Tyrrhenian Group). Third quarter sixth.  550-530. 

Decoration: Shoulder: two warriors fighting between, on each side, a sphinx and a woman holding a wreath. Body : Departure of a chariot (seen frontally), between, on each side, a bearded man and a woman holding a wreath.

Inscriptions: Shoulder: to right of the left sphinx: τελοπυσϝος. Between the left warrior's legs: χιλκες, retr. Between the right warrior's legs: λεοτις. To left of the right woman's head: (κ)ο>(χ)λει, retr.{1}. To left of the right sphinx: σουετπολος{2}. Body: to the lower right of the man at left: Ανφιλοχος. To right of the woman: Αρχιπ<π>ε. To her lower right, close to the horses' legs: ρι(.)ι(.)(.){3}. Between the necks of the left pair of horses, the name of the charioteer: Διομεδες, retr. To left of the right woman's legs, close to the horses' legs (as above): Κ<α>λ<λ>ιπ<π>ος(?), retr.{4}. To left of the right woman's face: Ευμελια, retr.

Commentary: Ex Oest. Mus. 220. A mixture of sense and nonsense: the nonsense inscriptions on the shoulder mock or imitate names; there are sense inscriptions in the body picture. Bothmer thinks the shoulder picture may be a duel of Achilles and Memnon. "It is, in fact, not impossible to recognize an attempt at writing Achilles in the letters that appear between the legs of the victorious warrior." (Bothmer). [Referring to χιλκες, I assume.]

Footnotes: {1} read differently in Masner's text, dr., and facs. {2} the facs. shows a diagonal stroke preceding the first sigma. {3} the last letter seems to be kappa placed vertically; it should be the name of a horse (Masner). {4} perhaps an unlikely name for a horse; it may possibly pertain to the man at the right. Beazley in AJA points out that the reading is Κλιπος, which should be either for Κ<α>λ<λ>ιπ<π>ος or more probably Κλ<ε>ιπ<π>ος.

Bibliography: Masner (1892), 23-24, fig. 14 (dr.), pl. (facs.). Beazley (1954), 187 (not ill.). ABV (1956), 106/1. Bothmer (1969), 26 (not ill.). Add.[2] (1989), 29. AttScr (1990), no. 216.  ”


τελοπυσϝος > íTÉLŐ BŰ SZíVÓS > ítélő bű szívós (judging spell is stubborn)

χιλκες > eGYÜLő KÉZ > együlő kéz (wedding hand)

λεοτις > eLÉ ŐT ŰZi > elé őt űzi (it pursues him in front of it)

(κ)ο>(χ)λει > (χ)ο>(χ)λει > (GY)Ó (üGY)eL-E Ű > (gy)ó (ügy)el-e ű? (does he take good care?)

σουετπολος > SZÖVETBe OLLÓS > szövetbe ollós (like scissors in fabric)

Ανφιλοχος > Ανφιγοχος > ANNYi FI GŐGYÖS > annyi fi gőgyös (fecsegő) (many juveniles are chatterboxes)

Αρχιπ<π>ε > ARa üGYIBE’ > ara ügyibe’ (in fiancé’s affairs)

ρι(.)ι(.)(.) > ρι(.)ι(.)κ{3!} > RÍ(K)Í(Tó)K > rí(k)í(tó)k (ríkatók) (they make one cry)

Διομεδες > De JÓ Mi ÉDES > de jó mi édes (such good is, how sweet)

Κ<α>λ<λ>ιπ<π>ος > Ki éLI BŐS > ki éli bős (who lives it, ample)

Ευμελια > ÉVe eMELI A’ > éve emeli a’ (one’s year, that uplifts it)


 Ítélő bű szívós, együlő kéz elé őt űzi. (Gy)ó (ügy)el-e ű? Szövetbe ollós, annyi fi gőgyös (fecsegő) ara ügyiben, rí(k)í(tó)k (ríkatók). De jó, mi édes! Ki éli, bős éve, emeli a’. (Judging spell is stubborn, it pursues him to the front of wedding hands. Does he take good care? Like scissors in fabric, many juveniles are chatterboxes in fiancé’s affairs, they make she cry. Such good is, how sweet! Who lives it, ample is his/her year, that uplifts it.)


