The “names” on the ancient Greek vases are there for everyone to see, but only the Scythic speaking people can read the hidden message of these scytales! What a revealing name! that goes unnoticed by scientists for two and a half thousand years.The small cup from Corinth (1883 or earlier), now in Paris, Louvre MNC 332, has these “names” added to the boxing scene:
> Víjó (vívó) ki elbukta fél vége. (The fighter, who lost it, fears his end.)

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Blog : 'Nonsense Inscriptions'?!Keywords : Centauromachy, Esperente, Jazygian, Glaukytes potter, Archikles potter, sphinx-griffin

Common sense in nonsense inscriptions VI

from AVI numbers 5000 to 5999

from AVI numbers 5000 to 5999

The transliteration into modern Greek from the different ancient handwritings is done by H. R. Immerwahr and others, which in turn is transcribed by me, using this simple ABC table, at the same time backfilling the left out vowels, to reconstruct the inscriptions in today's spelling.


All the descriptions are pasted in from Henry R. Immerwahr’s AVI (Attic Vase Inscriptions) Project homesite ( Where it could be identified, there the inscription’s Beazely Archive Database (BAD: ) number is also given, which can be very useful for the pictures supplied on this website to most of the inscriptions.

There are two categories of nonsense inscriptions: those with imitation letterings are real nonsense and not the subject of our attention, but most of the others – which imitate words by using real letters – are actually legible texts that make perfect sense when one fills back the left out vowels by the applied method of writing, the so called defective notation of vowels method, wildly used in the era and area (see for example I. J. Adiego in The Carian Language).

In the followings, the Greek letters of the “nonsense” inscriptions are transcribed or transliterated (in green) CAPITAL letters, while the left out vowels are filled back in small/lower case letters. It is still only a transcription/transliteration from one lettering (Greek alphabet) to Hungarian Roman lettering and from one method of writing (defective notation of vowels) to the today’s full phonetic notation in use by the current grammar. In these legitimate transcriptions the language of the inscriptions is not changing, we still read the inscriptions in their original language, that is in Scythian/Hun/Hungarian and only occasionally we need explanation for some words with, by now, faded away meanings.

This is all the science needed to read the “nonsense” inscriptions. But to analyse and further investigate these, from here and now on meaningful, common sense texts, all scientists are welcome, from linguists, historians, artists and art-historians, aestheticians etc.

Going the other way around is only groping about in the dark, as it turns out the inscriptions are integral parts of the depictions. They complement it in such a way that our perception or first impression often changes for good. With the hindsight of the text we sometimes see and comprehend an entirely different picture with a valuable message only accessible by these readings. So, like it or not, these readings of the “nonsense” inscriptions are hard facts and without them neither the message nor the artistic value of the Attic vases cannot be fully apprehended nor it can be fully appreciated.


<>: omitted letters

(): miswritten letters

{}: letters inserted by mistake

[]: letters lost

^ : gap between letters, whether caused by intervening objects or not

v. vac. vacat: letter spaces left blank

: two-dot punctuation

:* three-dot punctuation

|: line break

dotted letters: letters uncertain when taken out of context accents and breathings: in principle omitted for the vase inscriptions, but sometimes added for clarity long marks: added sporadically especially for the ending –on strike-through: used for ligatures and for the so-called syllabic heta(h<e>)

For abbreviations of Books and Archives see

AVI 5004; BAD 41316

AVI5004Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 86.AE.164 (formerly S.80.209). Fr. of lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth Ca. 540-530 (CVA).

Decoration: A: No figured decoration preserved. Part of handle zone, with the BG line above and BG and reserved areas beneath.

Inscriptions: A: Handle zone: nonsense: (λ)υ>ολυ>λυσλυσλυ>λυ.

Commentary: First publication.

Bibliography: BADB: 41316. — *A.J. Clark, CVA Malibu 2, USA 25 (1990), pl. 98,3 (no bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5193


           (λ)υ>ολυ>λυσλυσλυ>λυ > (λ)υ{Λ DőL}ολυ{Λ DőL}λυσλυσλυ{Λ DőL}λυ > LeVe eLeDeL Ő LéVeL üDe LeLi VeSSZő eLeVe SZőLőVeL DőL LeVe > Leve eledel, ő lével üde, leli vessző eleve, szőlővel dől leve. (Its juice is food, it is fresh with juice, the live force of the vine-stock finds it, pouring its juice by the grape.)


Note: the '>' sign in the inscription is a lambda (Λ) tilting (DőL) over.

AVI 5015; BAD 275946

Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 86.AE.286 (formerly S.82.AE.27). RF cup. Brygos Painter. First quarter fifth Ca. 490

History: Ex Bareiss 346.

Decoration: Int.: Tekmessa covering the body of Ajax{1}. A-B: quarrel and vote over the arms of Achilles.



Inscriptions: Int.: typical Brygan nonsense inscriptions: starting at Tekmessa's mouth: γ̣νοισνον. Another inscription at left. Under the foot, an Etruscan inscription.

Commentary: + Malibu 85.AE.19A-B. + 89.AE.58. + +90.AE.24.1-5. + Boston, Vermeule. + Tübingen E 36. Cf. Brommer (1985a), 21-24 (only 4 examples in Attica.)

Footnotes: {1} ARV[2]'s interpretation (Klytaimestra with the dead body of Agamemnon) is in error: see Davies in AK.

Bibliography: BADB: 275946. — Bothmer (1969a), no. 11 (good picture of Int., but scene misnamed). — Para. (1971), 367/1 bis. — *M.I. Davies (1973), 60 ff., pls. 9,1 and 10,1-2 (all), p. 204, fig. 1 (Int.). — D. Williams (1980), pls. 33,7 and 36,1-2. — *J. Paul Getty Museum (1983), 44/30 (ill.) and 79/152. — Connor (1984), 391 (the Malibu vase). — Houghton (1986), 191/50 (85.AE.19). — Add.[2] (1989), 224 (much bibl.). — AttScr (1990), no. 553. — True (1990), 166/4 (89.AE.58). — D. Williams (1991), .... — True (1991), 139/21 (90.AE.24.1-5; much bibl.). — Robertson (1992), 95, fig. 88 (Int.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5210



γ̣νοισνον > éGeN OLY iSZoNY Ö'Ni > Égen oly iszony ölni! (On Heaven is such a loathing to kill!)

He fixed the sword—the very one which Hector had exchanged for the purple baldric—upright in the earth, and ... threw himself upon it. The sword, loathing its task, doubled back in the shape of a bow, and dawn had broken before he contrived to commit suicide by driving the point underneath his vulnerable arm-pit.” (R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 165.e.)

AVI 5019; BAD 212189

Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 86.AE.296 (formerly S.80.AE.1). RF cup. Sabouroff Painter. Second quarter fifth Ca. 460 (Bothmer).

AVI5019History: Ex Bareiss 145. Ex Swiss Private.

Decoration: Int.: Zeus with a lotus scepter. Ext.: komos: A-B: men in women's clothing (Anacrontics) dancing, three on each side{1}.

Inscriptions: Int.: in the exergue, in BG, filling the space: εσατικ{2}. Under the foot, Etruscan Gr. (Bothmer): ΑΦ.

Commentary: E. Simon apud M&M-Auction (1980), 50, suggests that Zeus is moving ες Ατ<τ>ικ<εν>. This is cited without a reference by Bothmer ("interpreted as >>to Attica<<"). Or nonsense (but it does not much look like nonsense). Four-stroke sigma.

Footnotes: {1} E. Simon thinks perhaps a comic chorus; so also M&M-Auction (1980). Beazley called it a dance of men. {2} vidi; so also Bothmer.

Bibliography: BADB: 212189. — ARV[2] (1963), 837/10. — *M&M-Auction (1980), pl. 45/103 (all). — *J. Paul Getty Museum (1983), 80/162 (not ill.). — Add.[2] (1989), 296.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5214


εσατικ ΑΦ > ÉSZ Á'TI Ki A Fő > Ész álti ki a fő (The mind deludes him who the chief is.)



AVI 5026; BAD 44232

AVI5026Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 86.AE.607. RF cup. Onesimos. Early fifth Ca. 500-490 (True).

Decoration: Int.: a satyr attacking a sleeping maenad on rocky terrain (but she reclines on a large striped cushion; at right, (floating) a wineskin. Ext.: a single figure on each side: A: a dancing satyr seen from behind. B: a dancing satyr.

Inscriptions: Int.: on the wineskin, in BG: five imitation letters: (π)ο(σ)υυ{1}. Above the wineskin, along the right margin: hε παις. Below the wineskin: καλε.

Commentary: + Malibu 90.AE.25.

Footnotes: {1} nonsense: not καλος.

Bibliography: BADB: 44232. — *True (1987), 162/11 (Int.). — *D. Williams (1991), 41, figs. 2,a-b (Int., A). — True (1991), 139/19 (adds 90.AE.25).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5231


(π)ο(σ)υυ > BŐ SZíVÓVa' > bő szívóval (with wide sucker)

hε παις > Hí E BAJoS > hí e bajos (this evil thing calls)

καλε >oK A LÉ > ok a lé (the juice is at fault)


Bő szívóval hí e bajos, ok a lé. (This evil thing calls with wide sucker, the juice is at fault.)




AVI 5036; BAD 208151

Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 86.AE.249 (formerly S.80.AE.18). WG lekythos. From Gela (CVA). Bowdoin Painter (Beazley). Second quarter fifth Later (Beazley). 470-460 (Bothmer). 470-460 (Neer).

History: Ex Hirsch collection, no. 165. Ex Lucerne Market (Ars Ant.). Ex Bareiss collection, no. 104.

AVI5036Decoration: A winged figure(1) with a caduceus pours from an oinochoe over a high mound (called a mound-altar by Beazley and Bothmer; a tomb decorated with fillets or an altar by Schauenburg). [[Addenda:]] <CVA:> Iris to right with caduceus pouring a libation from an oinochoe onto an altar.

Inscriptions: C] To right of her shoulder, horizontal and curving downward over the altar, nonsense: στοσποσι{2}{3}.

Commentary: Neer has much bibl. on the Bowdoin Painter.

Footnotes: {1} Beazley in ARV[2] says Nike. Schauenburg says that a decision between Nike and Iris is impossible; he refers however to an inscribed RF oinochoe in Salerno: CVA, Palermo 1 III I c, pl. 21,4. Schauenburg prefers Nike if the libation is over a tomb for a warrior who fell in a victorious battle. Bothmer in Bareiss cat. opts for Iris. {2} Schauenburg prints: ιροσποσι. The photo in Ars Ant. seems to me to show: στοσποχι [sic: but noone else reads a chi]. The letters are hardly close enough to her mouth to be an imitation utterance. {3} so the text of CVA; it seems to agree with the ph. [[n. 3 from Addenda.]]

Bibliography: BADB: 208151. — *Photo. — *Schauenburg (1960a), 57/158, pl. 58. — ARV[2] (1963), 686/193. — Para. (1971), 406. — Kurtz (1975), 106 nn. 9, 14, and 17. — *J. Paul Getty Museum (1983), 77/125 (not ill.). — A. Kossatz-Deissmann, LIMC v (1990), 746, Iris I/31, pl. 486. — *R.T. Neer, CVA Malibu 7, USA 32 (1997), no. 60, pls. 382 and 386,3-4 (382,1 shows inscription), fig. 29 (profile).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5241


          στοσποσι > σροσποσι{2} > SíR ŐSBe' ÖSSZÜ' > Sír ősben összül. (The tomb combines in ancestors.)

AVI 5060; BAD 9017215

Manchester, University, Manchester Museum iii.H.45. BF lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Lip: A: horseman. B: not known to me.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: lip: at the horseman's left: εαιοχειο, retr. At his right, similar, but a bit wavy: χνοχαιν. Handle zone: χνοχπλο̣τοχνοσοικ{1}.

Commentary: For the general scheme of inscriptions compare London B 405, AttScr (1990), no. 280, fig. 56. I saw the photo again in April 1994. A only. There are slight differences in reading: to left of the horseman: ε(υ)ιοχειο; I was uncertain about the upsilon. The last letter in the handle zone is a chi.

Footnotes: {1} the second omicron is repainted.

Bibliography: *Photo (A). — *R.M. Cook (1960), 79-80, pl. 25,A (A). — *Schauenburg (1974), 198 n. 5 (mention).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5265


           εαιοχειο > ευιοχειο{Commentary} > ÉV/É'Ve JÓ üGGYE' JÓ > Év/élve jó üggyel jó. (Year/living with good cause is good.)

           χνοχαιν > GYaNÓ-ÜGY ÁLLJoN > Gyanó-ügy álljon! (Queer cause should stand!)

           χνοχπλο̣τοχνοσοικ > GYaNÓ-üGYBe' áLLÓTÓ' GYaNó OSZOLJéK > Gyanó-ügyben állótól gyanó oszoljék! (From the one standing in a queer cause suspicion let disappear!)

AVI 5085; BAD 201048

Melbourne, National Gallery of Victoria 1730-4. RF cup. From Vulci. Nikosthenes Painter. Pamphaios, potter. Last quarter sixth

Decoration: Int.: satyr. A: Heracles and Alkyoneus. B: Dionysus with two maenads and two bulls.

Inscriptions: In the scenes: nonsense inscriptions. On the upper part of the reserved foot profile: Παν(φ)αιος εποιεσεν{1}.

Commentary: For the nonsense inscriptions, Trendall compares Louvre G 4 bis, ARV[2] 125/16.

Footnotes: {1} The phi with horizontal cross stroke, not with a diagonal one as stated in ARV[2].

Bibliography: *Trendall (1958), 13, pls. 7 and 8a. — ARV[2] (1963), 125/20. — Para. (1971), 333. — *Immerwahr (1984), 344 nn. 20 and 23, 350/31. — Add.[2] (1989), 176 (much bibl.). — Shapiro (1993), 151, fig. 108 (A). — Frontisi-Ducroux (1995), 157, pl. 23 (part of A).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5291



Παν(φ)αιος εποιεσεν > Πανθαιος εποιεσεν{1} > BÁNTJA JÓ SZó ÉPP OLY ESSEN > Bántja jó szó? Épp oly essen! (Does the good word hurts you? On the contrary, such should give pleasure!)

AVI 5106; BAD 7714

AVI5106Mississippi, University 1977.3.82. BF/WG lekythos. From Attica. Diosphos Painter. First quarter fifth 500-490 (Turnbull).

History: Ex Baltimore, D.M. Robinson.

Decoration: Iris and Hermes conversing.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: to right of Iris' head: (.)υχ{1}. To right of Hermes' upper body: χχ(.)χγχ. To right of his lower body: (.)(τ)ιχσ{2}.

Commentary: Turnbull characterizes the inscriptions as follows: "The ‘inscriptions’ are nonsense, strings of T’s and X’s used simply to break up the space around the figures and make a pattern that links them visually to the intricate arrangement of palmettes on either side."

Footnotes: {1} the first letter resembles an arrow pointing upward. {2} The readings are from the photo, which is not very clear.

Bibliography: V.Pol. (1928), 79 (add. to 7). — *D.M. Robinson, CVA Robinson 1, USA 4 (1934), 53 (facs.), pl. 38,7. — Haspels (1936), 111 and 235[[/67]]. — Kurtz (1975), 98, fig. 28,a (shoulder palmettes). — *Turnbull (1981), 24/5.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5314


(.)υχ > γυχ{1} > éGő VáGY > égő vágy (burning desire)

            χχ(.)χγχ > GYóGYíT íGY éG aDJa > gyógyít így ég adja (heals this way, let heaven help him/her)

            (.)(τ)ιχσ > FűTI aGY/áGY iS > fűti agy/ágy is (the brain/bed also heats him/her)


           Égő vágy gyógyít így, ég adja! Fűti agy/ágy is. (Burning desire heals this way, let heaven help him/her! The brain/bed also heats him/her.)

AVI 5113a; BAD 202064

Monopoli, Private. BF skyphos. From Gnathia (perhaps). Circle of Theseus Painter (Reho-Bumbalova). Late sixth (Reho-Bumbalova).

AVI5113aDecoration: A: Heracles leading a monster (Lamia or Cerberus, author) to right on a chain. B: hunt (so the author): at left, a large animal (boar?) to right; behind it, a man lifts a double axe; at right, two men wearing piloi threaten the animal with spears (the author says they have punctured its eye, but the eye seems missing in a gap). Under each handle, a heron.

Inscriptions: A: between the monster and Heracles, probably diagonally downward, i.e., retr.: ο(ι)(κ)^ο(ν)(>){1}.

Commentary: The writing is very coarse. The writer signs as of the Italian embassy at Sofia, whence I asssume that Monopoli is in Bulgaria.

Footnotes: {1} hard to read, although the ph. is excellent. I think nonsense, while the author on p. 56 reads: οι(χ)οκα, from οιχομαι: `sono finito,' or `sono rovinato'. The form she says is οιχωκα or ωιχωκα. But the identification of some of the letters is quite unclear to me.

Bibliography: *Reho-Bumbalova (1983), 53-60, figs. 1-4 (1 shows inscription).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5322


           ο(ι)(κ)^ο(ν)(>) > ο(ι)(κ)^ο(ν){Λ DőL} > OLYiK ÖNáLLó DúLó > Olyik önálló dúló. (Some of them is independent bailiff.)

AVI 5121

Morgantina, Museo Archeologico di Aidone inv. 58.2382. Fragmentary RF volute krater. From Serra Orlando. Euthymides. Last quarter sixth 510-500 515 (Neils).

Decoration: Neck: A: Heracles and the Amazons: 11 figures. At the extreme left, the toes of a fallen Amazon, who is lost. A Greek to left, partially preserved, is probably Telamon (cf. Euphronios' Arezzo krater (1465)). The opponent of Heracles (who has fallen to the ground) should be Andromache{1}. B: symposium: six symposiasts reclining.

Inscriptions: Neck: A: a crouching Amazon archer shooting; starting at her chest: Ανδρο^μαχε{2}. To right of Heracles' chest, along his outstretched left arm: hερακ^<λ>ες{3}. At H.'s right, an Amazon with a large shield (device: octopus): there are some letters at her left that show in the ph., fig. 9, but are not drawn in fig. 3,a. Further to the right is an Amazon archer and a group of a Greek and an Amazon fighting. Between the archer and the Greek, facing the archer: Σοσια<ς>{4}. Above the duel's fallen Amazon: Χαρα{5}. B: the leftmost symposiast (head missing) holds up a cup: between his lost head and a hung-up basket on his right, facing the basket: χα[ι]ρε. The second symposiast, bearded, wears a turban and hold a cup: to left of his head: χαιρ^ε{6}. The third symposiast, bearded and facing left, plays the lyre: behind his head and to left of a hung-up basket: (Σ)οσια[ς]{7}. The fourth man, bearded, turns to a young flautist and holds out a cup; a flute case is hung up: at its right: [...]ιος. The sixth symposiast, also bearded, is vomiting: he has no inscription.

Commentary: Earlier listed as Serra Orlando. Neils mentions that Add.[2] declares the vase to be in Syracuse, where it was for a while being restored. Listed by Wehgartner as Syracuse. The `Museo Archeologico di Morgantina' is in Aidone, Sicily. The krater was an heirloom: see Neils, p. 444. The original restoration damaged the surface; hence Neils uses both pre- and post-restoration photos; she has a section on the inscriptions, 437ff: χαιρε is a toast made by two symposiasts holding cups; she also discusses the two forms of the name Sosias. Extremely sloppy writing; thick strokes and blobs. Neils 438 n. 29 notes that in AttScr I listed one χαιρε too many on B.

Footnotes: {1} but that name is given to an archer on the left; Neils does not explain. {2} the leg of a Greek intervenes. {3} the body of the fallen Amazon intervenes and seems to have led the painter to forget the lambda, if the dr., fig. 3,a, is correct. Neils prints: hερακ[λ]ες. {4} Neils thinks this refers to the Greek to the right of the inscription; she thinks it is nominative as after the alpha a piece of the pot is missing. {5} so Neils and the dr.; this is considered by her the name of the Amazon, I think. I have χασα, nonsense, with reversed three-stroke sigma. χαρα should also be nonsense. The third letter is unclear. {6} the turban intervenes. The dr., fig. 3,b, omits the epsilon which is clear in the photo, fig. 11. {7} Neils prints Σοσια. The photo, fig. 12, shows a blot by a break, which may be the remains of a sigma: Σοσιας̣(?). The dr. shows Σοσια, which could be voc.; or final sigma is omitted.

Bibliography: *Stillwell (1959), 172, pls. 43-44, figs. 24-27. — *ARV[2] (1963), 28/10, 1620. — Keuls (1985), 46, fig. 26. — Miro (1985), figs. 25-26. — Raffiotta (1985), 73 (detail of A). — Add.[2] (1989), 156. — AttScr (1990), no. 376. — Schleiffenbaum (1991), 392/V 345. — *Neils (1995), 427-44, figs. 1-18 (figs. 1-2, 3,a-b (drs.), 4, 7-13, are of the krater). — Wehgartner (1997), 209 and n. 52.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5330


Scientists in the paper Making Sense of Nonsense Inscriptions Associated with Amazons and Scythians on Athenian Vases, Version 2.0 , July 2012, namely Adrienne Mayor, John Colarusso and David Saunders are saying that ΣΟΣΙΑ and ΧΑΣΑ are personal names of Circassian, Kabardian, Greek, Iranian, Sosruquo, Ossetian, Khotanese or Saka, Indo-Aryan, Sanscrit, … origin. I take this as the scientists' joke and I have looked into all the “names” on the Morgantina krater:


           Ανδρο^μαχε > A Nő DuRRÓ iMÁDJa-É > a nő durró imádja-é (the woman is thunderous/roaring, does adore her)

           hερακ^<λ>ες* > HÉRA Ki ÉSZ (!) > Héra ki ész (Hera who is the brain)

           Σοσια<ς>** > SZóS Í(j)A > szós í(j)a (talkative is the bow-woman/Jassic (Jazygian))

           Χαρα/χασα*** > üGY ÁRA/GYÁSSZA’ > ügy ára/gyásszal (price for the case/it is mourning)


           A nő durró, imággya-é Héra ki ész? Szós í(j)a ügy ára/gyásszal. (The woman is thunderous/roaring, does Hera who is the brain adore her? Here talkative bow is the price (to pay) for the case / Here talkative bow is with mourning (her bow is deadly).)


           * the body of the fallen Amazon intervenes and seems to have led the painter to forget the lambda”. He did not forget, there is no λ in the words uttered by Heracles!

               ** There is no missing ς.

           ***I have χασα, nonsense, with reversed three-stroke sigma. χαρα should also be nonsense. The third letter is unclear.

Here the price of the case is the bow, which executes Hera’s wish by the hands of the Amazons, which makes the case known as that of the fight for supremacy between Hera and Zeus (“a rebellion of the pre-Hellenic population, described in the Iliad as a conspiracy against Zeusbut as a matter of fact, a revolt against “the patriarchal Hellenes who invaded Greece and Asia Minor early in the second millennium BC as it described by Robert Graves in The Greek Myths).

Side B, the symposiasts conversations:


           χα[ι]ρε/χαιρ^ε > iGYA/iGYÁ' ÍR E > Igya/igyál, ír e (orvosság ez) (Drink it, it is medicine)

           (Σ)οσια[ς] > (SZ)ÓS ÍjÁSZ/JÁSZ > (sz)ós íjász/jász ((talkative) old archer/Jassic (Jazygian))

           [...]ιος > […]JÓS > […]jós ([…] seer)


           Igya/igyál, ír e (orvosság ez)! (Sz)ós íjász/jász. […]jós. (Drink it, it is medicine! (Talkative) old archer/Jassic (Jazygian). […] seer)

AVI 5147; BAD 320390

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1401. BF amphora. From Vulci. Painter of Berlin 1686. Third quarter sixth 550-530

AVI5147Decoration: A: Dionysus with two youths, a woman, and a bearded amn. B: a warrior setting out, with two men, a woman and a youth.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: along the lower right margin and facing it: αιοτονοχει, retr.

Commentary: For the inscriptions of this painter see Beazley's articles.

Bibliography: *Photos. — Jahn (1854), no. 471 (bibl. on inscription). — CIG 4 (1855–77), no. 7897. — Cf. Beazley (1929a), 361 f. — Beazley (1931–2), 10/7. — *A. Greifenhagen, CVA Bonn 1, Germany 1 (1938), pl. 32,2 and 33,2 (also facs.). — ABV (1956), 297/11. — Add.[2] (1989), 78.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5364


αιοτονοχει > A JÓTÓ' NŐ üGYELJ > A jótól nő ügyelj! (Woman, abstain from the good!)


AVI 5155; BAD 310039

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1428. BF Tyrrhenian neck amphora. From Vulci. Fallow Deer Painter (Bothmer). Third quarter sixth 550-530 Late period (Kluiver).

AVI5155Decoration: A: Heracles and Nessus, with Athena and other figures. B: horsemen.

Inscriptions: A: six nonsense inscriptions between the figures and above their heads: νσνο(κ). κ(ο)κσνσν. ρνλο[.]. υουοπ.(?). ν(σ)νε(ι). (.)ογογσγ. B: not inscribed.

Commentary: The readings, taken from photos. in CVA, are frequently uncertain, since this painter deviates into imitation letters; see AttScr.

Bibliography: ABV (1956), 98/40. — *E. Kunze-Götte, CVA Munich 7, Germany 32 (1970), pls. 322,3-4, 323, Beil. A 8. — Para. (1971), 37. — Add.[2] (1989), 26. — AttScr (1990), no. 195. — Carpenter (1991), fig. 226. — Kluiver (1996), 26/241 (inscrr. not mentioned).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5372


νσνο(κ) > νσνοϝ > NőS NŐVe' > nős nővel (with married woman)

κ(ο)κσνσν > κϝκσνσν > Ki VaKSiN oSoN > ki vaksin oson (who purblind sneaks away)

ρνλο[.] > Rá NYíLO[N] > rá nyílon (on him in the arrow)

υουοπ.(?) > νουοπ(?) > NŐ-óVÓBA' > nő-óvóban (by protecting woman)

ν(σ)νε(ι) > NYeS NEJ > nyes nej (slices, wife)

(.)ογογσγ > óVÓ GŐGöSSéG > óvó gőgösség (protecting arrogance)

Nős nővel ki vaksin oson, rá nyílon nő-óvóban nyes nej óvó gőgösség. (Who purblind sneaks away with married woman, on him the wife protecting arrogance in the arrow slices by protecting the woman.)

Heracles ... came with Deianeira to the river Evenus, then in full flood, where the Centaur Nessus, claiming that he was the gods’ authorized ferryman and chosen because of his righteousness, offered, for a small fee, to carry Deianeira dry-shod across the water while Heracles swam. He agreed, paid Nessus the fare, threw his club and bow over the river, and plunged in. Nessus, however, instead of keeping to his bargain, galloped off in the opposite direction with Deianeira in his arms; then threw her to the ground and tried to violate her. She screamed for help, and Heracles, quickly recovering his bow, took careful aim and pierced Nessus through the breast from half a mile away.” (R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 142.i.)

AVI 5157; BAD 310091

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1430. BF Tyrrhenian ovoid neck amphora. From Vulci. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth 560-550 (CVA; too early).

AVI5157Decoration: A: duel; at left and right, women and bearded men watching (three figures on each side){2}. B: komos: seven men dancing; on the ground, a column krater.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: to right of the body of the second person from the left: υουεγυι{3}. Between the fighters, under the shields: υογ̣[...]γσι. B: to right of the left-most figure's head: 4 letters? To right of the second figure's legs: υουο(σ). To right of the fourth figure's legs: (.)ο<ν<ν{3}. Under the foot, Dip.: Χ.

Commentary: Dot-band. Large but sloppy letters. The readings are uncertain. K.-G. calls the figures on B satyrs; Beazley, men in the komos; they have no tails. Hackl thought there were traces of a Dip. under the foot, but K.-G. denies that the traces of paint are of that; yet Johnston accepts it. - Sguaitamatti (1982), 34/13 (Küsnacht, C.W. Hirschmann G 40, q.v.) is by the same painter.

Footnotes: {1} Beazley speaks only of women. {2} could be read retr.: γογευγι. {3} perhaps two sigmas?

Bibliography: Thiersch (1899), 50/42, 121, fig. 221, 115, figs. 9 and 27. — Hackl (1909), 18/5. — ABV (1956), 101/92. — *E. Kunze-Götte, CVA Munich 7, Germany 32 (1970), pls. 321,1-2 and 322,1-2, Beilage A 7 (bibl.). — Johnston (1979), 120/8D 5. — Add.[2] (1989), 27. — *Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), figs. 47.4a-b (A, small, B).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5374


A:        υουεγυι > VŐVE' aGG VÍ > Vővel agg ví. (Elder fights with son-in-law.)

           υογ̣[...]γσι > VŐ G[őGJe BeTe]GeSÜ' > Vő g[őgje bete]gesül. (The arrogance of the son-in-law is sickening.)


B:        υουο(σ) > öVŐ iVÓS > övő ivós (the eating drunkard,)

           (.)ο<ν<ν > (.)οσνσν{3} > Ki ÖSZi iNNi oSoN > ki öszi inni oson (who eats it, sneaks away to drink)


Övő ivós, ki öszi inni oson. (The eating drunkard, who eats it, sneaks away to drink.)


AVI 5158; BAD 310098

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1431. BF Tyrrhenian neck amphora. From Vulci. Unattributed{1}. Third quarter sixth 550-530 Early period (Kluiver).

Decoration: A,B, each: love making (obscene, with women).



Inscriptions: A: seven nonsense inscriptions, mainly vertically down between the figures: γος. νοετυο. τοεσοχι. (.)αοσο. (τ)(ρ)οε. ϝιοιδοε. νθεσοει{2}. B: five similar inscriptions, vertically down, except the last: ϝ(.)οει. τυεσοει. τοεσοσ. τ·(ο)οβοτοι. τυειονοσ, retr.

Commentary: = 6451. Sigma always reversed.

Footnotes: {1} but Kunze-Götte in CVA rightly notes the similarity of the inscriptions to Munich 1432, by the Guglielmi Painter. {2} the last letter perhaps a sigma.

Bibliography: ABV (1956), 102/99. — *E. Kunze-Götte, CVA Munich 7, Germany 32 (1970), pls. 315,3, 316,1, 317,1-4, Beil. A 4. — Add.[2] (1989), 27. — AttScr (1990), no. 187. — Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), fig. 37.2 (A) and 47.5a-b (A, small, and B). — Kluiver (1996), 21/201 (inscrr. not mentioned).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5375


A:       γος > aGGOS > aggos (worried)

νοετυο > NŐ ETTŰ' Ó > nő ettűl ó (woman warns from this)

τοεσοχι > uTÓ ÉSZ ŐGYÜ' > utó ész őgyül (afterwards mind joins)

(.)αοσο > HA Ő SZÓ' > ha ő szól (when she calls)

(τ)(ρ)οε > TőRŐ' E > tőről e (from the roots this)

ϝιοιδοε > VáJÓJa DŐ' E' > vájója dől el (his chisel tilts away)

νθεσοει > νθεσοεσ{2} > iNTSE SZÓ ES > intse szó es (let word also warn him)


           Aggos nő ettűl ó, utó ész őgyül ha ő szól, tőről e vájója dől el, intse szó es. (Worried woman warns from this, afterwards mind joins when she calls, from the roots than this his chisel tilts away, let word also warn him.)

B:       ϝ(.)οει > ϝ(.)ϙει > VAK ÉJ > vak éj (blind night)

τυεσοει > τυεσϙει > TéVES KÉJ > téves kéj (erroneous pleasure)

τοεσοσ > eTTŐ' ÉSZ OSZí- > ettő' ész oszí- (the mind is inciting from it)

           τ·(ο)οβοτοι > τ{ToSZ}ϙοβοτϙσ > -Tó TuSZKO' BOTKoS > -tó, tuszkol botkos (it thrusts, knotted)

τυειονοσ > TöVE JÓ NŐ SZó' > töve jó nő szól (its shaft is good, the woman says)


           Vak éj, téves kéj, ettől ész oszí-tó. Tuszkol, botkos töve jó, - nő szól. (Blind night, erroneous pleasure, the mind is inciting from it. It thrusts, its knotted shaft is good, - the woman says.)

AVI 5159; BAD 310097

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1432. BF Tyrrhenian neck amphora. From Vulci. Guglielmi Painter (Bothmer). Third quarter sixth 550-530 Early period (Kluiver).

Decoration: A: love making (obscene, men and women). B: men dancing (obscene).



Inscriptions: Nonsense. A: over a pithos: νοετυν{1}. νοενοτ(ν)οτυισϝ{2}. τυο(ρ)ειτχεσ{3}. κυ[.](ο)σ, retr.{4}. Over a pithos: χουτου. τυθε and τυο. τυοσσοε. B: ενθτυσο, retr. Another inscription, rubbed off. Another: ditto. Another illegible. υοετυοεσ. τυοεσι.

Commentary: The readings are from photos. in CVA. V.&K. attribute to the Komos Painter.

Footnotes: {1} the first letter is not clear in the photo. {2} the third nu is reversed. {3} the rho is upside down. {4} the omicron consists of two loops.

Bibliography: Bothmer (1944), H 3. — ABV (1956), 102/98 (bibl.). — *E. Kunze-Götte, CVA Munich 7, Germany 32 (1970), pls. 315,4, 316,2, 318,1-3, Beil. A 5, p. 19 (facs.). — Para. (1971), 36, 38. — Hupperts (1988), 255ff., fig. 7 (B). — Add.[2] (1989), 27 (bibl.). — AttScr (1990), no. 185. — Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), figs. 37.1 (A) and 47.6 (small part of B). — Kluiver (1996), 21/200 (inscrr. not mentioned).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5376


A:       νοετυν > NŐ E TéVöN > nő e tévön (woman on this mistake)

           νοενοτ(ν)οτυισϝ > νοενοτσοτυισϝ{2} > NŐ E NŐT SZÓTeVőI SZaVa > nő e nőt szótevői szava (grows, this woman the words of the wordy)

           τυο(ρ)ειτχεσ > τυοβειτχεσ{3} > TéVÖ'Be EJTi üGYES > tévölybe ejti ügyes (let this woman make mistake, clever)

κυ[.](ο)σ > κυ[.]φσ{4} > KURaFi SZó > kurafi szó (the word of the whore-son)

χουτου > íGY Ő VéTŐVe' > így ő vétővel (so she with the guilty)

τυθε τυο > TéV-CSE' TeVŐ > tév-csel tevő ( she goes astray)

τυοσσοε > TeVŐ SuSO' E' > tevő susol el (the maker hides away)


           Nő e tévön nő. E nőt szótevői szava tévölybe ejti, ügyes kurafi szó, így ő vétővel tév-csel tevő, tevő susol el. (Woman grows on this mistake. The words of the wordy let this woman make mistake, the word of the whore-son is clever, so she goes astray with the guilty, the maker hides away.)


B:        ενθτυσο > ENNYi CSuTa VáSO' > ennyi csuta vásol (so many tailless worn of)

           υοετυοεσ > eVŐ E TeVŐ ES > evő e tevő es (this doer is eater and)

           τυοεσι > TéVÖ' ESZI > tévöly eszi (the error eats him)


           Ennyi csuta vásol, evő e tevő es tévöly eszi. (So many tailless worn of, this doer is eater and the error eats him.)

AVI 5160; BAD 310036

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1433. BF neck amphora. From Vulci. Guglielmi Painter (Bothmer). Third quarter sixth 550-530 Late period (Kluiver).

Decoration: A: Heracles and Nessus (8 figures). B: Centauromachy (7 figures).

AVI5160Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: under a centaur's belly: μομον. Between Heracles' legs: νο(α)σνσ. Under his sword: νοα(ρ)νσ. In front of his face: τοστοζ>. Under a centaur's belly: νονογ. Between the centaur's and a woman's heads: (τ)ονο. By the woman's lower legs: ντον. B: the photos. in CVA show three short inscriptions rather washed out.

Commentary: Readings from photos. in CVA. In AttScr I note differences from inscriptions on Munich 1432 and raise the question of a different model for them.

Bibliography: Bothmer (1944), H 5. — ABV (1956), 98/37. — *E. Kunze-Götte, CVA Munich 7, Germany 32 (1970), pls. 319-20, Beil. A 6, p. 21 (A, facs.). — Para. (1971), 36, 37. — Carpenter (1984), 49, fig. 2 (detail of A, good for inscriptions). — Add.[2] (1989), 26. — AttScr (1990), no. 186. — Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), fig. 24.7 (A, detail). — Kluiver (1996), 21/216 (inscrr. not mentioned).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5377


μομον > μοηον > MOHÓN > mohón (eagerly)

νο(α)σνσ > NŐ A SuNYáS > nő a sunyás (grows the slink)

νοα(ρ)νσ > NŐ ARaNYoS > nő ara unos (the sweethearts grow out of number )

τοστοζ> > τοστοζ{Λ DőL} > TOSZíTÓ íZ LóDuL > toszító íz lódul (tossing joint swings)

νονογ > NŐ üNÖG > nő ünög (woman's shirt )

(τ)ονο > úTON Ő > úton ő (on the road, he)

ντον > iNTŐN > intőn (on warning)

Mohón nő a sunyás, nő ara unos, toszító íz lódul: nő ünög úton, ő intőn! (Eagerly grows the slink, the sweethearts grow out of number, tossing joint swings: woman's shirt is on the road, he is on warning!)

HAVING consecrated marble altars and a sacred grove to his father Zeus on the Cenaean headland, Heracles prepared a thanksgiving sacrifice for the capture of Oechalia. He had already sent Lichas back to ask Deianeira for a fine shirt and a cloak of the sort which he regularly wore on such occasions.

b. Deianeira, comfortably installed at Trachis, was by now resigned to Heracles’s habit of taking mistresses; and, when she recognized Iole as the latest of these, felt pity rather than resentment for the fatal beauty which had been Oechalia’s ruin. Yet was it not intolerable that Heracles expected Iole and herself to live together under the same roof? Since she was no longer young, Deianeira decided to use Nessus’s supposed love-charm as a means of holding her husband’s affection. Having woven him a new sacrificial shirt against his safe return, she covertly unsealed the jar, soaked a piece of wool in the mixture, and rubbed the shirt with it. When Lichas arrived she locked the shirt in a chest which she gave to him, saying: ‘On no account expose the shirt to light or heat until Heracles is about to wear it at the sacrifice.’ Lichas had already driven off at full speed in his chariot when Deianeira, glancing at the piece of wool which she had thrown down into the sunlit courtyard, was horrified to see it burning away like saw-dust, while red foam bubbled up from the flag-stones. Realizing that Nessus had deceived her, she sent a courier post—haste to recall Lichas and, cursing her folly, swore that if Heracles died she would not survive him.” (R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 145. a, b.)


The drawing and the added “nonsense” inscriptions are perfectly in concert with Graves description of the event.


AVI 5179; BAD 302405

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1549. BF neck amphora. Acheloos Painter (Beazley). Last quarter sixth 510-500 (Kunze-Götte).

AVI5179Decoration: A, B, each: Sisyphus in the Underworld, between Persephone and Hades.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: to right of the seated Persephone's head: (ν)δε. Above Sisyphus' rock, curving around it: χ[.]ι̣(ν)(γ). Under the foot, Grr.: see Johnston (1979).

Commentary: The writing is typical of the Acheloos Painter and some other members of the Leagros Group. B is not inscribed. Nu is reversed. Perhaps a third inscription?