The wreath in many European and Middle-Eastern countries is the symbol of marrying age girls.



AVI 2256; BAD 302396

Berlin, Antikensammlung 1851. BF neck amphora. From Vulci. Acheloos Painter (Leagros Group). Last quarter sixth.  510-500. 


Decoration: A: Heracles and Acheloos, with Hermes. B: hoplite and archer leaving home.

Inscriptions: A: Leagran nonsense: Photo: to right of Hermes' head: χι̣. Between Acheloos' (horse) legs: χαχδογσιχ. Above Heracles' head: h[.](ν)υ. To right of Acheloos' head: χκ(ρ). To right: χαο(ν). More? Furtwängler's text: above Heracles: (.)δκh(.)(ν)ολ. Further down: (.)χ. Below Acheloos: χαχ(ρ)ο. To right of his body: γινιχ. To right of his head, in smaller letters: χχι{1}. Above the raven: δο(ν)κ{2}. - Under the foot, Gr.: ΛΗ [[lig.]]: so Johnston (1979), 151/2F 5; Furtw. read only heta.

Commentary: B apparently not inscribed.

Footnotes: {1} the chi's 2 and 1, according to Furtw.'s text. {2} or δο(σ)κ(?).

Bibliography: Photo. Furtwängler (1885), no. 1851 (no facs. except Gr.). ABV (1956), 383/3. Add.[2] (1989), 101. Beazley (1989), pl. 14,1 (after Gerhard (1843), pls. 15-16).  Author: H.R.I.


χι̣ > GYI > gyi (gee!)

χαχδογσιχ > GYAGYa iDŐ üGeSS ÜGY > gyagya idő ügess ügy (you crazy time, lope along! cause)

h[.](ν)υ > Ha[So]NáVa' > ha[so]nával (with its analogy)

(.)δκh(.)(ν)ολ (.)χ > (éR)DeK H(O)NOL (Í)GY > (ér)dek h(o)nol (í)gy (interest dominates this way)

χκ(ρ) > GYaKoRi > gyakori (it is common)

χαο(ν) > χαϙ(ν) > aGYAKoN > agyakon (on brains)

χαχ(ρ)ο > aGGYA' aGYaRÓ > aggyal agyaró (who puzzles by brain)

γινιχ > éGIN ÍGY > égin így (on heavenly this way)

χχι > eGYüGYŰ > együgyű (half-witted)

δο(ν)κ > iDŐNeK > időnek (for the (mystery of) time)

ΛΗ > LéHa > léha (shallow)


Gyi, gyagya idő, ügess! Ügy ha[so]nával (ér)dek h(o)nol (í)gy, gyakori agyakon. Aggyal agyaró égin így együgyű, időnek léha. (Gee, you crazy time, lope along! Interest dominates this way with its analogy, it is common on brains. So the one, who puzzles by brain over the heavenly, is half-witted, for the (mystery of) time he is shallow.)


It is quite interesting what the Wikipedia says about Achelous: “In Greek mythology, Achelous (/ækɨˈloʊ.əs/; Ancient Greek: Ἀχελῷος Achelōios) was the patron deity of the "silver-swirling" Achelous River, which is the largest river of Greece, and thus the chief of all river deities, every river having its own river spirit. His name is pre-Greek, its meaning unknown.Using the same transcriptions for Achelous’ name as for the “nonsense” inscriptions, we got a perfectly matching descriptive name :

      Ἀχελῷος > ÁGY ELŐ ŐS > ágy elő ős (the ancestor of riverbeds)

ágybed’, but also waterbed, riverbed; előfore’, but also ancestor, father; os Greek word ending or ősancestor’. (ágybed’ rhymes with agybrain’, that is the bed of the mind! and this wordplay is playing in the above inscription.)