Bibliography: Hackl (1909), LXII and LXIII, 506. — ABV (1956), 383/12. — Para. (1971), 168. — *E. Kunze-Götte, CVA Munich 9, Germany 48 (1982), pls. 12,3, 15,1-2, and 17,5, Beilage C 3; p. 24, facs. of Grr. (much bibl.). — Add.[2] (1989), 101.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5396


           (ν)δε χ[.]ι̣(ν)(γ) > σδε χ[.]ι̣σ(γ){Commentary} > SZűDDE'/eSZeDDE' eGYe[D]ISéG > Szűddel/eszeddel egyediség. (Individuality is with your heart/mind.)

AVI 5184; BAD 302140

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1568. BF neck amphora. From Vulci. Leagros Group; Group of Würzburg 210 (Beazley){1}. Last quarter sixth 520-500 (Kunze-Götte).

Decoration: A: Heracles and Triton. B: Dionysus and Ariadne between two satyrs.



Inscriptions: A: nonsense: to Triton's left: (ν)δεδα̣μγεσ{2}. Above the wrestlers: (ν)αεδχ^δεαι{3}. To right of Triton: σδ(.)γ(α){4}.

Commentary: Leagran nonsense. The letters resemble those by the Acheloos Painter but are daintier. The use of `alpha'-like deltas is also different.

Footnotes: {1} K.-G. attributes the vase to the Chiusi Painter. {2} nu is reversed; or sideways sigma? {3} the nu is reversed; alpha and delta are very hard to distinguish; the last letter is perhaps a disjointed upsilon. {4} the sigma is written kion.; the final alpha is a reversed high-kicker.

Bibliography: ABV (1956), 371/145. — Para. (1971), 162. — *E. Kunze-Götte, CVA Munich 9, Germany 48 (1982), pls. 18,2, 20,1-2 and 23,1, Beilage D 2. — Add.[2] (1989), 99.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5401


           (ν)δεδα̣μγεσ > σδεδα̣μγεσ{2} > éSZ üDE De AMíG É'SZ > ész üde de amíg élsz (the mind is fresh, but while you alive )

           (ν)αεδχ^δεαι > σδεδχ^δεαυ{3} > eSZeD ÉD áGYa iDE A'Va > eszed éd ágya ide alva (the bed for your mind is delight, to where in sleep)

σδ(.)γ(α) > SZűD SuGA' > szűd sugall (your heart suggests)


           Ész üde, de amíg élsz eszed éd ágya, ide alva szűd sugall. (The mind is fresh, but while you alive the bed for your mind is delight, to where in sleep your heart suggests.)

AVI 5191; BAD 302022

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1700. BF hydria. From Vulci. Leagros Group (Antiope Group or very close). Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: Shoulder: walls of Troy, with warriors, and women on the battlements. Body: Achilles and Troilos.



Inscriptions: Nonsense inscriptions: shoulder: below the top margin: (ν)ιδ(.)(ν)ο(.)(ρ)(λ)(ν). Body: (ν)(.)επσ. νχι. κνδ. πχκδει, retr. νχεσ. σκδεο.

Commentary: Shapiro: perhaps by same hand as Boston 63.473, which E. Vermeule attributes to the Antiope Group. The individual letters are clearer in the body picture than on the shoulder. Lambda resembles the `Argive' (it is probably not a lambda).

Bibliography: *Photos. — ABV (1956), 362/27, 695. — Dugas (1960), pl. 17,1-2. — Para. (1971), 161. — Add.[2] (1989), 96. — Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), fig. 34.4 (shoulder and top of body picture). — Childs (1991), 34-35 (interpretations), fig. 2,a-c (whole, shoulder; body). — Shapiro (1991), 643, fig. 17 (same picture as in `Schale').

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5408


Margin:     (ν)ιδ(.)(ν)ο(.)(ρ)(λ)(ν) > aNNYi IDőS NŐ ÖRüLNe > Annyi idős nő örülne ... (So many old woman would be happy ...)

Body:       (ν)(.)επσ νχι κνδ πχκδει νχεσ σκδεο > (ν)(.)επσ νχι κνρ πχκρει νχεσ σκρξο > NéPE BőSZeN GYŰ' KöNNYRe BáGYiK eREJe iNGY ÉS SoK éRKeZŐ > Népe bőszen gyűl könnyre, bágyik ereje ingy és sok érkező. (His folk rallies for tearful weeping, her (the folk's) strength is fainting in vain and plenty of arrivals.)

... the city was fated not to fall if Troilus could attain the age of twenty. ... according to Dares the Phrygian, Troilus succeeds Hector as commander of the Trojan forces (Dares), until one of his chariot horses is wounded and Achilles, driving up, runs him with a spear. Achilles tries to drag away the body, but is wounded by Memnon, who he kills; the Trojans take refuge within the city and Priam gives Troilus and Memnon a magnificent funeral (Dares).R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 162. g, 2.)


AVI 5196; BAD 302008

AVI5196Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1719. BF hydria. From Vulci. Leagros Group. Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: Shoulder: the dragging of Hector's body. Body: Heracles and Geryon.

Inscriptions: Body: nonsense: in the lower right-hand corner: (ε)οιλο v{1}.

Commentary: There are probably other inscriptions.

Footnotes: {1} the first letter is a black rectangle; epsilon is quite uncertain.

Bibliography: *Photo. — Dev.[1] (1951), 82-83 and 115. — ABV (1956), 361/13. — Para. (1971), 161. — Dev.[2] (1986), pl. 84,3. — Add.[2] (1989), 95. — *Shapiro (1994), 31-32, fig. 17.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5413


(ε)οιλο > {ToS/Z}οιλο{1} > iTT SZÓ ILLŐ > Itt szó illő! (Here word is becoming!)



AVI 5200; BAD 19453

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1790. BF oinochoe. From Vulci. Leagros Group; recalls the Chiusi Painter (Mommsen){1}. Last quarter sixth 520-510 (Pfisterer-Haas).

AVI5200Decoration: Two heroes (Ajax and Achilles) playing a board game.

Inscriptions: Curving around the shoulders and head of the left hero (who is moving a piece): nonsense: νεσχσ.

Commentary: Large clear letters. Typical of the Acheloos and Chiusi Painters.

Footnotes: {1} not in Beazley.

Bibliography: Schefold (1937), 70 (but there is no Athena). — Woodford (1982), 182/A 10. — Clark (1992), no. 1109. — *B. Pfisterer-Haas, CVA Munich 12, Germany 65 (1993), pl. 37,1-4, Beilage 13,3; p. 46, sketch of inscription (bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5417


νεσχσ > NESZe eGYeS > Nesze egyes! (Take that ace!)



 AVI 5201; BAD 302877

AVI5201Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1892. BF lekythos. From Sicily. Acheloos Painter. Late sixth

Decoration: Athletes.

Inscriptions: Between the central and right-hand figures: nonsense: ιχι(ν)χεδκς.

Commentary: Haspels 48 says the picture is a repetition of that on the Acheloos Painter's neck amphora, Würzburg 204. Her ph. shows a part of the picture only, I think (not the leftmost and rightmost portions): at left, trainer, jumper and flautist, all to right. The inscription is in small and thin letters between the jumper and the flautist, downward in a wavy line: ι(χ)ι^(σ)χεδκς. The first chi has one bar stopping at the crossing point, making the letter look more like an archaic upsilon, tilted. The nu is a sideways sigma. The jumper's outstretched arms intervene.

Bibliography: *Haspels (1936), 48, pl. 15, fig. 3. — ABV (1956), 385/32.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5418


ιχι(ν)χεδκς > ÍGY INGYÉ' DáKoS > Így ingyé(rt) dákos! (This way the javelin is for free!)


AVI 5202

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 1894. BF lekythos. Athena Painter. First quarter fifth

Decoration: Poseidon on a winged horse.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: between Poseidon's face and the horse's neck: εδ(ο)(π), retr. Above the horse's head: ο and perhaps more. To right of the horse: εδοσ, retr.

Bibliography: *Photo. — Haspels (1936), [[255/]] Athena Painter no. 18.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5419


εδ(ο)(π) ο εδοσ > ερϙ(π) ο εροσ > EReKBe' Ő ERŐS > Erekben ő erős! (It is strong in curbs!)

AVI 5212; BAD 31931

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2128. Plain lip cup. From Vulci. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Lip: A-B: plain.



Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: A: εποιε(σ)υτενσυ{1}. B: ε[..5..]ποισυε{2}.

Commentary: Squat and thick letters; the inscription on A is short and well centered, that on B is not illustrated in CVA. Fellmann compares the lettering of Munich 2125, CAVI 5209 (one of the Exekias cups). The inscriptions play with εποιεσεν (cf. the examples in AttScr (1990), 54, nos. 282-84) and with the συ of some drinking inscriptions. A truncated εποιεσεν is also found on Munich 2171 (? CAVI 5235). Perhaps written by an illiterate.

Footnotes: {1} the sixth letter is either a flat sigma (so Fellmann) or squiggly iota, presumably the former. {2} the number of missing letters is approximate.

Bibliography: CIG 4 (1855–77), no. 8332. — Hackl (1908), 92. — *B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 10, Germany 56 (1988), pl. 35,1-5, Beilage 10,4.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5430


A:       εποιε(σ)υτενσυ > E BŐJE SÜ'TTE' NeSZe'Ve > E bője sülttel neszelve! (The abundance of this is smelled with roast!)


B:        ε[..5..]ποισυε > E […] éPP OLY Sü'VE > E […] épp oly sülve. (This […] exactly the same roasted.)

AVI 5213; BAD 1006093

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2129. Plain lip cup. From Vulci. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Lip: A: plain. B: missing.



Inscriptions: Handle zone: A: nonsense: νεν(γ)τνεκϝκεϝνοσ.

Commentary: The cup is fragmentary since World War II. A long inscription in small letters, but with vacats before and aft.

Bibliography: *B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 10, Germany 56 (1988), pl. 36,1-4, Beilage 10,6 (no bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5431


           νεν(γ)τνεκϝκεϝνοσ > νεν(γ)τνεκϝκεϝζοσ > NE iNGaTNa-E Ki VaK EVeZŐS > Ne ingatna-e ki vak evezős? (Who is a blind rower, would he rock the boat, wouldn't he?)

AVI 5221; BAD 31944

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2148. BF lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: A, lip: Odysseus on the ram: a Greek under the ram's belly. B: similar.



Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: lip: above the ram, following its back: ϙεσδεσπεσεσχεσ. Handle zone: εϙεϙνσεσ(τ){1}, followed by a vacat of 1 1/2 spaces and: εσεσγεσ. B: lip: above the scene: ϙεα(σ)δεσεσχεσπε (complete){2}. Handle zone: χε̣[..]ασπεσεσεσ̣[....]ϙεσευχ{3}. Under the foot, Gr.: a four-stroke asterisk, with two strokes lengthened toward the bottom (facs., CVA, p. 44).

Commentary: D]

Footnotes: {1} the last letter read as Ionic gamma by Fellmann, but it is probably a miswritten tau. {2} a nonsense inscription (as are all the others), since koppa before an e-sound is inappropriate. However, the first nine letters resemble a proper name. {3} if this inscription is similar to that on A, the larger missing part should include a vacat.

Bibliography: Hackl (1909), 85. — Beazley–Payne (1929), 258, under no. 14 (mention). — Fellmann (1972), 84 and123 FL 9. — Johnston (1979), 85/32A 8. — *B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 10, Germany 56 (1988), pl. 26,1-5, Beilage 7,3. — AttScr (1990), no. 1073. — Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), figs. 19.7a-b (A, B, details).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5439


A:        ϙεσδεσπεσεσχεσ > KESe DE SeBES E SZeGYES > Kese de sebes e szegyes. (This horse with strong brisket is pale but speedy.)

           εϙεϙνσεσ(τ) εσεσγεσ > EKE KeNéS ESeTe E SZESZeGÉS > Eke kenés esete e szeszegés. (This painful hissing is the case of plough/plow greasing.)


B:        ϙεα(σ)δεσεσχεσπε > ϙερ(σ)δεσεσχεσπε > KEReSD ESZES eGYESBE' > Keresd eszes egyesben! (Look for it clever alone.)

           χε̣[..]ασπεσεσεσ̣[....]ϙεσευχ > χε̣[..]δσπεσεσεσ̣[....]ϙεσευχ > GYE[ReKDe]DeS BESZe ESZESS[E' LEL]KES E'VeGY > Gye[rekde]des besze eszess[el lel]kes elvegy. (Childish talk animately mixes with the clever.)


The whole inscription is written in Esperente, a mock-language in which the only vowel allowed is 'e'. I don't know if any other language but Scythic/Hun/Hungarian is capable of assembling long meaningful sentences with only one vowel in them, such as this description of the piano: Keskeny lemezek melyeken kellemes esetleg kellemetlen zengzeteket petyegtethetsz.

AVI 5226; BAD 31996

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2153. BF lip cup. From Vulci. Unattributed{1}. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Lip: A: a bit to right: three draped youths. B: similar (only the left-hand figure and part of the second figure's head and shoulder are preserved).





Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: centered: απαπ(α)λπγπαh. B: νλ(ν)γ(α)εαλϝα̣πασ.

Commentary: Squat letters, hard to identify. Some readings are uncertain.

Footnotes: {1} Fellmann: the figures recall the `Läufermaler' (Brijder (1975), 160ff.), but are not by his hand.

Bibliography: Hackl (1908), 92. — *B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 10, Germany 56 (1988), pl. 30,1-4, Beilage 8,5. — Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), figs. 2.3 and 10.2.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5444


A:        απαπ(α)λπγπαh > A BÁ'BA' LiBeG PÁHó > A bálban libeg páhó (csűr). (In the ball the barn is shaking.)


B:        νλ(ν)γ(α)εαλϝα̣πασ > NáLa iNGA E ALVA BASZ > Nála inga e, alva basz. (It is pendulum at him, he fucks sleeping.)

AVI 5232; BAD 301102

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2166. BF lip cup. From Vulci. Unattributed{1}. Third quarter sixth

AVI5232Decoration: Lip: A, B, each: female head (bust) in outline.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: imitation inscriptions: A: γσοτστσο{2}. B: (.)τ̣σογοοογ̣{3}.

Commentary: These are not real letters but imitations. Fellmann gives parallels of head cups with nonsense inscriptions: Boston 64.700; M&M-List (1964), 31/58; Private (Dörig, Suisse Romande, no. 160); Marseille, Musée Borely (JHS 52 [1932] 175).

Footnotes: {1} imitation of Sakonides (Beazley). {2} my reading from a photo.; Fellmann reads: γτοττττο. {3} my reading from CVA's photo.; Fellmann reads: ιγτογοοογ. The photos in CVA are unclear, as the writing is small and sloppy; the tau's are especially obscure. Beazley and Payne say (for A): πσο and five shapeless letters.

Bibliography: *Photo (A). — Winter (1885), 190. — Beazley–Payne (1929), 268 (mention). — Beazley (1932), 174. — ABV (1956), 171. — *B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 10, Germany 56 (1988), pls. 22,4,7-8 and 23,3-4, Beilage 6,4.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5450


A:        γσοτστσο > éGi SZÓ TiSZTa SZÓ > Égi szó, tiszta szó. (Heavenly word, clear word.)


B:        (.)τ̣σογοοογ̣ > (.)τ̣σογοϙογ̣ > SZóT iSZOGÓ eKÖG > Szót iszogó ekög. (Drinker bleats words.)

AVI 5237; BAD 31974

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2185. Plain band cup. From Vulci. Unattributed{1}. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Handle zone: A and B: plain.



Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: A: υσγνιυσννιυχ. B: υσλ[.]σγιϝ[.]γ[.]υιυ:*.

Commentary: Large letters, not very neat.

Footnotes: {1} Fellmann: probably by the same painter as New York 41.162.72 (CVA, New York 2, pls 18, etc.; AttScr (1990), no. 285, Fig. 67): palmettes and inscriptions are similar, with a group υιλ and triple punctuation at end. Similar are also the palmettes on the lip cup Munich 2148.

Bibliography: Hackl (1908), 93. — *B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 11, Germany 57 (1989), pl. 54,1-4, Beilage 12,5.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5455


A:        υσγνιυσννιυχ > VeSSZőáGoN JUSSoN iNNI VáGY > Vesszőágon jusson inni vágy. (Let on vine-stock come desire to drink.)


B:        υσλ[.]σγιϝ[.]γ[.]υιυ > VeSSZő Le[Ve] SúGI Ve[NYi]Ge [íR]VIVő > Vessző le[ve] súgi ve[nyi]ge [ír]vivő. (The juice of the grape whispers that the vine-stock is medicine carrier.)

AVI 5245; BAD 31912

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2220. BF band cup. From Vulci. Unattributed; recalls Amasis Painter and Taleides Painter (Fellmann). Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Handle zone: A: two boxers facing; between them a Panathenaic amphora as the prize; at left and right, a draped male with his staff (`judge'); handle palmettes. B: similar (the upper part of the right boxer missing).



Inscriptions: Handle zone: mainly nonsense: A: between the left-hand palmette and the left `judge': χεο(.)ο(.). Between the left judge and the left boxer: χονιχ(.)(.), retr.(?){1}. Above the amphora: χαιρε. Betweeen the right boxer and the right `judge': χο(ν)ιχ(ν)(.){2}. Between the right `judge' and the right handle palmette: χνχο(ν)ιχ{3}. B: four similar nonsense inscriptions, partly fragmentary. Over the amphora: χϝι[...].



Commentary: The letters are small and degenerate into blotches. Fellmann notes that all inscriptions begin with chi, and twice on A with χονιχ; on B, χϝι[--] is no doubt for χαι[ρε]. On B, the nonsense inscriptions twice begin with χν, once with χονι and once they end in χονι. Fellmann's connection of the band cup with both the Amasis Painter and Taleides Painter is based on the Getty lekythos Malibu 76.AE.48 by the latter, signed on the foot by Amasis. This is doubtful, as the inscription is I think suspect. Neils connects the subjects with the Panathenaea.

Footnotes: {1} if retr., the inscription faces the boxer and nu is of the regular shape.; if not retr., the nu looks more like a sideways sigma; this is true of all the nu's. {2} if retr., the inscription would face the right `judge', and the nu's would be OK. {3} uncertain reading.

Bibliography: Hackl (1908), 93. — *B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 11, Germany 57 (1989), pls. 30,6 and 31,1-4, Beilage 7,4. — Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), fig. 18.3 (A, large) and 25.4a-b (A, B, small). — *Neils (1992), 50-51, fig. 20 (A).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5463

χεο(.)ο(.) > üGYÉ' O(RR)O(N) > ügyé(rt) o(rr)o(n) (for the cause, on nose)

χονιχ(.)(.) > aGYON ÍGY (VeR) > agyon így (ver) (he beats on brain this way)

χαιρε > iGYA ÍR E > igya ír e (let he drink it, this is medicine)

χο(ν)ιχ(ν)(.) > aGYON ÜGY Ne(Ki) > agyon ügy ne(ki) (on brain, cause for him)

χνχο(ν)ιχ > áGYoN GYÖN ÍGY > ágyon gyön így (comes on bed this way)

Ügyé(rt) o(rr)o(n), agyon így (ver). Igya, ír e agyon, ügy ne(ki) ágyon gyön így. (For the cause, he beats on nose, on brain this way. Let he drink it, this is medicine on brain, cause for him comes on bed this way.)

Play with words: agy-ágy, agyon-ágyon, így-ügy as it noted by Fellmann.


AVI 5251; BAD 310552

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2243. BF band cup. From Vulci. Unattributed. Glaukytes, potter; Archikles, potter. Third quarter sixth 550-540 Ca. 540 (Shefton [[where?]]).



Decoration: Between sphinxes: A: Calydonian boar hunt. B: Theseus and the Minotaur.





Inscriptions: A: under the left sphinx: :*σφιχς:, retr. To left of her front leg: hεδε, retr. To left of her neck: χαιρε, retr.{1}. To left of a hunter's legs: Ιδασος. To right of the hunter's head: Ιασον. Under a dog: Γ[ο]ργο[ς]. To right of a hunter's face: Μοφσος. Beneath a dog: Χαρον. Around a hunter's head: Πολυδ[ε]υκες, curved at the end. Above the boar: [Κ]αστορ: vac.{2}. Above the white dog on top of the boar: :Λευκιος:. Between him and the boar: hυς, retr. Above the dead dog under the boar: Ποδες, retr.{2a}. Under another dog: Θερο, retr. Above Meleager's head, curved at end: :Μελεαγρος, retr. To right of the head of a young hunter: Πελευς, down at the end. To right of a bearded hunter's head: Μελανιον. Under a dog: Ποδαργος, retr. To right of the other young hunter's head: (...)σοι(λ)(.){3}. To right of his buttocks: κινοι{4}. Below the right sphinx: :*σφιχς. To right of her leg: hεδε. To right of her neck: χ(α)ιρε{1}.






Inscriptions: B: sphinx: to left of her neck: χαιρε{1}. Under her belly: :*σφιχς, retr. To left of the front leg: ευ(γ)σι, complete{5}. Above her rear end: ευσι, retr. To right of her hind legs, referring to the woman at right, but not facing her: Ενπεδο{4a}. To right of the woman's face: λυσυ{5}. To left of a bearded man's legs, not facing him: Σιμον. To right of his face: πνσυ. To right of a woman's legs: Γλυκε. To right of her face: νερν{5}. To right of a man's legs: Αντιας. To right of his face: νϝ(ρ)ν(φ){6}. To right of a woman's legs: Ανθυλ<λ>α{7}. To right of her face: ενονς{5}. To right of a man's legs: Λυκινος. To right of his face: νϝϙπσ{5}. To right of a woman's face: Ευαν[θ]ε. Woman with a lyre; below it: λυρα. To right of her body: Αθεναια{8}. Between Theseus' legs: Θεσευς, retr. Above his head: Ευτιλας:{9}. By the Minotaur's legs: Μινο and ταυρος, both retr.{10}. To left of Ariadne's face, toward her: μεσ(?){5}. To left of her lower body, facing her: Αριαδνε:, retr. To left of her head: καλε{11}. To left of the nurse's lower body: θροφος:, retr.(11a). To left of a man and along the nurse's back: μιπο{12}. To right of her head: Ευτις{13}. To right of the lower body: :Λυκιος, retr. To right of a woman's head: πιποι. To right of her lower body: Ευνικε, retr. To right of a man's head: επνσ{5}. To left of his legs: Σολον, retr.{14}. To right of a woman's body: Τιμο, retr. To right of a man's legs: Συ[ο]ν, retr.{15}. Below the sphinx' belly: [σφι]χς:, retr.{3}. To right of her forelegs: hε̣[δε]{3}. To right of her neck: χαιρε{3}. Between the handle roots of one handle, a vertical non-stoich. two-liner: Γλαυκυτες | μεποιεσεν. Under the other, similar: Αρχικλες | εποιεσεν.

Commentary: Done from FR and checked with CVA; note that the vase has been repeatedly recomposed since Reichhold's drawings. I give the inscriptions mainly from CVA, although FR probably has a few more letters. A has 21 inscriptions for 18 figures: χαιρε, twice, is supernumerary (I count hεδε with the sphinxes) and one inscription seems to be nonsense (see note 4). B has 36-37 inscriptions for 19 figures, many of them nonsense (B had more empty space). Many of the names are not true mythological names. The vase is a model of the use of inscriptions on many-figured band cups, which are often purely ornamental; see AttScr (1990), 48-49. For the peculiar use of punctuation, see AttScr (1990), 49 and 168. The vase may be by the same hand as London B 419 (Beazley).

Footnotes: {1} it is not clear whether this is connected with the sphinx. {2} the last two inscriptions are misplaced. {2} a so V. Schmidt; Ποδες, Threatte (1996), 81. In either case, the name of a dog. {3} so Reichhold's dr.; not in FR, text; not in CVA. {4} so Reichhold; CVA reads κινο; Κιμον̣, FR and CVA. Nonsense? {4} a for the name see Threatte (1996), 263, with parallels. {5} so FR, dr.; not in text; CVA reads ευγσπ. Nonsense? The gamma of ευ(γ)σι turned 90 degrees. - λυσυ, FR; ιυσυ. CVA; both retr. - νρρν, FR; νερν, CVA. - ενονσ is my reading from the photo in CVA; I had read ϝνονσ from Reichhold; CVA reads ενοπσ(?). - νϝϙπσ: my reading from Reichhold; the photo in CVA shows rather νϝφπσ; CVA reads νετνσ. {6} illegible in FR; CVA reads νερνσ, but the third letter is unclear in the photo. {7} for the name, see Hesp. 22 (1953) 215. {8} Athena has only the lyre as an attribute. {9} a name, or nonsense? Buschor thought it meant "wohlgezupft," since it is close to the ball of wool held by Ariadne. But it might also refer to Theseus: "well groomed"? μεσ follows immediately on the other side of the wool. (μεσ is FR's reading; CVA reads τεσ; the photo shows only a high horizontal line for the first letter.) For ΕΥΤΙΛΑΣ see also Threatte (1996), 534, with mention of the reading εὗτ' ἴλλας, referring to the ball of wool held by Ariadne (`you rolled it well') and a derivation from εὗ τίλλω, referring as an epithet to the Minotaur as well groomed, which is preferred by Threatte. {10} Μινοταυρος, Buschor and CVA. {11} i.e., Αριαδνε καλε(?). ((n.11a))cf. Threatte (1996), 751, on i, p. 460. {12} "wo sonst Minos steht," Buschor, but the man has a name, Lykios. Clearly nonsense. {13} apparently not a known name; CVA considers it nonsense. {14} so FR; CVA and its photo have Σο[λο]ν, retr. See also ARV[2] 1609. {15} I read συν: after Reichhold; Συ<ο>ν, FR, text. CVA: "der argbeschädigte" Συ[ο]ν, retr. Notes from Rebillard: Ιδα^σος, retr. A dog's tail intervenes. Υδασος, Brunn. Lissarrague (1985), 79 and fig. 4 (dr.) mentions Ιδαιος but rejects it. - Κινο[ν]. So R. See 508 n. 4: Κι(μ)ον, Arias. [Λυ]κινος, Lissarrague, but no letter was written before the kappa and the name occurs on B for a companion of Theseus. Reichhold's dr. has a horizontal inscription above `Kinon' and a sphinx, but today the ph. shows nothing and it may have been a modern inscription since removed. - Under the belly of the right sphinx, diagonally downward: :*Σφιχς. No trace of punctuation at end; perhaps never written. - At right: :*Σ̣φ̣[--] downward [[:* = triple dot]], or [--]υ̣ς̣:*, upward and retr. R. says the letters do not allow for a decision, but since he also says that the third dot while faint is certain, the first alternative must be right. - P. 511: 7 figures to left of Athena and 5 to right of Ariadne's nurse, a total of 6 men and 6 women, representing the 14 Athenian maidens and youths [but one is bearded!]. - Σιμον. He is the only bearded member of the group, whence Bothmer has suggested that he is an indirect representation of Minos (the name an anagram); see BMMA 5 (1946-47) 224, not accepted by Dev. 56. - R. discusses the Attic names of the Athenian youths and maidens. - Συ[.]ν, retr. R. does not restore, since a name Συων is unknown. Mon.: Σιρον, retr. Brunn: ΙN[.]V... (clearly wrong as the nu is retr. and Brunn reads as left to right). Arias: συ[ο]ν. Reichhold's dr.: ΣVN:. The ph. confirms this reading except for a gap in the middle [not shown in the dr.]. - B: above the outstretched hands of the nurse: καλε. Long discussion by R., 520-521: Arias: exclamation by the nurse; Guarducci (1974), 487 [[RG iii, Tippfehler]]: exclamation by the nurse: καλε̅́, directed at Ariadne or for the spectator to apply to any woman he fancies. Scheller, MusHelv 38 (1981) 222 also reads καλη. R. reads καλέ (voc.) addressed by the nurse to Theseus. - Also part of the `dialogue' and not meaningless are the ff. two inscriptions: between the ball of wool and Ariadne's face, along her outstretch arm, toward her: μ̣ε̣σ. The first letter may be a tau, hence: τ' ἕς, perhaps τὸ ἕς. This is rejected by R. who suggests μ' ἕς, spoken by the Minotaur: μ<οι> ἕς `lance<-la> moi' [I think referring to the wool.] R. suggests also μ<ε> ἕς, `let me be', spoken by the Minotaur, but prefers the first reading because the inscription is not near the mouth of the Minotaur. - Above Theseus' head, horizontal: ΕΥΤΙΛΑΣ:: not nonsense because of its position. Guarducci (1974), 487 n. 1 [[EG iii, richtig]] combines ευτιλασ with μασ as a comment on the ball of wool but does not succeed in deciphering it. R. uses Hsch. s.v. εὖτε· ἡνίκα, ὅτε· καὶ καλῶς, to suggest εὖτ' ἴλλας (ἴλλω is Perpillou's suggestion), `tu l'as bien roulé' [[not: roulez]], with a secondary meaning `tu l'as bien acculé' referring to the Minotaur. -`Le presque signifiant': all start with ευ-, are shouts of admiration or glorification. (Cf. already Ευανθε, Ευνικε, Ευτιλας). Meaningless, but the tone is set by the eu-: A: along the left front leg of the left sphinx: ευγστ̣, retr. R. reads the third letter as a gamma, although misshapen. Brun wrongly read EVTV. The sigma also not certain. Reichhold's dr. is right. Unpronounceable, hence not a real shout. Above the tail of the sphinx, behind Empedo's shoulders, diagonally downward: ευσι, retr. Could be spoken exclamation or invented by the painter. Curving around Empedo's face: ε̣υσυ. Mon. and Reichhold have γυσυ. B. Fellmann, CVA .., p. 15 reads: ιυσυ. The first letter may be epsilon, pi or nu; only a vertical line remains by a break. To left of Eunike's face, but following the back of head of the receding figure whom it faces: ευτις. R. suggests it is a shortened form of ευτιλας. - `Le non-signifiant': they represent the admiring comments of the bystanders (only one is near a sphinx). - Threatte (1996) reports on Rebillard's interpretation (p. 522-24/47): ΕΥΤΙΛΑΣ = εὖτ' ἴλλας, `you rolled it well', namely, Ariadne's ball of wool, but prefers an epithet of the Minotaur from εὖ + τίλλω. [τίλλω: to pluck, tear one's hair; ἴλλω = εἴλω, to roll up]. On p. 537 R. indicates that the word is spoken by Athena.

Bibliography: Kretschmer (1894), 83, 85, 163f. — *FR (1904–32), iii, 219-221, pl. 153,1 (dr.), fig. 105 (photo, A). — Beazley (1932), 187, 200. — Friis Johansen (1945), 41, fig. 22 (A). — ABV (1956), 163/2, 160/2. — Dugas (1960), pl. 22,1 (A). — ARV[2] (1963), 1609. — Para. (1971), 67, 68. — Guarducci (1974), 460f., fig. 179; 486f., fig. 194. — Add.[2] (1989), 47 (much bibl.). — *B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 11, Germany 57 (1989), pls. 2,7-9, 3, 4,1-2, 5,1-3, 6,1-3, Beilage 1,4. — Shapiro (1989), pl. 66,b (A). — AttScr (1990), no. 233. — Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), esp. figs. 20.1a-f (A, B, detail of A, signatures). — Rebillard (1992), 501-40, figs. 1-10 [not yet fully analyzed]. — *Threatte (1996), 534.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5469


A:       :*σφιχς: > Ξσφιχςτ* > oKoS SZóFIa üGYeST > okos szófia ügyest (Clever hearsay, the able)

hεδε > HE'DE' > hejdel (urges)

χαιρε > aGGYA' ÍR E > aggyal ír e (it's a medicine to the brain /it writes with the brain/)

Ιδασος > IDe A SZÓ iS > ide a szó is (to here the word also)

Ιασον > ÍjÁSZON/JÁSZON > íjászon/jászon (on bowman/Jazygian)

Γ[ο]ργο[ς] > GÖRGŐS/GÖRöGÖS > görgős/görögös (rolling/Greek-like)

Μοφσος > íM Ő FeSZÖS > ím ő feszös (look, it is upright)

Χαρον > aGYARON > agyaron (on tusks)

Πολυδ[ε]υκες > BÖLŐ VéDÉVe' KÉS > bölő védével kés (with butcher's patronage, the knife)

[Κ]αστορ: > [Κ]αστορτ > Ki A SüTŐRe iTT > ki a sütőre itt (who deals out here out to fry/roast)

:Λευκιος: > τΛευκιοςτ > éTeLÉÜ' KIOSZT > ételéül kioszt (deals out for food)

hυς Ποδες > HÚSBÓ' iDE S > húsból ide s (from the meat to here and)

Θερο > iCCÉRŐ' > iccéről (from the barrel)

:Μελεαγρος > τΜελεαγρος > iTT MELLÉ AGáROS > itt mellé agáros (beside here the greyhound's owner)

Πελευς > éPP ELÉ ViSZi > épp elé viszi (just now takes it to him)

Μελανιον > MÉLÁN JÖN > mélán jön (one comes wondering)

Ποδαργος > BODA RáGÓS > boda rágós (the rib is tough)

(...)σοι(λ)(.) > (DíCSéRő) SZÓ ILLő(N) > (dícsérő) szó illő(n) (praising word properly)

κινοι > KINŐJe > kinője (should come)

:*σφιχς > Ξσφιχς > oKoS SZóFIa üGYeS > szófia ügyes (hearsay is clever)

hεδε > HE' DE > hejj de (huh, but)

χ(α)ιρε > aGGYA' ÍR-E > aggyal ír-e (is it medicine / does it writes to the brain)

* As it turns out, the double and triple dots (:, :*) are the τ and Ξ letters. There is no use for word dividers where the single “words” are scattered around the actors.

Okos szófia(beszéd) ügyest hejdel (nógat), aggyal ír e. Ide a szó is íjászon/jászon görgős/görögös. Ím ő feszös agyaron. Bölő védével kés, ki a sütőre itt ételéül kioszt húsból ide s iccéről itt mellé agáros épp elé viszi, mélán jön. Boda rágós, (dícsérő) szó illő(n) kinője (kijönne). Szófia ügyes, hejj, de aggyal ír-e? (Clever hearsay urges the able, it's a medicine to the brain /it writes with the brain/. To here the word also on bowman/Jazygian* is rolling/Greek-like. Look, it is upright on tusks. With butcher's patronage, the knife deals here out from the meat to fry/roast for food and from the barrel beside here the greyhound's owner just now takes to him, coming wondering. The rib is tough, praising word should come properly. Hearsay is clever, huh, but is it medicine / does it writes to the brain?)

* Note that the Jazygian in Greek is IAS or ION by another name!

B:       χαιρε > aGGYA' ÍR E > aggyal ír e (this is medicine/writes to the brain)

:*σφιχς > Ξσφιχς > oKoS SZóFIa íGY iS > okos szófia így is (clever hearsay this way as well)

ευ(γ)σι > EVVe' eGéSZÜ' > evvel egészül (with this the whole lot)

ευσι > E'VeSZI > elveszi (he takes away)

Ενπεδο > E NéPPE' DŐ' > e néppel dől (with this folk comes)

λυσυ > ιυσυ{5} > JUSSU' > jussul (as its right)

Σιμον > SZŰ Mi ÖNe > szű mi öne ( its heart, what makes her)

πνσυ > BÚSU' > búsul (one grieves)

Γλυκε > GáLYa öVéKKE' > gálya övékkel (the galley with its own passengers)

νερν > NYeRNe > nyerne (would gain)

Αντιας > ANNYiT JÁSZ/ÍjÁSZ > annyit jász/íjász ( a lot the Jazygian/bowman)

νϝ(ρ)ν(φ) > Nő VáRóN Fi > nő-várón fi (on the waiting place for woman man)

Ανθυλ<λ>α > Á'Na CULA > állna cula (would stand ladies' wear)

ενονς > E NŐN iS > e nőn is (also on this woman)

Λυκινος > eLeVe KÍNOS > eleve kínos (as a matter of course awkward)

νϝϙπσ > NőVé KéPeS > nővé képes (the capable one to look like woman)

Ευαν[θ]ε > E'VAN CSE' > elvan csel (is there, the trick)

λυρα > eLURA' > elural (dominates)

Αθεναια > A CÉ' iNALJA > a cél inalja (the aim urges him)

Θεσευς > (Thészeusz) CSE'SZÉVeS/CSE'SZÖVőS > Thészeusz (cselszéves/cselszövős) (Theseus (trick-picker/plotter))

Ευτιλας: > Ευτιλαςτ > EVVe' áTILLASZTi > evvel átillaszti (with that he runs over)

Μινο ταυρος > MI NŐ úTTA' VáRÓS > mi nő úttal várós (what women with the journey had been awaited)

μεσ(?) > MESe > mese (the story)

Αριαδνε: > Αριαδνετ > ARIADNÉT > Ariadnét (Ariadné (in accus.))

καλε > oKKAL E > okkal e (with reason this)

θροφος: > θροφοςτ > oCSóRÓ' FOSZTi > ocsóról foszti (curtails from waking up)

μιπο > MŰBŐ' > műből (from the work)

Ευτις > E'VeTi IS > elveti is (also throws it away)

:Λυκιος > τΛυκιος > íTéLi VaK JÓS > ítéli vak jós (condemns her the blind seer)

πιποι > πιποχ > PIPOGYa > pipogya (gutless/invertebrate)

Ευνικε > EVVe' eNYIK E' > evvel enyik el (with this decays)

επνσ > E BűNöS > e bűnös (this culprit)

Σολον > SZÓLÓN > szólón (volubly)

Τιμο > TIMMÖ' > timmöl (perishes)

Συ[ο]ν > SZíVÖN > szívön (on heart)

[σφι]χς: > [σφι]χςτ >[SZóFIa] íGY eSeTT > [szófia] így esett ([hearsay] happened this way)

hε̣[δε] > HE' [DE] > hejj [de] (huh, but)

χαιρε > aGGYA' ÍR-E > aggyal ír-e (is it medicine/writes to the brain)

Aggyal ír e okos szófia így is: Evvel egészül elveszi, e néppel dől jussul szű, mi öne. Búsul gálya övékkel, nyerne annyit jász/íjász, (de) nő-várón fi állna, cula (gúnya) e nőn is eleve kínos, nővé képes elvan, csel elural, a cél inalja. Thészeusz (cselszéves/cselszövős) evvel átillaszti mi nő uttal várós. Mese Ariadnét, okkal e ocsóról (ébredésről) foszti, műből elveti is, - ítéli vak jós, pipogya evvel enyik (enyészik) el, e bűnös szólón timmöl (csökken) szívön. [Szófia] így esett, hejj, [de] aggyal ír-e? (This clever hearsay is medicine/writes to the brain this way as well: With this he takes away the whole lot, with this folk comes its heart as its right, what makes her. The galley grieves with its own passengers, the Jazygian/bowman would gain a lot, (but) on the waiting place for woman man would stand,* ladies' wear also on this woman, as a matter of course is awkward, the capable one to look like woman is there, the trick dominates, the aim urges him. Theseus (trick-picker/plotter) runs over what women with the journey had been awaited. The story curtails Ariadné from waking up with reason, also throws it (the waking up to her misdeed) away from the work, - condemns her the blind seer, gutless/invertebrate with this decays, this culprit perishes on heart.** [Hearsay] happened this way, huh, but is it medicine/writes to the brain?)