By altering the saying “when in Rome, do as the Romans do” to “when in Athens, write as the Athenians do” we could write as follows:

Ιτ ις εαςι το ρεαδ ανδ υνδερστανδ θις! Yes, the previous sentence is in English and will stay English even in this transliteration: Ιτ’ς ’ς’ το ρ’δ & υ&ερστ& θ’ς!, which ’s ’s’ to decipher & compreh& and despite the unusual lettering still unquestionably English. But do you understand this sentence: Δε υαιον ηρτι-ε εζτ? Of course, not, if you don’t speak Scythian/Hun/Hungarian, and there is no way you can transliterate this into English, or the previous into Hungarian. And this is all the “science” you need to read and comprehend a text written in a language you utilise. If the text is written in unaccustomed lettering or coded, it may take some time to decode it, but the language it was drafted in originally will not change in the process.

You can rummage around with Colarusso-type methods as long as you like, but the only conclusion you would come up is the same as his: “natural translation (?!), which appears to reproduce casual speech” or ““Kisi” is Circassian, indicating something like “here is his friend””, etc. Just look up all the different “nonsense” inscriptions, in Colarusso’s interpretations somehow they all made after the same pattern: “Enthusiastic Shouter” & “Battle-Cry” & “Worthy of Armor” & “One of the Heroes/Heroines” & “Wearing (Armed with) Dagger or Sword” & “Princess/Noble Kinswoman” & “Brave Adversary” & “One Chosen from Among the Brave”. By the testimony of these translations the painters/scribes were very narrow minded.

Neither “science”, nor talking big or arrogance can change the simple fact that the “nonsense” inscriptions on these attic vases are written in Scythian/Hun/Magyar language using the “Greek” alphabet with defective notation of vowels, the very method the Lydian, Carian, Lycian and other inscriptions of the time and region were written in. This is a legible and legitimate writing-reading rule, that cannot be taken out after the texts has been written. Science only can explore an ancient writing system, it cannot deny its existence. Just the same with the readings presented here of that writing system, a real science would investigate it, all the more so since all the indiscriminate readings (on my part) perfectly match and complement the depictions they are attached to.

In inscriptions under scrutiny here there are 1087 scripted letters, of those 445 are vowels. It would make a very hard language with a ratio of C:V=642:445 ≈ 59:41. After the backfilled 224 vowels the ratio is C:V=642:669 ≈ 49:51, medium soft as Hungarian is indeed. The backfilled vowels make up around 1/3 of all vowels.




[1]      Playing with words”: gyűszűre – gyászára : for thimble – for his mourning.

[2]     “A bécsi codexben j nélkül áll” CzF. In the Wiener Codex (XIII. cent.) the word is written without j.

[3]    Heracles is indeed the appearance of the new masculine era. His name confirms that with a vengeance: HERACLES > (H)ÉRA KeLÉSe > Héra/éra kelése (an abscess on Hera / the rise of an era) or HÉRA KüLÉSe/KüLEZő > Héra külése/(nél)külező (the outing of Hera / the one who does without Hera)

[4]    “the body of the fallen Amazon intervenes and seems to have led the painter to forget the lambda” AVI. He did not forget, there is no λ in the words uttered by Heracles!

[5]     I have χασα, nonsense, with reversed three-stroke sigma. χαρα should also be nonsense. The third letter is unclear.” AVI

[6]    Playing with words: aszó – a szó(ló)shrivelling – the word(ing)

[7]    In the dialect which is spoken even today around Szeged, South-East of Hungary.

[8]   Word-play: ΚΑΛΟΣ > Ki ÁLLÓS : KiÁLLÓS > ki állós : kiállós (who is constant/stable/standing : outstanding )