* Theseus, however, replaced two of the maiden victims with a pair of effeminate youths, of unusual courage and presence of mind. ” (Robert Graves The Greek Myths, 98.e.)

 No doubts, the text fully agrees with the myth as we know it, but describes it from the opposite viewpoint. The potter-painter holds Ariadne's trick rightfully as treachery.


**n. Some days later, after disembarking on the island then named Dia, but now known as Naxos, Theseus left Ariadne asleep on the beach and sailed away. Why he did so must remain a mystery. Some say that he deserted her in favour of a new mistress, Aegle, daughter of Panopeus; others that, while wind-bound on Dia, he reflected on the scandal at Athens would cause. Others again say that Dionysus, appearing to Theseus in a dream, threateningly demanded Ariadne for himself, and that, when Theseus noticed Dionysus’s fleet bearing down on Dia, he weighed anchor in sudden terror; Dionysus having cast a spell which made him forget his promise to Ariadne and even her very existence.

o. Whatever the truth of the matter may be, Dionysus’s priests in Athens affirm that when Ariadne found herself alone on the deserted shore, she broke into bitter laments, remembering how she has trembled while Theseus set out to kill her monstrous half-brother, how she had offered silent vows for his success; and how, through her love of him, she had deserted her parents and motherland.” (Robert Graves The Greek Myths, 98.n, o.)

Ariadné's name is a compound name: ÁRJA+Di+NÉ = 'Aryan' + ironic adjective formative + 'wife' = 'Aryan's mock wife'. This reading of Ariadné's name is validated by Graves in 98.6.: “Theseus’s marriage to the Moon-priestess made him lord of Cnossus, and on one Cnossian coin a new moon is set in the centre of a maze. Matrilineal custom, however, deprived an heiress of all claims to her lands if she accompanied a husband overseas; and this explains why Theseus did not bring Ariadne back to Athens, or any farther than Dia, a Cretan island within sight of Cnossus. Cretan Dionysus, represented as a bull—Minos, in fact—was Ariadne’s rightful husband; and wine, a Cretan manufacture, will have been served at her orgies. This might account for Dionysus’s indignation, reported by Homer, that she and the intruder Theseus had lain together.

Farther more, these readings expose the people involved in the Theseus myths: the Aryans (Hellenic Greeks) and Ias (Jassic/Jazygian Scyths) or – by their other name – Ionians of the pre-Hellenic substratum of Greece, which is still a very alive ethnic group in the heart of Hungary.

Γλαυκυτες | μεποιεσεν > éGGeL A'Va KöVeT ÉSZ ME'BŐ' JE' eSSEN > Éggel alva követ ész, melyből jel essen! (The mind follows one in sleep with heaven, out of which sign should fall!)

Αρχικλες | εποιεσεν > ÁRa eGY ÜK LESZ EBBe OLY ESSEN > Ára egy ük lesz, ebbe oly essen! (The price for this will be a great great grandchild, into this one such should fall!)

The perfect harmony of picture and text in this my reading cannot be ignored, refuted or denied with scientific arguments. The “elsewhere attested name” would be laughable argument against an organic reading which unquestionably supplements the picture, describing the stories to their fullest details, while the “not true mythological names” add nothing to it. The applied writing method, the defective notation of vowels cannot be ignored either, as it lies both in time and space between the spread of purely consonantal and phonetic writing systems. The language question is not historical but political: without the indo-Europeanisation of the Anatolian and pre-Hellenic languages, there is no glorious indo-European past. And also, the separation of the Hungarians from their Scythic and Hun ancestry is a political agenda for the control over Central Europe.


AVI 5255; BAD 202451

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2303. RF amphora. From Agrigento. Painter of Munich Amphora{1}. First quarter fifth

Decoration: A: unexplained: a hunter with a hare on a stick; dog; a woman offering a wreath to a bearded reclining man{2}. B: a satyr with a wineskin and oinochoe; Dionysus with kantharos and oschos; maenad.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: above the wreath: γογοτ(ε)τ{2}.

Commentary: Neumann's reading (see note 2') is very fanciful.

Footnotes: {1} Syleus sequence (might be the nonage of the Syleus Painter, Beazley). {2} comparisons in ABV 700. {2} the epsilon = U-shaped digamma. Neumann reads: Λαλαγεα = Λαλαγη.

Bibliography: ABV (1956), 700. — *R. Lullies, CVA Munich 4, Germany 12 (1956), pls. 186,1-2, 187,1-2, 188,10; p. 21 (facs. of inscription). — ARV[2] (1963), 245/1. — Para. (1971), 350. — *Neumann (1977), 42, fig. 4 (A, part). — Add.[2] (1989), 202. — Robertson (1992), 121.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5473


γογοτ(ε)τ > GŐG Ö'TE őT > Gőg ölte őt. (Arrogance killed him-her-it.)

AVI 5257; BAD 202086

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2306. RF amphora. From Vulci. Painter of Munich 2306{1}. Ca. 500

Decoration: A: Heracles and Cerberus. B: Apollo in a chariot, with Leto and Artemis.

Inscriptions: B: nonsense: above the horses: οκχτοειοι.

Footnotes: {1} akin to the Nikoxenos Painter (Beazley).

Bibliography: *R. Lullies, CVA Munich 4, Germany 12 (1956), pls. 182,1-2, 183,1-2, 184,1-2, 185,1-2, 188,9 (facs.). — ARV[2] (1963), 225/1. — Add.[2] (1989), 198.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5475


           οκχτοειοι > οκχτϙελοι > Ó KeGYeT KiÉLŐJe > Ó kegyet kiélője. (The beneficiary guards his/her favour.)

AVI 5258; BAD 200160

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2307. RF amphora. From Vulci. Euthymides. Last quarter sixth 510-500

AVI5258ADecoration: A: Hector arming. B: komos of three bearded men.

Inscriptions: A: between Priam and Hector, vertically non-stoich.: ε(γ)ραφσεν{1} Πριαμος :* Ευθυμιδες hο Πολ<λ>ιο. I.e.: Ευθυμιδες | εγραφσεν | hο Πολ<λ>ιο. To lower left of Hector, not facing: hεκτορ. Similar, but a little higher and facing: hεκαβε, retr. B: Along the left-hand margin, facing it: hος ουδεποτε Ευφρονιος. To right of the left komast's forehead: Κομαρχος{2}. Between the central komast's legs: Ευ{ε}δεμος{3}. To left of the right komast's face: Τελες, retr.{4}. To left of his leg: ελεοπι, retr.{5}. Under the foot, Gr.: rho with extended vertical or a horizontal sign: see Johnston (1979), 85/31A,4 as against Hackl (1909), 109.

Commentary: Neumann: Teles could be Τελες or Τελ<λ>ες, short for Aristoteles, Euteles, etc., cf. Bechtel (1917), 422f. [but why not for Telekles, etc.?]. Eudemos (so also LGPN ii) is read Ε(γ)εδεμος, with gamma upside down [I doubt it, as the name is not in LGPN ii; but the first epsilon would look better upside down, so that two letters would be upside down ...]. Komarchos is here the only `redender Name', although it relates to κωμη rather than to κωμος. ελεοπι is read by N.: ἑ̅γέου, not retr. He thinks the final iota may be a scratch. I believe N. thinks the pi is a miswritten upsilon. Robertson (1992), : Komarchos might be a name, but is more likely a title; note the kantharos carried by him, which is often found in the hands of Dionysus or his followers, or of Heracles. Perhaps this is more than an ordinary revel. For the word order of the signature see AttScr (1990), 65 n. 27. Gill and Vickers: "It has ... been recognized that the crucial inscription ... is part of a sympotic dialogue." They refer to other sympotic dialogues mentioned by Lissarrague (1987), 59-64, 80. Sara Morris seems to assent. A. Linfert, Riv. di Archeologia 1 (1977) 19f.: follows Neumann and restores (spoken by Teles, despite the separation of the words): ἑ̅γέου{ι} hο̅ς οὐδέποτε Εὐφρόνιος. Engelmann connects: Komarchos + the statement: "(I am) leader of the komos such as never before Euphronios". I.e. κομαρχος is not a proper name. The next komast says: εὖ, ἔ̅δε̅ ’μός. "Gut! Jetzt (ist er aber) mein (der Kantharos)!". The inscriptions near the third komast may be read: τελε̃ς, ἑ̅γέου, πῖ! "Du bist am Ziel (du hast es geschafft), fang an, trink!". Engelmann also gives another possible explanation. For πῖ, E. refers to M. Leumann, MusHelv 14 (1957) 77A.8. None of the komasts are named. All this is fanciful. Cf. also *Moore (1997), 86 n. 10: on Euthymides' signatures and on the name Pollias.

Footnotes: {1} the gamma an alpha according to FR. {2} PA 8954 (5 B.C.): a real name, but here also punning. For Κωμαρχος see also Deubner (1932), 136, n. 4 and LGPN ii. {3} also read Ελεδεμος (FR), but see AttScr (1990), 65 n. 28. {4} or Τελ<λ>ης, see Pape. LGPN ii reads Τελης. {5} see J.D. Beazley apud Richter (1936), 106, n. 8 (nonsense).

Bibliography: *FR (1904–32), i, 63-71, 266, pl. 14 (drs.). — [[Lullies–Hirmer (1953), pls. 24–31 (Πριαμος pl. 26 quite cl., hο Πο pl. 26 cl., Hεκ pl. 27 cl., τε Ευφρονιος pl. 28 cl., Κομαρχος pl. 28 uncl., pl. 30 cl., ε and οπ of ελεοπι pl. 29 vis., ελε pl. 31 cl., Τελες pl. 31 cl., rest invis.)]]. — *R. Lullies, CVA Munich 4, Germany 12 (1956), pls. 165,1-2, 166,1-2, 167,1-2, 163,1-2, 172,1 and 188,5, pp. 16-17 (facs.). — ARV[2] (1963), 26/1, 1620. — Para. (1971), 323. — Ohly-Dumm (1975), pls. 8-9 (from FR). — Linfert (1977), 19-22. — *Neumann (1977), 38ff., fig. 2. — Morris (1986), 360. — *Engelmann (1987), 129-34. — Add.[2] (1989), 155 (much bibl.). — *AttScr (1990), no. 369, fig. 89 (facs., part). — *Gill–Vickers (1990), 10. — Robertson (1992), 31-32.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5476


A:       ε(γ)ραφσεν > ÉG uRA FeSSEN > ég ura fessen (the Lord of Heavens should paint it)

           Πριαμος :* > ΠριαμοςΞ* > PRIÁMOSZ KeZe > Priámosz keze (the hand of Priamos)

           Ευθυμιδες > Ευρυμιδες > E VeRőVe' MI' éDES > e verővel mily édes (with this fighter is so sweet)

           hο Πολ<λ>ιο > Ha Ő áPOL JÓ > ha ő ápol jó (when he cares for someone, the good)

           hεκτορ > HEKTÖRő (HEKTOR) > Hektörő (Hektor) (Hector (Arrogance-breaker))

           hεκαβε > HÉKA eBBE' > héka ebben (he is fellow in this)


* As it turns out, the triple dots (:*) is the Ξ (iksz, ks, K_S/Z) letter. There is no use for word-divider where the single “words” are scattered.


A:        Ég ura fessen! Priámosz keze e verővel mily édes ha ő ápol. Jó Hektörő (Gőgtörő, Hektor) héka (társ) ebben. (The Lord of Heavens should paint it! The hand of Priamos with this fighter is so sweet when he cares for someone. The good Hector (Arrogance-breaker) is fellow in this.)



B:       hος ουδεποτε > HOSSZa Ó ÜDE BOT E > hossza ó üde bot e (its length protects, this is a fresh stick)

Ευφρονιος > EVVe' FéRŐN JÓS > evvel férőn jós (with it foreseeing is comfortable)

Κομαρχος > KOMÁRa/KÓMÁRa íGY OSSZa > komára/kómára így ossza (on friend/coma deals as follows)

Ευ{ε}δεμος > E VÉDE'Mi ŐS > e védelmi ős (this defensive ancestor )

Τελες/Τελης{4} > íTÉLÉS/TELe HaS > ítélés/tele has (judging/full stomach)

ελεοπι ρ* > ELÉ Ő BÍR > elé ő bír (in front of it can take/carry one)


* Under the foot, Gr.: rho...


Hossza ó, üde bot e, evvel férőn jós. Komára/kómára így ossza e védelmi ős: ítélés/tele has elé ő bír. (Its length protects, this is a fresh stick, with it foreseeing is comfortable. On friend/coma this defensive ancestor deals as follows: in front of judging/full stomach it can take/carry one.)


But there is an alternative reading with a similar plot:


hος ουδεποτε Ευφρονιος > HOSSZú ÓVóD E BOT-E EUPHRONIOS/EVVe’ FúRÓN JÖSSZ > hosszú óvód e bot-e Euphronios/evvel fúrón (tekervényesen/furfangosan) jössz (it is long (but) is this walking-stick your saver, Euphronios / you come with this tricking)

Κομαρχος > KÓMÁRa aGYOS > kómára agyos (eszes) (for coma it is clever)

Ευ{ε}δεμος / Ευ{ε}λεμος{Δ>Λ!} > E VÉDE'Me ŐSi / EVVE’ iLLEMÖS > e védelme ősi / evvel illemes (its safeguard is ancient / with this in good manner)

Τελες ελεοπι ρ > íTÉL ESEL-E Ő BÍRó > ítél esel-e ő bíró (it judges are you falling it is a judge)


Hosszú, óvód e bot-e, Euphronios / evvel fúrón (tekervényesen/furfangosan) jössz. Kómára agyos (eszes), e védelme ősi / evvel illemes: ítél esel-e? Ő bíró. (It is long, (but) is this walking-stick your saver, Euphronios / you come with this tricking. It is clever for coma, its safeguard is ancient / with this in good manner, it judges: are you falling? It is a judge.)


Playful text to a playful picture! - missed again by the scientists.


The alternate readings are not necessarily and invariably a bad feature of this writing method, as when it is required, one can write out all the vowels for an exact and unambiguous reading.


AVI 5259; BAD 200161

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2308. RF amphora. From Vulci. Euthymides. Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: A: arming similar to Munich 2307 (A), but not mythological. B: two young athletes and a bearded trainer.

AVI5259AInscriptions: A: to right of the left archer: Μαε[..4..]γ[.] vac. To right of his legs: χυχοσπι. To lower left of the arming youth, not facing: Θορ̣υκιον{1}. To his lower right, vertically, non-stoich.: h[ο Πολ<λ>ι]ο ε[γρα]φσεν Ευθυμιδες{ες}. I.e., Ευθυμιδες{ες} | ε[γρα]φσεν | h[ο Πολ<λ>ι]ο. To left of the right archer's face: Ευθυβο[λος]{2}. B: to lower right of the left youth: Πενταθλ[ο]ς{3}. To right of the second youth's middle: Φαϋλ<λ>ος{4}. To left of the trainer's face: Ορσιμενες, retr.{5}. On his lower left, non-stoich. two-liner: Ευθυμι(δ)ες(6) . . . . . . . . . hο Πολ<λ>ιο. . ... . . Both lines are retr.

Commentary: See the comments on Munich 2307. Neumann reads χυχοσπι: χ<α>λχασπι<ς>, citing Kretschmer (1894), 185 for the omission of final sigma; he refers it not to the archer but to an object. ΜΑΕ is unexplained: a proper name or the beginning of spoken words beginning with μά? Thorykion and Euthybolos [-boulos?] are real names, here appropriate. Lissarrague notes the pertinence of the inscriptions: Thorykion puts on his corslet; the right archer is Euthybolos. The archer at left is called Chalchaspis by Neumann - and he holds a shield. But Neumann did not refer the word he read to the archer and his reading is fanciful. I believe the word to be nonsense.

Footnotes: {1} Cf. PA 7419-21. {2} see Pape. Perhaps punning on Ευθυβουλος, which may occur in Attica: see Immerwahr (1971), 56/3. {3} see Pape, but here also punning; not in PA, but listed (here only) in LGPN ii. {4} see CB ii. {5} PA 11,492 (4 B.C.); see also LGPN ii. {6} the delta is D-shaped.

Bibliography: *FR (1904–32), ii, 109-11, pl. 81 (drs.). — CB (1931–63), ii, 4-5. — *R. Lullies, CVA Munich 4, Germany 12 (1956), pls. 169,1-2, 170,1-2, 171,1-2, 172,2-4, 188,6. — ARV[2] (1963), 26/2, 1620. — Ohly-Dumm (1975), pls. 6-7 (from FR). — *Neumann (1977), 38ff., fig. 1 (facs.). — Add.[2] (1989), 156. — AttScr (1990), no. 370. — Lissarrague (1990), 49, fig. 18 (sketch), also 110.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5477


A:        μαε[..4..]γ[.] > MA E[LéG LeN]Ge > ma e[lég len]ge (today (he is) rather light and loose)

           ΧΥΧΟΣΠΙ > GYÜGYe ŐSi BŰ > gyügye ősi bű (Simple-minded/naïve ancient charmer)

 θορ̣υκιον > CSÓRéÚ' Ki JÖN > csóréul kijön (he comes out naked)

           ευθυμιδεσ{εσ} > E ViCCéVe' MI' üDE SZESZ > e viccével mily üde szesz (with this his joke how fresh is this excuse)

           ε[γρα]φσεν > É[G RÁ] FeSSEN/FeSE'Ne > É[g rá] fessen/feselne (Heaven should collapse on him)

           h[ο πολ<λ>ι]ο > H[Ó' áPOLóJa] Ő > h[ol ápolója] ő (where she is his nurse)

           ευθυβο[λοσ] > É' ViCCéVe' BÖ[LŐS] > él viccével bö[lős] (he with balls misuses his joke)


           Ma e[lég len]ge gyügye (együgyű) ősi bű. Csóréul (meztelenül) kijön, e viccével mily üde szesz, é[g rá] fessen/feselne! H[ol ápolója] ő, - él viccével bö[lős]. (Today the simple-minded/naïve ancient charmer is rather loose. He comes out naked, with this his joke how fresh is this excuse, heaven should go to scraps (collapse) on him! Where she is his nurse, he with balls misuses his joke.)

AVI5259BB:        Πενταθλ[ο]ς > BENT A CSaLÓS > bent a csalós (the deceptive is inside)

 Φαϋλ<λ>ος > Φαυλος > FA' VaLÓS > fal valós (the wall is real)

 Ορσιμενες > ŐRZI MENÉS > őrzi menés (the footprint saves it)

           Ευθυμι(δ)ες > Ευθυμιρες > E ViCéVe' íM ÜRES > e vicével ím üres (with this his motion, look, it is void)

 hο Πολ<λ>ιο > hο Πολιο > Ha Ő aBBÓL JŐ > ha ő abból jő (when it comes from that)


Left athlete: – Bent a csalós. (The deceptive is inside.)

Right athlete: – Fal (akadály) valós. (The wall (obstacle) is real.)

Trainer: Őrzi menés! E vicével (bicével, vickével) ím üres, ha ő abból jő. (The footprint saves it! With this his motion, look, it is void when it comes from that.)

By the testimony of the reading, the old man is training the athlete in the middle about honesty in sport: cheating leaves its footprint in the sand. (There is a word-play involved between the A and B sides: vicc 'joke' – vic 'motion'.)


AVI 5260; BAD 200157

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2309. RF amphora. From Vulci. Euthymides. Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: A-B: Theseus abducting Helen (or Korone).



Inscriptions: A: between Perithoos' legs: hερες{1}. To right of his head: Περιθους{2}. To lower right of a girl trying to come to the rescue: hελενε{3}. To left of Theseus' head: Θεσε(υ)ς, retr. To lower right of the captured girl: (Κ)(ο)ρονε. B: Along the left margin, facing out: χαιρε {τ} Θεσευς{4}. Behind the back of a girl rushing to right, not facing her: Αντιοπεια{5}. To right of a second girl rushing to right: ειδονθεμεν{6}. Under the foot, Gr.: κυλ) ΙΒ and ΛΗ [[lig.]]{7}.

Commentary: Giuliani follows Furtwängler's interpretation. He considers the vase a joke on the many loves of Theseus; I argue for a mock inscription, perhaps inspired by ειδον. Robertson 30 discusses the inscriptions; he thinks Korone is a mistake; Antiopeia is not the Amazon queen; Euthymides doesn't care; he also uses writing w/o meaning ...

Footnotes: {1} Furtwängler considers this a masculine name, probably a love name, although there is no room for καλος. Beazley does not list it. Further, AttScr (1990), 65. {2} Cf. ARV[2] 328/115, where Beazley notes, wrongly a propos of a possible reading [Β]ουκολος on Eleusis 607, the use of ou for o. Cf. also Threatte (1980), 240/4. {3} Not retr. Beazley follows Buschor in FR iii in assuming that the names of Helen and Korone have been interchanged; he is followed by Brommer. Differently, FR i, 177: Furtw. thought it was a joke and is followed by Schefold (1978), 157 and by A. Linfert, RA 1 (1977) 22. {4} χαιρε is followed by a cross-shaped sign that looks like a tau. Furtwängler suggests a chi, for γε. {5} an Amazon loved by Theseus. {6} εἶδον· θέ<ο̅>μεν, Furtwängler. Probably nonsense. {7} Johnston (1979), 153/50, Hackl (1909), 408, Hesp. 27.

Bibliography: Kretschmer (1894), 192. — E. Buschor in FR (1904–32), iii, 117/8. — *FR (1904–32), i, 173-81, 181 (facs.), pl. 33 (dr.). — Pfuhl (1923), figs. 368-69 (from FR). — Bloesch (1951), ...., Eukleo Class, A. — [[Lullies–Hirmer (1953), pls. 17–23 (A: pl. 17 Hερες, Περιθους, and Θεσες sm., uncl., Hελενε invis., pl. 18 almost all invis., pl. 19 Π. the end and Θ. barely vis., H. and Κορονε quite cl.; B: χ. invis., Αντ. invis., θεμεν pl. 23 quite cl.)]]. — *R. Lullies, CVA Munich 4, Germany 12 (1956), pls. 161,1-2, 162,11-2, 163,1-2, 164,1-2, 188,4. — Amyx (1958), 294 f., pl. 53,h (after FR). — Amyx (1958), pl. 53. — Arias–Hirmer–Shefton (1962), pl. 116 (B). — ARV[2] (1963), 27/4, 1620. — Para. (1971), 323. — Ohly-Dumm (1975), pls. 3-5 (from FR). — Linfert (1977), 19-22. — Brommer (1979), 509. — Scheibler (1983), 148, fig. 130 (dr.). — Add.[2] (1989), 156 (much bibl.). — AttScr (1990), no. 372. — Giuliani (1992), 118-19. — Immerwahr (1992), 53. — Robertson (1992), 30.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5478


A:       hερες > Ha ÉRÉS > ha érés (when ripening)

Περιθους > éP ÉRI CSÓVáS > ép éri csóvás (gets her healthy: she is like wisp)

hελενε > Ha ELLENE > ha ellene ( if against her)

Θεσε(υ)ς > CSE' éSSZE' VeSZi > csel ésszel veszi (a trick takes her with reason)

(Κ)(ο)ρονε > (Κ)(ο)ρομε > Ki ÖRÖME > ki öröme (who's joy/pleasure is it?)


Ha érés ép éri: csóvás; ha ellene csel ésszel veszi: ki öröme? (When ripening gets her healthy: she is like (easy burning) wisp; if a trick against her takes her with reason: who's joy/pleasure is it?)*


B: χαιρε {τ} > áGYALJáRa E'Tő > ágyaljára ejtő (which lets her fall on the bed)

Θεσευς > CSE' SE ViSZi > csel se viszi (the trick won't take her either)

Αντιοπεια > A NőT JOBB ÉJ A' > a nőt jobb éj a' (the woman, it is better at night)

ειδονθεμεν > ÉJiDŐN CÉ' MÉN > éjidőn cél mén (in night time the target goes)

κυλ) ΙΒ ΛΗ > κυλC ΙΒ ΛΗ > KiVeL CSIBe LéHa > kivel csibe léha (with whom the chicken is frivolous)


Ágyaljára ejtő csel se viszi a nőt, jobb éj a'. Éjidőn cél mén kivel csibe léha. (The trick which lets her fall on the bed, won't take the woman either, it is better at night. In night time the target goes with whom the chicken is frivolous.)


* When (Perithoos and) Theseus abducted Helen “the Athenians would by no means approve of his having thus picked a quarrel with the redoubtable Dioscuri, and therefore sent Helen, who was not yet nubile - being a twelve-year-old child or, some say, even younger - to the Attic village of Aphidnae ...” (R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 103. b.)


AVI 5266; BAD 207825

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2341. RF Nolan amphora Painter of London E 342{1}. Second quarter fifth: close to 450

Decoration: A: a woman, and a youth in a chair. B: youth.

Inscriptions: A: between the figures, near-horizontal, in two lines, not stoich.: γογ γσγ(σ){2}.

Commentary: Nonsense: imitation letters; small and casual.

Footnotes: {1} mostly insignificant Nolans, Beazley. {2} the last sigma looks = four-stroke sigma reversed.

Bibliography: *R. Lullies, CVA Munich 2, Germany 6 (1944), III I, pls. 68,1-2 and 69,5. — ARV[2] (1963), 668/30.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5484


           γογ γσγ(σ) > GŐG GaSSáGoS/iGaSSÁGoS/eGéSSéGeS > Gőg gazságos/igazságos/egészséges (Arrogance is villainy/just/healthy)


VI 5284; BAD 200172

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2420. RF hydria{1}. From Vulci. Pezzino Group; Chelis Group (Lullies, as in ARV[1]). Last quarter sixth 520-500 (Lullies).

Decoration: Shoulder: an Amazon harnessing a chariot (in the center, with two horses); on each side, an Amazon brings up a trace horse. Body: athletes: discobolus; runner; a bearded man all wrapped up (Lullies: trainer); a bearded man (Lullies: judge), putting a taenia on a youth already decked out and holding branches (the victor).



Inscriptions: Shoulder: done from the photo.: nonsense: χε[.]οπει. ε[1-2]ι. χοπελι, retr. In the opposite direction: χοπευκ, retr. L. does not describe the inscriptions, but he mentions them for both the shoulder and the body pictures; the phs. in CVA show: shoulder: a letter under the bellies of the chariot horses and the right trace horse. Body: to right of the victor's body, vertically down, nonsense: οπ̣ελισ{2}. Under the foot, Gr.: ligature AR [[lig.]].

AVI5285bCommentary: The vase, and its inscriptions, are similar to the RF cup Naples Stg. 5, of the same Group, ARV[2] 32/4. For the nonsense inscriptions of the Pezzino Group see AttScr (1990), 71 n. 35 and my paper on `The Lettering of Euphronios' in Euphronios und seine Zeit (colloqu. 1991; 1992).

Footnotes: {1} BF shape. {2} pi looks = a vertical half arrow.

Bibliography: *Photo. — Hackl (1909), 356. — Blümel (1936), 98-99. — Bloesch (1951), 35/2. — *R. Lullies, CVA Munich 5, Germany 20 (1961), Munich 5 (1961), pls. 218,3, 220,1-2, 221,3 and 226,3; p. 14 (facs. of Gr. only). — ARV[2] (1963), 32/3, 1621. — Johnston (1979), 132/9E 16. — Add.[2] (1989), 157.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5502


Sh:      χε[.]οπει > χε[.]θπει > GYERe CiPELJ > gyere cipelj (come, carry me)

ε[1-2]ι > E [TéRR]Ű' > e [térr]űl (from this space)

χοπελι > χθπελι > íGY CiPELI > így cipeli (carries her this way)

χοπευκ > χθπευκ > GYúCSőBE VaK > gyúcsőbe vak (into firing-pipe the blind)


           Gyere cipelj! E [térr]űl így cipeli gyúcsőbe vak. (Come, carry me! The blind carries her from this space into firing-pipe this way.)


Body:  οπ̣ελισ {AR} > θπ̣ελισ {AR} > CSéPELI SZó-ÁR > Csépeli szó-ár. (The word-current thrashes him.)

AVI 5285; BAD 200126

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2421. RF hydria. From Vulci. Phintias. Last quarter sixth 510-500 Ca. 510 (Lullies).

Decoration: Shoulder: symposium of two reclining hetaerae playing kottabos. Body: music lesson.

Inscriptions: Shoulder: on the far left: καλοι{1}. To right of left hetaera's open mouth: (σ)οι{2} τεν(δ)ι. On the far right: Ευθυμι(δ)ει. I.e.: σοὶ τηνδί, Ευθυμίδῃ καλῷ, sc. λατάσσω. Body: on the far left, facing the margin: ναιζον{3}. To right of a bearded onlooker: [Δ]εμετριο(ς). To right of a seated youth (pupil, not a boy) with his lyre, the first four letters retr. and not facing: Ευτυμιδες, for Ευθυμιδες. In front of a standing boy, the first three letters and the lambda retr. and not facing: Τλεμπ̣ο(λ)εμος{4}. Behind the bearded teacher (who also plays the lyre): Σμικυθος{5}. Under the foot, Gr.: XV : ΙΛ : and ΛΗ [[lig.]]. Also Etruscan ΜΕ, retr.{6}.

Commentary: Lullies' readings: ναί, ζῶν, `wie er leibt und lebt'. καλο̃ι σοὶ τενδὶ Εὐθυμίδει, sc. λατάσσω, `Dir, dem schönen Euthymides, schleudere ich diese Neige'. The first four letters of Ευ(.)υμιδες are upside down in the facs.; the third letter is in a break and shows only a corner, but Lullies transcribes: Ευθυμιδες. In Τλεμπολεμος the first two letters and the lambda are upside down. [Δ]εμετριος. Lullies, p. 18, discusses Smikythos: he is here the teacher, not a kalos. Cf. also the New York psykter by Oltos and the Euthymides kalpis in Bonn: in all these the name is near a musician and Lullies thinks Smikythos may have been a famous musician at the time. [But these are not the only occurrences.] Apparently all sigmas are reversed except in the kottabos inscription where the sigma is unclear.

Footnotes: {1} the καλο̃ι (dat.) is read καλοί by Furtwängler and is not by him (nor by Beazley in ARV[2]) connected with the rest of the inscription, but Hauser in FR ii, 336 reads the dat. {2} the sigma is quite unclear, but apparently not a tau; Beazley also reads σοι. {3} ναί, ζο̃ν, Furtwängler, equivalent of καλος; but it is written near a bearded man. Klein read Σοζιας (for Σοσιας), but this was met with Hartwig's disapproval. Perhaps nonsense. {4} Parallels: see ARV[2] 1611 and 1699. {5} see ARV[2] 1608. {6} See Johnston (1979), 152/2F,34 and Hackl (1909), 421; facs. FR ii, 66, fig. 29.

Bibliography: CIG 4 (1855–77), no. 8110b. — Meier (1884), 252 (inscriptions on shoulder). — Kretschmer (1894), 87 n. 3. — Kretschmer (1894), 87, n. 3. — *FR (1904–32), ii, 63-74, pl. 71 (dr.). — Hackl (1909), 40/421 and 58/556. — Beazley (1919), 83 (toast for Euthymides). — Beazley (1943b), 102 (ditto). — [[Lullies–Hirmer (1953), pls. 33–5 (Τλ. pl. 34 cl., σοι τηνδι and Ευθυμι pl. 35 quite cl., rest uncl. or invis.)]]. — *R. Lullies, CVA Munich 5, Germany 20 (1961), pls. 222,1, 223,1-2, 225,2, 226,5,10; pp. 17-18, facss. of Grr. and Dipp. (vast bibl.). — ARV[2] (1963), 23/7, 1608, 1611, 1620, 1699. — Para. (1971), 323. — Add.[2] (1989), 155 (much bibl.). — *AttScr (1990), no. 389, fig. 90. — Robertson (1992), 27-28, fig. 20.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5503

Sh:      καλοι > KALLi OLY > kalli oly (she is weared down by such)

           (σ)οι τεν(δ)ι > S OLY üTENDI > s oly ütendi (and such will beat her)

           Ευθυμι(δ)ει >Ευθυ μιρει > E VéTJéVe' MI eRÉLY > e vétjével mi erély (for her sin what is firmness)


           Kalli oly s oly ütendi e vétjével mi erély. (She is weared down by such and such will beat her for her sin what is firmness.)


Body:  ναιζον > iNA ÍZZON > ina ízzon (let its string be fervent)

           [Δ]εμετριο(ς) > [Δ]εμετριον* > De EME TűRJÖN > de eme tűrjön (but the other let be patient)

           Ευτυμιδες > Ευτυ μιδεν* > E VeTőVe' íM ÜDÉN > e vetővel ím üdén (look, it is freshly with this casting)

           Τλεμπ̣ο(λ)εμος > Τλ εμπ̣ο(λ)εμον* > TeLe E MűBŐL E'MÖNNe > tele e műből elmönne (full, would go from this composition)

           Σμικυθος > Νμικυθον* > NéMi KU'CSOS > némi kulcsos (some clef notes)

           XV : ΙΛ : ΛΗ ΜΕ > GYÚ' ILLő LéHa íMME' > gyúl illő léha ímmel (it ignites with suited frivolous reluctance)


* “Apparently all sigmas are reversed except in the kottabos inscription”, that is: they all are nu-s.


           Ina (húrja) ízzon, de eme tűrjön! E vetővel ím üdén tele. E műből elmönne némi kulcsos (összefonódó hangsor). Gyúl illő léha ímmel. (Let its string be fervent, but the other let be patient! Look, it is freshly full with this casting. Some clef notes would go from this composition. It ignites with suited frivolous reluctance.)

AVI 5287; BAD 200170

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen. RF hydria. From Vulci. Hypsis. Last quarter sixth. 510-500. Ca. 500 (Lullies).

Decoration: Shoulder: two boys on horseback and a chariot with the charioteer mounting. Body: three Amazons getting ready: an Amazon holding a spear and helmet; another Amazon trying

out her trumpet; an Amazon grasping her shield.

Inscriptions: Shoulder: under the tail of the rear horse: Σιμος. Below the head of the other horse: Πεδιος(?).{2} To right of the driver's head, at a distance: κ(α)λος. To right of the chariot horses: (χ)αιρε. Body: behind the left Amazon's back, the first 5 letters retr. and facing: (Α)νδ(ρ)ομαχε. Above and behind the second Amazon: χευχε. On her right: Αιντιο(π)εα. Similar for the third Amazon: hυφοπυλε.{3} Along the right-hand margin: hυφσις εγραφςεν.{4} Under the foot: Gr.: ΛΗΚV. ΛΗ. ΜΕ, retr. (Etruscan).(5)

Commentary: Badly written, with odd shapes especially of pi, tau, phi and chi. ληκυ<θος-οι>.

Footnotes: {1} `Korrekturvorschlag von Nεδιος in Πεδιευς' (CVA). {2} My suggestion from Reichhold's dr. This could be Πεδιος, gen. of Πεδιευς (see ARV[2] 1605 and AttScr (1990), 71). Formerly read νεδιος or hεριας (Furtwängler), the last thought possible by Beazley (ARV[2] 1583: ḥερ̣ια̣[), who also thought of hερ[μ]ιας. Cf. also Threatte (1980), 145 (the Attic form was Ηρεας [but LGPN ii lists Ηριας from a fifth-century inscription from Thorikos]). Hence Ηριας (perhaps in the form hεριας [[h(ε)]]) should perhaps be accepted here, a variant of Ηρεας. {3} perhaps for hυφ[σ]οπυλε, itself misspelled for hυφσιπυλε. {4} Furtwängler points out that Hypsis is a man's name, not a woman's, as had been thought; he thought it short for Υψιας. The second word `set off'. {5} Johnston (1979), 153/2F,55. Facs. in FR ii.

Bibliography: *FR ii, 112-16, pl. 82 (drs.), whence M. Ohly-Dumm, Attische Vasenbilder der Antikensammlungen in München i (1975), pl. 17. Bloesch, JHS 71 (1951) 35, foot, no. 1. *CV, Germany 20, pls. 222,2, 224, 225,3, 226,6, p. 19, facss. of Grr. and Dipp. (vast bibl.). Schöne, `Über einige eingeritzte Inschriften griechischer Thongefässe,' Commentationes ... Mommsenii (1877) 658 (Grr.). Hartwig, Meisterschalen 81 n. 1.(1) Hackl 40/420 and 49/564. ARV(2) 30/1, *1583, 1620, Add.(2) 156. Boardman, ARFV, fig. 43 (body). Script 419.


Σιμος > SZó ÍM ÖSZi > szó ím öszi (word tortures him)

Π̣εδιο̣ς > ePEDő JÓ SZó > epedő jó szó (languishing good word)

κ(α)λος > oKKAL ÖSZi > okkal öszi (it tortures him with reason)

(χ)αιρε > aGGYA' ÍR E > aggyal ír e (this writes with the brain)


          S ím öszi, epedő jó szó okkal öszi, aggyal ír e. (Word tortures him, the languishing good word tortures him with reason, this writes with the brain.)



          AVI5287B (Α)νδ(ρ)ομαχε > A Nő DuRRO' MA uGYE > A nő durrol (durrog) ma ugye (the woman bangs/mutters today, doesn’t she)

ΧΕΥΧΕ > eGYE' ÜGGYE' > Egyel üggyel (it mixes with the case)

          Αντιο(π)εα > A NóTa JÓ BE A > a nóta jó, be a (the song is good, but the)

Ηυψοπυλε > HíVó FŐ’éPÜL-E > hívó fölépül-e? (will the caller recover?)

           Ηυφσις εγραφσεν > HíVó Fé'SZe IS E GaRA FeSZÉN > hívó félsze is e gara (gőg) feszén (vészén) (this is the caller's fear as well, on the stretch of arrogance)


Under the foot in Greek (Etruscan):

           ΛΗΚ.ΛΗ.ΜΕ > LéHa Ki NáLa HÍME' > léha ki nála hímel (mentegetőzik) (light-minded who makes excuses to her)


           A nő durrol (durrog) ma, ugye? Egyel üggyel. A nóta jó, be a hívó fölépül-e? Hívó félsze is e, gara (gőg) feszén (vészén) léha ki nála hímel (mentegetőzik). (The woman bangs/mutters today, doesn’t she? It mixes with the case. The song is good, but will the caller (on the trumpet) recover? This is the caller's fear as well, on the stretch of arrogance is the light-minded, who makes excuses to her.)

AVI 5289; BAD 201796

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2424. RF hydria (kalpis). From Agrigento. Unattributed (ARV[2]); Manner of Kleophrades Painter{1} (ARV[1]). Early fifth

AVI5289Decoration: Body: a satyr with a lyre.

Inscriptions: Body: nonsense: between the satyr's face and the lyre: ισλι{2}. Complete{3}.

Commentary: ισλι is very similar to very early nonsense inscriptions by the Kleophrades Painter: see my paper `The Lettering of Euphronios,' Euphronios und Seine Zeit (colloquium Berlin 19-20 April 1991, 1992) 53. Cf. Leipzig T 663: a similar attribution problem and similar inscriptions.

Footnotes: {1} in his earliest period. Perhaps Euthymides? (Robertson). {2} the lambda might be an upsilon. {3} no more drawn by Beazley.

Bibliography: *dr. — ARV[1] (1942), 129/4. — ARV[2] (1963), 193, 1633. — Robertson (1980), 127 n. 16. — Ohly-Dumm (1984), 171 n. 54. — Robertson (1992), 64, fig. 52 and n. 133.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5507


ισλι > ισυι{2} > ISZáVa' Ü' > Iszával ül. (It sits with drunkards.)

AVI 5309; BAD 200535

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2606. RF cup. From Vulci. Oltos. Memnon, kalos. Last quarter sixth 520-510

Decoration: Int.: a naked woman cleaning her sandals. A: Dionysus seated, with a donkey, and a satyr riding a donkey. B: riding lesson? (two youths on horseback and a man).



Inscriptions: Int.: Μεμ[νον] [καλ]ος. A: Διονυσος. Behind the satyr, five indecipherable characters. B: nonsense: καικασ σεμονι{1}. For the inscription on B see 4419.



Commentary: The readings and description after ARV[2], given to Beazley by Lullies after a cleaning. K.-D. reads the satyr name as [Ο]ιν[ος], but says that there are other possibilities; for parallels see Kossatz-Deissmann. For the subject of the Int., Beazley compares Naples Stg. 5 (ARV[2] 32/4) and Stratonikos' remark in Athenaeus 351a.

Footnotes: {1} see 4419.

Bibliography: *Photo (Int.). — RE XVII/2 (1937), s.v. Oinos 4 (Schmidt). — *ARV[2] (1963), 64/102, 1622. — Add.[2] (1989), 166. — AttScr (1990), no. 343. — Kossatz-Deissmann (1991), 164 (Oinos 1).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5527


Int.:      Μεμ[νον] [καλ]ος > íME Mi [NŐN] [oKKA' iLL]ŐS > Íme mi [nőn] [okkal ill]ős! (Look, what suits woman with reason.)


A:        Διονυσος > Διονισος [Ο]ιν[ος]{commentary} > DűLJÖN ISZOS [Ő] INNi [OSSZa] > Dűljön iszos, [ő] inni [ossza]. (Let the drink pour/flow, he deals it to drink.)


B:        καικασ σεμονι > oKKA' IKASSa SZEMe ÖNNI > Okkal ikassa szeme önni. (Its (the horse's) eye with reason urges it to eat.)

AVI 5324; BAD 201386

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2623. RF cup. From Vulci. Manner of Epeleios Painter. Last quarter sixth

Decoration: Int.: an athlete (runner) bending forward with arms outstretched.

Inscriptions: Int.: nonsense: imitation letters: above the youth's back: ολο. In front of the youth: (.)ο(.)h. Below: οσ(.)ρ.

Bibliography: *F. Hauser (1895), 186, fig. 5 (Int.). — ARV[2] (1963), 151/62, 1628.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5543


           ολο (.)ο(.)h οσ(.)ρ > ÖLŐ LOB Ha ÖSSZeTöR > Ölő lob ha összetör. (Rapidity kills if crushes you.)

AVI 5331; BAD 204363

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2640. RF cup. From Vulci. Foundry Painter. First quarter fifth



Decoration: Centauromachy: Int.: Lapith and centaur. A: Lapith and centaur; Lapith; Lapith and centaur. B: (fragmentary): Lapith; centaur and Lapith.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: Int.: to left of the Lapith's head, along the margin: ν(ο)εσγσς, retr. On its right, similar: (λ)υνσεσ. A: to right of the heads of the pair at left: (ο)νσευν. Similar to right of the single Lapith's head: (λ)νγυγσε. To right of the right Lapith's head: (σ)ν(ν)εγν(ο)ν. B: to right of the centaur's head: νσνλε(.).

Commentary: The inscriptions on the Int. are written without turning the vase (see AttScr (1990), 89). Perhaps an inscription for each Lapith?

Bibliography: *FR (1904–32), ii, 132-35, pl. 86. — [[Lullies–Hirmer (1953), pls. 80 top, 81–3 (uncl., foot quite cl.)]]. — ARV[2] (1963), 402/22, 1651. — Para. (1971), 370. — Add.[2] (1989), 231. — Beazley (1989), 81, pls. 60-61.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5550


Int.:      ν(ο)εσγσς > NŐi ÉSZ GuSZáS > női ész guszás (the woman's mind is confused)

(λ)υνσεσ > LoVoN SZeSZ > lovon szesz (on horse capricious)


           Női ész guszás (kuszás), lovon szesz. (The woman's mind is confused, on horse capricious.)


A:       (ο)νσευν > Ő NőSSE' VaN > ő nőssel van (she is with a married)

           (λ)νγυγσε > LáNGo'Va éGeSSE > lángolva égesse (let him/her burn with flame)

           (σ)ν(ν)εγν(ο)ν > eSZéN NEGéNY ÖNe > eszén negény öne (on his/her mind the selfishness of affectation)


           Ő nőssel van, lángolva égesse eszén negény öne! (She is with a married, let him/her burn on his/her mind with flame the selfishness of affectation!)


B:        νσνλε(.) > NőSöN LÉT > Nősön lét! (Existence is on married!)


These mountaineers (Lapiths and centaurs) seem to have had erotic orgies, and thus won a reputation for promiscuity among the monogamous Hellenes; members of this Neolithic race survived in the Arcadian mountains, and on Mount Pindus, until Classical times, and vestiges of their pre-Hellenic language are to be found in modern Albania.” (R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 102.1.)


AVI 5332; BAD 203914

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2645. RF/WG cup. From Vulci. Brygos Painter. Brygos, potter. Early fifth

Decoration: Int. (WG): maenad. A: Dionysus with a satyr and two maenads. B: three maenads and a satyr.



Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: on a suspended wineskin: εν(π)οεσ{1}. B: to the left maenad's lower right: εοεσ. Between the heads of the second maenad and the satyr: νοννν. Between the heads of the satyr and the third maenad: νον. Under one handle: εσει.

Commentary: The inscriptions done after Reichhold's plates.

Footnotes: {1} the pi could be a heta.

Bibliography: *FR (1904–32), i, 249-51, pl. 49 (dr.). — [[Lullies–Hirmer (1953), pls. 64–9 (νοννν pl. 66 bottom uncl., 67 quite cl., ενμ̣οεσ pl. 68 quite cl.)]]. — ARV[2] (1963), 371/15, 1649. — Para. (1971), 365. — Add.[2] (1989), 225 (much bibl.). — Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), figs. 69.8 (A), 71.8 (Int.), 71.12 (B).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5551


A:        εν(π)οεσ > εν(π)θεσ > É'Ni BeCSES > Élni becses. (It is honour to live.)


B:        εοεσ νοννν > εθεσ νοννν > E CSESZő/ECSő ÉSZ NŐN NőNe > E csesző/ecső ész nőn nőne. (This fucking mind would grow on woman.)

 νον εσει >NŐN ESZÉLY > Nőn eszély. (Prudence is on woman.)


AVI 5355; BAD 209042

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 7821. RF lekythos. Carlsruhe Painter. Second quarter fifth Ca. 460 (Lullies).

Decoration: Column; a woman spinning; a wool basket.

Inscriptions: Between the column and the woman: καλοσχσ{1}.

Footnotes: {1} i.e. καλος χσ, with two nonsense letters added.

Bibliography: Beazley (1932a), 139. — *Lullies (1938), 462, fig. 40. — ARV[2] (1963), 732/50, 1668.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5574


καλοσχσ > KALLÓS GYáSZ > Kallós gyász. (The cloth-miller's mourning.)



AVI 5358; BAD 202704

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 8726. RF amphora. Flying-Angel Painter. First quarter fifth

Decoration: A: a bearded warrior with the right hand on his knee. B: a warrior holding out a piece of cloth in his raised right hand.

Inscriptions: B: above the warrior, in a large curve, nonsense: an imitation inscription: (.)λυα(ο)(σ){1}.

Footnotes: {1} the first letter resembles a small upside-down alpha; the fifth letter is smeared; the sixth, z-shaped.

Bibliography: *R. Lullies, CVA Munich 4, Germany 12 (1956), pls. 189,1-2 and 190,2-3; p. 22 (facs.). — ARV[2] (1963), 280/8.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5577


           (.)λυα(ο)(σ) > Ηλυαδζ{1} > HáLáVa' Á'DoZ > Hálával áldoz. (He sacrifices with gratitude.)

AVI 5368

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 8991. Phiale in Six' technique. Onesimos. Early fifth 510-500 (Hoesch).

Decoration: Int.: acrobatics of four nude hetaerae before two large vessels.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: four inscriptions, one between each pair of hetaerae: οστν. (σ)σ(τ)ν{1}. στ(.)ο. The fourth inscription is illegible{2}.

Commentary: Only the first inscription is shown clearly in the photo. Typical `Euthymidean' nonsense.

Footnotes: {1} the reading is from a photo and quite uncertain. {2} Ohly-Dumm reads: OSTN repeated, once retr. The photo, fig. 3, shows once: οστ(.), the last letter illegible.

Bibliography: Juranek (1978–9), 107ff. — *Ohly-Dumm (1979), 206-209, n. 12. — AttScr (1990), no. 516. — Hoesch (1990), 232, fig. 37.6 and 482.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5587


οστν > ÖSZTöN > ösztön (instinct)

(σ)σ(τ)ν > ισ(τ)ν{1} > ISTeN > Isten (God)

στ(.)ο > SZóTiLÓ/SZóTáRÓ > szótiló/szótáró (word-comber/revealer)

οστ(.) > οστν{2} > ŐSTaN > őstan (ancient teaching)

?!        Ösztön Isten, szótiló/szótáró őstan! (Instinct is God, word-comber/revealer is ancient teaching!)

AVI 5370; BAD 31933

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 9407. Fragmentary BF lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth 560-550 (Fellmann).

AVI5370Decoration: Lip: A: a stag facing a panther. B: fragmentary: a panther facing a stag (not so well centered).

Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: A: in large letters, well centered under the figures, between handle palmettes: ε(ν)λεπλυ(ν)(σ)γυ(.)χτ. B: not well centered: shifted to left and extending beyond the stag's rear: ε(.)(ν)(.)τχ(ν)ο(τ)(.)ο(.)ι̣υγλοχ.

Commentary: The frs. put together by Fellmann. Nonsense with some imitation letters; the writing is large. F. attributes the frs. to the same hand as London Market (Sotheby (1984b), no. 375).

Bibliography: *B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 10, Germany 56 (1988), pl. 2, Beilage 1,3 (no bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5590


A:        ε(ν)λεπλυ(ν)(σ)γυ(.)χτ > ENYeL ÉPP eLeVeNSéGéVe' GYóGYíT > Enyel (tréfa) épp elevenségével gyógyít. (Joke/jest exactly with its liveliness heals.)

B:        ε(.)(ν)(.)τχ(ν)ο(τ)(.)ο(.)ι̣υγλοχ > ERéNY KöTi uGYaN ŐT JŐ KI VéGüL O'DJa > Erény köti ugyan őt, jő ki végül oldja. (The virtue although ties her one will come at the end to untie her.)

AVI 5382; BAD 31933

AVI5382Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen 9422. Frs. of BF lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Lip: A: an animal made up of lion, male goat and bull. B: similar.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: A: ενιυεπιυπιυπιυ[...]. B: [...]υ[..]υχνιυιυνιυι.

Commentary: Fellmann compares Heidelberg S 35, CVA 4, pl. 154,6, fr. of a BF lip cup with a bull on the lip and an inscription with the ιυπ pattern. Is coicidence excluded? [I think so.].

Bibliography: *B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 10, Germany 56 (1988), pl. 25,6-10, Beilage 7,2 (no bibl.). — Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), fig. 10.16 (part of A).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5602


A:        ενιυεπιυπιυπιυ[...] > ENNYIVE' éPÜ'Ve BŰVeBB IVó > Ennyivel épülve bűvebb ivó ... (Built with so many it is more bewitched drinker ...)


B:        [...]υ[..]υχνιυιυνιυι >Ű eGYéNI VÍVó iNNI VÍ > ű egyéni vívó, inni ví. (… s/he is a unique fighter, fights to drink.)

AVI 5387; BAD 1006092

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen M 1096. BF lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Lip: A: two naked youths running. B: similar.



Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: imitation: A: (ν)(.)χ(ν)ιτ(ν)ιχ(χ). B: (ν)ιχγιχ(.)χ(.)χ.

Commentary: = Jahn 735. On permanent loan to Erlangen. The alien foot now removed. Each inscription has 10 letters. The nu's are reversed and indistinguishable fom sideways sigmas.

Bibliography: Grünhagen (1948), 43. — *B. Fellmann, CVA Munich 10, Germany 56 (1988), pl. 29,1-4, Beilage 8,3.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5607


A:        (ν)(.)χ(ν)ιτ(ν)ιχ(χ) > σ(.)χσιτσιχ(χ){commentary} > SZŰ GYáSZa ITT SZŰ GYóGYJa > Szű gyásza itt szű gyógyja. (The mourning of the heart is here the healing of the heart.)


B:        (ν)ιχγιχ(.)χ(.)χ > σιχγιχ(.)χ(.)χ{commentary} > SZŰ GYú GŰGYŰ GYÓGY > Szű gyú, gűgyű gyógy. (The heart is ignition, the matchmaker is cure.)

AVI 5393; BAD 7642

Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen SL 461. BF psykter. From Tarentum. Unattributed. Last quarter sixth 510-500 (?)

Decoration: Symposium: four men (one bearded) on four couches (one, a youth, vomits); a nude male musician at the left end of each couch.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: above the leftmost flautist, wavy: hοπνυνν{1}. Behind him: γι(γ){2}. In front: νεϝγ{3}. Behind (to right of) the first man on a couch: four letters. Above the second symposiast and extending to the right of the second flautist, in a curve, to be read upside down(?): ν(δ)θνεδϝν{4}. Behind the third musician (lyre player): νε vac. νεδ. To right of him(?) and above the third symposiast, an inscription beginning: νο ... , retr. To right of the fourth player: four letters. To left of the face of the fourth symposiast: two letters.

Commentary: The inscriptions recall the Leagros Group.

Footnotes: {1} an uncertain reading; the inscription extends to, or starts from, the mouth of a singing symposiast. {2} uncertain reading from a photo. {3} the digamma is uncertain. {4} the first delta is upside down. This shows in V.&K., fig. 45.1: the nu's may be sigmas. The theta is clear.

Bibliography: *J. Sieveking (1930), 54-55, pl. 42. — Drougou (1975), 14/A 15, 84, pl. 27,1 (A(?), shows inscriptions, but small). — Vierneisel–Kaeser (1990), figs. 36.2 (small) and 45.1 (detail with vomiting symposiast).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5613


            hοπνυνν > hοπσυσσ{4} > HO' BőSZaVú iSZoS > hol bőszavú iszos (where is talkative drunkard)

γι(γ) νεϝγ > γι(γ) σεϝγ{4} > GÍG SE-VéGe > gíg se-vége (giggle, no-end)

ν(δ)θνεδϝν > σρθσεδϝσ{4} > SZüRCS SE üDVöS > szürcs se üdvös (sip, neither salutary)

            νε νεδ νο ... > σε σεδ σο …{4} > SE eSEDő SZÓ … > se esedő szó … (neither imploring word ...)


           Hol bőszavú iszos gíg(-gág), (ott) se-vége szürcs, se üdvös, se esedő szó … (Where is talkative drunkard's giggle, (there) is no-end sip, neither salutary, neither imploring word ...)

AVI 5419; BAD 208223

AVI5419Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale 2438. BF/WG lekythos. From Ruvo. Near Bowdoin Painter and Athena Painter; Semi-outline Lekythoi. First half fifth

Decoration: A man leaning on his stick, and a cock; a lyre hung up; oil flask.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: on the man's left: (μ)οτοτσ{1}. At man's right: στ(ι)εο(.){2}.

Footnotes: {1} the first letter is either a mu turned 90 degrees or a four-stroke sigma reversed. {2} the third letter is quite unclear; the last is indistinct.

Bibliography: *Photo. — Fairbanks (1907), Group A, Class 1/1 (not ill.). — *ARV[2] (1963), 689/1.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5640


(μ)οτοτσ > Σοτοτσ{1} > SZÓ' TÖTTeS > Szól töttes (the culprit speaks)

στ(ι)εο(.) > στ(ι)εο{ToS/Z}{2} > SüTőJE ÖTTeS > sütője öttes (his oven is feeder)


Szól töttes: sütője öttes. (The culprit speaks: his oven is feeder.)






AVI5424AVI 5424; BAD 203097

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale 2763. WG lekythos. From Locri Epizephyrii. Unattributed{1}. Diosphos Potter{2}. First half fifth

Decoration: A satyr dressed in a himation with a goat.

Inscriptions: To the satyr's left, nonsense: τσισι.

Footnotes: {1} general kinship with the Diosphos Painter. {2} side-palmette lekythoi no. 13.

Bibliography: *Fairbanks (1907), Group A, Class 3/12, fig. 26. — ARV[2] (1963), 302/13, 304.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5646


τσισι > ToSZi IS Ű > Toszi is ű. (He also fucks it.)



AVI5428AVI 5428; BAD 204094

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale 2961. RF plastic rhyton (head vase: donkey's head). From Ruvo. Brygos Painter. First quarter fifth

Decoration: Neck: Eros and boys.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: ιολεσ(.)σ. Hoffmann speaks of nonsense inscriptions in the plural.

Commentary: There are no doubt other inscriptions.

Bibliography: *Photo. — Heydemann (1872), 449/2961 (bibl), pl. 8 (inscriptions). — Hoffmann (1962), 11/12, pl. 3,2 (does not show inscriptions). — ARV[2] (1963), 383/195, 1649.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5650


ιολεσ(.)σ > JÓL ESDeS > Jól esdes. (S/he/it implores/beseeches well.)



AVI 5440; BAD 14139

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale 81127. BF cup. Unattributed. Second half sixth 530-510 (CVA).

Decoration: Int.: animal. Two heads turned back, one of an archer. A: harnessing a chariot (six figures). B: 5 horsemen.

Inscriptions: Int.: nonsense: around the scene, circular: ο̣ι^ο^ισ(.)υλαγο{1}.

Commentary: = 2457. The surface is poorly preserved. Done entirely from CVA.

Footnotes: {1} so the dr. in CVA; they suspect: ........καλος. But the letters are near-imitation letters. The spacing is irregular.

Bibliography: Heydemann (1872), [[308f./]]no. 2457, pl. 5. — *A. Adriani, CVA Naples 1, Italy 20 (1950), III H e, pls. 28,1-3 and 33,4.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5662


           ο̣ι^ο^ισ(.)υλαγο > OLY Ő IS Ki ViLÁGO' > Oly ő is ki világol. (S/he/it is also such who/what glows.)





AVI 5441; BAD 14134

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale 81129. BF eye cup. From Etruria. Unattributed. 530-520

Decoration: Int.: satyr. Between eyes: A: Heracles and the bull. B: similar.

Inscriptions: Int.: to the satyr's right: nonsense: ταιτ(.)πι{1}. Under the foot, Gr.: λχα, retr. Not in Johnston (1979).

Commentary: = 2773.

Footnotes: {1} The bracketed letter may be intended for iota: ταιτιπι(?).

Bibliography: Heydemann (1872), [[386f./]]no. 2773, pl. 13. — *A. Adriani, CVA Naples 1, Italy 20 (1950), III H e, pl. 30,1-3.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5663


           ταιτ(.)πι λχα > iTT A' ITA' BŰ éLő iGYA > Itt a' ital bű, élő igya! (Here the drink is plenty, drink it lively!)


AVI 5442; BAD 301452

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale 81132. BF band cup. From Vulci. Near Elbows Out. Third quarter sixth 550-530

Decoration: Handle zone: A, B, each: a stag hunt on horseback.



Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: A: between the left horseman and a palmette, up: στοστου. To left of the deer, up: πετοτοσ. On its right, up: τοτοτοσ. Between the right horseman and a palmette, up: ιδιοοτο. B: to left of the deer: το(ο)το(τ)οτ. To right of it: ο(ϝ)σ(ϝ)ρου.

Commentary: = 2500. The inscriptions are reproduced in CVA after Heydemann's drs.; they are not very clear in the photos.

Bibliography: Heydemann (1872), [[321/]]no. 2500, pl. 5. — Beazley (1931–2), 21/15. — *A. Adriani, CVA Naples 1, Italy 20 (1950), III H e, pl. 18,2-3. — ABV (1956), 252/1. — AttScr (1990), no. 1089.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5664


A:       στοστου > oSZTi Ő SüTŐVe' > Oszti ő sütővel. (He divides it with the baker.)

πετοτοσ > éPP E'TŐ TÖSZi > Épp ejtő töszi. (The killer just does it.)

τοτοτοσ > iTT Ö'TŐ TÖSZi > Itt öltő töszi. (Here the thruster does it.)

ιδιοοτο > IDő JÓ O'TÓ > Idő jó oltó. (Time is good extinguisher.)


B:        το(ο)το(τ)οτ > uTÓ Ö'TŐ Tö'T > Utó öltő tölt. (Afterwards the thruster pours.)

           ο(ϝ)σ(ϝ)ρου > Ő ViSZi eVőRe Ö'Ve > Ő viszi evőre ölve. (He will take you killed on eating.)


AVI 5448; BAD 13837

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale 81145. BF lip cup. From Etruria. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth 550-530

AVI5448Decoration: Lip: A, B, each: ram.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: υκολιυλμυ<(.)(π). B: υαλ(.)χλυ(.)γυγχ.

Commentary: = 2480. The writing is unclear, almost in imitation letters (but the drs. in CVA are from Heydemann and hence not very reliable). Pi = Ionic gamma. The other letters miswritten.

Bibliography: Heydemann (1872), [[315/]]2480, pl. 5. — *A. Adriani, CVA Naples 1, Italy 20 (1950), III H e, pl. 14,7.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5670


A:        υκολιυλμυ<(.)(π) > υκολιυλμυ{Λ DőL}(.)(π) > VaKOLI VaLó Mi VaLóDi éLŐBe' > Vakoli való mi valódi élőben (The reality plasters (hides) what is real/true in living (in living person).)


B:        υαλ(.)χλυ(.)γυγχ > VALó váGGYaL ViLáGo'Va/VáJoGo'Va GöGY > Való vággyal világolva/vájogolva gögy. (Reality illuminated/stirred with desire is chattering.)


AVI 5449; BAD 306782

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale 81154. BF skyphos. From Ruvo. Theseus Painter (Haspels). Early fifth

AVI5449Decoration: A: Heracles reclining, with two satyrs. B: similar.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: behind Heracles' back: οσγσ. B: in a similar position: οσγνκ.

Commentary: = 2468.

Bibliography: Heydemann (1872), [[312/]]no. 2468, pl. 5. — Haspels (1936), 249/6. — *A. Adriani, CVA Naples 1, Italy 20 (1950), III H e, pl. 46,3-5. — ABV (1956), 703. — Wolf (1993), figs. 93-97.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5671


A:        οσγσ > ŐSi iGe SZó' > Ősi ige szól. (Ancient word calls.)


B:        οσγνκ > ŐSi iGéNYeK > Ősi igények. (Ancient desires.)

AVI 5469; BAD 6545

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale 86339. Lekythos in Six' technique. Workshop of Sappho Painter and Diosphos Painter (CVA). Beginning fifth

Decoration: An Ethiopian warrior.

Inscriptions: The inscriptions are not now visible. Read by Heydemann: "(.)"αυ{1}. οχπχ(υ)χιο.

Commentary: Surely nonsense.

Footnotes: {1} the second letter = ˘ but at the bottom of the line.

Bibliography: Heydemann (1872), 864/172, pl. 20 (inscr.). — Gàbrici (1913), 507f., pl. 61,1. — Haspels (1936), 228/49. — *N.V. Mele, CVA Naples 5, Italy 69 (1995), pl. 67,1-3; fig. 16 (facs.) (bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5691


            "(.)"αυ > II IIαυ{1} > {KéT}{KáD/KaDa}{KéT}αυ* > KéTKeDőKeT Á'Va > kétkedőket állva (withstanding the doubtful) 

οχπχ(υ)χιο > Ő eGYBe' eGYü'VE íGY JŐ > ő egyben együlve így jő (he comes united in one this way)


* The ligatures stands for {K+T}: II=KéT/KeTTő 'two' and {K+D}: ᴗ=KáD/KaDa 'bath/deep'.


           Kétkedőket állva ő egyben együlve így jő. (Withstanding the doubtful he comes united in one this way.)


No doubt, this is a word play with the numerals one (egy) and two (két/kettö).

AVI 5471; BAD 47061

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale 86382. Lekythos in Six' technique. Sappho Painter. Beginning fifth (CVA).

Decoration: A naked nereid(1) (holding a fish and riding on a panther).

Inscriptions: At left: υσιουο. To right of her face: οτι^στισ{2}.

Commentary: Fiorelli (1856) read: υμνιουα αγαστις [presumably: υμνιο(σ)α], but Heydemann saw that the inscriptions are nonsense.

Footnotes: {1} nereid, Haspels; maenad, CVA; Europa, Zahn; Great Mother, Technau; hybrid, alii. {2} the fish intervenes.

Bibliography: Heydemann (1872), 867/185, pl. 20 (inscr.). — Haspels (1936), 97 n. 5 and 227/41. — *N.V. Mele, CVA Naples 5, Italy 69 (1995), pls. 66,1-3 and 74,6; fig. 15 (facs.) (bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5693


           υσιουο οτι^στισ > υμνιουα αγαστις{Commentary} > VáMoN JÓVA' AGGASZTó IS > Vámon jóval aggasztó is. (On customs/pillage with goods are the aging/alarming also.)

AVI 5472; BAD 46104

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale 86383. BF alabastron. From Cumae. Diosphos Painter (CVA). Beginning fifth (CVA).

Decoration: A: Peleus and Thetis. B: an old man leaning on a cane; a woman greeting him; an altar and a palm trees; Peleus and Thetis; the scenes are separated by palm trees.

Inscriptions: B: behind the man, irregular: καλος{1}. Between the two figures: nonsense: νυοσνοα{2}.

Commentary: = RC 383. The dr. in JdI is poor. Fiorelli (cited in CVA) and Heydemann tried to make sense of both inscriptions.

Footnotes: {1} this could be nonsense as is the other inscription. {2} the alpha is at a distance from the other letters.

Bibliography: Heydemann (1872), 874/207, pl. 20 (inscr.). — *Studniczka (1928), 188, fig. 35 [dr. after Mon. Ant. 22 (1913), pl. 61,2]. — Haspels (1936), 237/114. — *N.V. Mele, CVA Naples 5, Italy 69 (1995), pl. 76,1-5; fig. 19 (facs.) (bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5694


           καλος νυοσνοα > oKKA' iLLŐS NeVe OSoNÓ Á' > Okkal illős neve: osonó áll! (Her name suits with reason: the sneaking one stands!)

AVI 5488

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale Stg. 5. RF cup. From Etruria. Pezzino Group{1}. Euxitheos, potter (?) (Blösch). Last quarter sixth

AVI5488Decoration: Int.: a naked woman, seated, sponging her boot; a naked woman with an alabastron. A: Dionysus with satyrs and maenads. B: komos at a krater.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: Int.: at left: (.)(ο)ιε{2}. Between heads: υχγ{2}. At right: ο(π)επχι. A: To Dionysus' right: τετε, retr. And many more. B: between the legs of the man at the krater: χλεχι. Elsewhere: απχ. εχο. χυ, retr.?{3}.

Commentary: Sloppy writing; the first letter of the first inscription is smeared, the second wide open at the left; the first pi of the third inscription = Ionic gamma. For the nonsense tradition stemming from Euthymides see my article `The Lettering of Euphronius,' in Euphronios und seine Zeit (1992) 52f. The lettering on Naples Stg. 5 is particularly close to that on Munich 2420.

Footnotes: {1} ARV[1] 81: Chelis Group; shows the influence of Euthymides and the Kleophrades Painter in his earliest phase (for the relationship see ARV[1] 120) and is to be grouped with Leiden 18 h 36 [= PC 85] and Munich 2420. ARV[2] 114: now considered by the same hand as the last two [see ARV[2] 32/1 and 3] and placed under the heading of the Pezzino Painter. [But on p. 32 only the Pezzino Group is mentioned, which is said to be somewhat akin to the earliest work of the Kleophrades Painter.] {2} there may be more. {3} more inscriptions?

Bibliography: *Photos. — Bloesch (1940), 44/2. — ARV[1] (1942), 81/7. — ARV[2] (1963), 32/4, 114. — Add.[2] (1989), 157.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5710


Int.:     (.)(ο)ιε > JÓ JE' > jó jel (good sign)

υχγ > υχγχ > UGYe GaGYa > ugye gagya (aren't they, drawers)

ο(π)επχι > Ö'BE' BuGYI/BuGY Ű > ölben bugyi/bugy ű (in lap are panties/knobs)


          Jó jel. Ugye gagya (gatya) ölben bugyi/bugy ű. (Good sign. The drawers in lap are panties/knobs, aren't they.)


A:       τετε > TE'T E > telt e ... (… is it full ...)


B:       χλεχι > iGYáL eGYÜ' > Igyál együl. (Drink as one.)

           απχ εχο χυ > A BuGYi E GYÓGYáVa' > A bugyi e gyógyával ... (With the healing of the panties ...)

AVI 5493; BAD 352440

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale Stg. 145. BF skyphos. Unattributed. Last quarter sixth 530-510 (CVA).

AVI5493Decoration: A, B, each: 2 running satyrs.

Inscriptions: On the sides, nonsense: A: γρουϝϝ and χειϝυ. B: γυχος and χϝιϝι.

Commentary: The letters are coarse and unclear. CVA's facss. are from Heydemann and thus not reliable.

Bibliography: *A. Adriani, CVA Naples 1, Italy 20 (1950), III H e, pl. 42,5 (facs. in text). — Para. (1971), 90 (band skyphos).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5715


A:       γρουϝϝ χειϝυ > íGéRő VeVő VeGYE JaVáVa' > Ígérő vevő vegye javával! (Let promising buyer buy it with his goods (making an advance)!)


B:       γυχος χϝιϝι > iGéVe' aGYOS GYáVa-JeGYI > Igével agyos gyáva-jegyi. (The brainy with words is coward-signed.)

AVI 5495; BAD 302609

Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale Stg. 172. BF cup. From Capua. Kallis Painter. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: A: heads of Dionysus and Semele. On the left a vine and a satyr under the handle; on the right, a vine with a satyr climbing and another under the handle. B: heads of a maenad, Dionysus and two other maenads.



Inscriptions: A: by the satyr under the left handle: nonsense: νι(.)(ν)ριο, and down: γειογ(υ){1}. Above Dionysus' head: Διονυσος. Along Semele's forehead: Σεμελε, retr. Above her head: σνσο(ν)(ν)υ, retr.(?). Along the back of the climbing satyr: (.)ε(.)>γειο(.){1}. B: above Dionysus' head: χπιογνιτκπ. Between Dionysus and his drinking horn: Διονυσος, retr. Above the head of first maenad to his right: Καλ<λ>ις. Similar for the maenad at right: Σιμε. The left maenad is not inscribed.

Commentary: Cup proto-A. - The handwriting resembles that on Athens, N.M. 17,873, by the same painter, q.v. K.-F. thinks the subject of A is the chthonic Dionysus bringing back Semele from the Underworld and celebrating the rising sap of the vine by raising his kantharos. Discussion of Buscher, Feldmäuse 5 and Berard, Anodoi 72. The inscriptions are a mixture of sense and nonsense.

Footnotes: {1} the reading is doubtful.

Bibliography: CIG 4 (1855–77), no. 7446b. — C. Fränkel (1912), 21 and 84/K. — Beazley (1936), 91. — Bloesch (1940), 4,7, pl. 2,1. — Vanderpool (1945), 439f. — *A. Adriani, CVA Naples 1, Italy 20 (1950), III H e, pls. 21,1-3 and 22,1-2 (facs. in text). — *ABV (1956), 203,1, 689. — Vacano (1973), 233, A 164. — *Callipolitis-Feytmans (1980), 317ff., fig. 4 (A). — Add.[2] (1989), 55 (bibl.). — Kossatz-Deissmann (1991), 182 (Kalis (Kallis) 1).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5717


A:       νι(.)(ν)ριο > eNNI KeNYéR JÓ > enni kenyér jó (bread is good to eat)

γειογ(υ) > éG E JOGáVa' > ég e jogával (with this right of heaven)

          Διονυσος > DIONÜSZOSZ DőLJÖN VeSSZŐS > Dionüszosz, dőljön vesszős (Dionysos, let pour of wine-stock)

Σεμελε > SZEMME' LÉ > szemmel lé (juice with the eyes)

σνσο(ν)(ν)υ > SZíVáSON NYe'Ve' > szíváson nyelvel (on sucking with tongue)

          (.)ε(.)>γειο(.) > LEVe éLeDő eLeGE JÖN > leve éledő elege jön (the best of its reviving juice comes)


          Enni kenyér jó. Ég e jogával, Dionüszosz, dőljön vesszős szemmel lé, szíváson nyelvel leve éledő elege jön. (Bread is good to eat. With this right of heaven, Dionysos, let juice pour with the eyes (grapes) of wine-stock, on sucking with tongue the best of its reviving juice comes.)


B:       χπιογνιτκπ > χπιθγνιτκπ > íGY PITYoGó iNNI iTT KAP > így pityogó inni itt kap (this way drunkard here gets to drink)

Διονυσος > De JÖN VeSSZŐS > de jön vesszős (but comes the stocky)

Καλ<λ>ις > Ki ÁLLI iS > ki álli is (who can stand it as well)

Σιμε > iSZI íMME' > iszi ímmel (he drinks it reluctantly)


          Így pityogó inni itt kap, de jön vesszős ki álli is, iszi ímmel! (This way drunkard here gets to drink, but comes the stocky who can stand it as well, he drinks it reluctantly!)

AVI 5521; BAD 306504

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 74.51.1331. BF hydria. From Cyprus. Unattributed. Second quarter sixth 570-560



Decoration: Shoulder: two lions facing. Body: Heracles and the Lion; two birds.

Inscriptions: Shoulder: above the left lion's back: λεολεσ and λσ, retr.{1}. To left of his buttocks: χοιχσλσ̣, retr. Between his legs: χασχ̣ι̣ε̣α̣ο̣, complete. Between the lions' foreheads: Καρπος, retr. Between the lions: χιλεσλχιχ, retr. Above the right lion's tail: νεσλ, retr. Between his legs: λχσα̣(.)ει(?). Body: to left of the scene: νει(.)χσ̣χι. Above Heracles' head: hερα<κ>λες, retr.{2}. To right of the lion's face: λεο̣νγ̣ḥεο̣ν, complete. Above the lion's tail, to right of a bird: (.)νιλι. Within the loop of the lion's tail: λει̣λι, complete{3}.

Commentary: = C.P. 1968. Myres and Payne wrongly thought the inscriptions Corinthian. Karpos perhaps a kalos-name with kalos omitted, but it would be very early. The name occurs, e.g., in IG II(2) 11,824 and later; see LGPN ii. Some of the nonsense inscriptions play with the word for lion (mock inscriptions). See Immerwahr (1971), loc. cit.

Footnotes: {1} the first and seventh letters resemble upsilons. {2} the first three letters are upside down. {3} letters marked (.) are misshapen.

Bibliography: *Cesnola (1894), 2, pl. 148/1096. — Payne (1931), 126, n. 2. — Payne (1934), 167, n. 10. — ABV (1956), 314 (mention). — *Schauenburg (1965), 103, fig. 26. — Immerwahr (1971), 58/7. — Brommer (1973), 129/24. — *AttScr (1990), no. 214, fig. 27.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5743



           λεολεσ λσ > υεολεσ υσ{1} > íVE ÖLES VáSZ > íve öles vász (its arch is a fathom long skeleton)

           χοιχσλσ̣ > íGY OLY üGYeS áLLáSa > így oly ügyes állása (its condition is so clever this way)

           χασχ̣ι̣ε̣α̣ο̣ > χασχ̣ι̣βα̣ο̣ > GYÁSZ üGYiBe' Á' Ő > gyász ügyiben áll ő (it stands in the interest of mourning)

Καρπος > KÁR BŐ SZó > kár bő szó (the plenty of words is wrong)

           χιλεσλχιχ > χιλϝϝσλχιχ > GYÜLeVéSZ eLeGY ÍGY > gyülevész elegy így (the mob mixes this way)

νεσλ > NESZeLő > neszelő (the attentive)

           λχσα̣(.)ει(?) > LáGY uSZA éTTE' JŐ > lágy usza éttel jő (with the gentle incitement food comes)


           Íve öles vász (váz), így oly ügyes állása, gyász ügyiben áll ő. Kár bő szó, gyülevész elegy így. Neszelő (vadászkutya) lágy usza (uszítása) éttel jő. (Its arch is a fathom long skeleton, its condition is so clever this way, it stands in the interest of mourning. The plenty of words is wrong, the mob mixes this way. With the gentle incitement of the attentive (hunting dog) food comes.)



          νει(.)χσ̣χι > eNNÉ' IRiGY SZó/SZű eGYÜ' > ennél irigy szó/szű együl (at him envious word/heart unites)

          hερα<κ>λες > hΞραλες{2} > Ha KeSáRa Á' öLÉS > ha kesára áll ölés (when the killing stands for molestation/grumbling)

          λεο̣νγ̣ḥεο̣ν > λεϙνγ̣ḥεϙν > öL-E KiN éG éHHE' KíN > öl-e kin ég éhhel kín (does the one on whom burns torment with hunger kill)

(.)νιλι > ÖNNI öLI > önni öli (he kills to eat)

λει̣λι > LJe éLI > lélje éli (the juice of life feeds him)


          Ennél irigy szó/szű együl ha kesára áll ölés. Öl-e kin ég éhhel kín? Önni öli, lélje éli. (At him envious word/heart unites when the killing stands for molestation/grumbling. Does the one on whom burns torment with hunger kill? He kills to eat, the juice of life feeds him.)


What a rich world of thought in a couple of “nonsense inscriptions” would be lost again if only for the scientists!

AVI 5533; BAD 13334

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 03.24.31. BF lip cup. From Monteleone. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth After 550 (CVA).

Decoration: Lip: A: a sphinx carrying a dead and bearded Theban. B: similar, but the Theban is a youth.


Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: lip: to left of the sphinx, diagonally up: γυτυσυρολυ(λ){1}. On her right, diagonally down: ϝυσϝ(.)υ(.)υ(.). In the handle zone: λ(.)υσυσϝυσυ(.)υχ̣συχ. B: lip: diagonally up: τοτσοτουτ. Diagonally down: λ(.)λσλσ(ϝ)λ(.). Handle zone: υ(.)υ[...](.)συγχι(.){2}.

Commentary: = GR 421. For the arrangement of the inscriptions see parallels in CVA. Many letters are blobs. Lambda and upsilon are indistinguishable.

Footnotes: {1} The last letter reversed; this inscription could also be read retr. {2} my readings.

Bibliography: BADB: 13334. — Richter (1915), 177f. — Richter (1930), 74. — *G. Richter, CVA New York 2, USA 11 (1953), pls. 12,16 and 38,16. — Moret (1984), pl. 7 (A, B). — Markoe–Servint (1985), 26/24 (A). — Roncalli–Bonfante (1991), 185, no. 3.20 (A).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5755


A:       γυτυσυρολυ(λ) > γυτυσυρολυι{1} > éG ŰT ViSZi ÚR ÖLi VaLLJa > ég űt viszi úr öli vallja (heaven takes him, Lord kills him, is taken upon)

          ϝυσϝ(.)υ(.)υ(.) > VíVó SZaVa KöVeTőVe' > vívó szava követővel (his fighting word by his follower)

          λ(.)υσυσϝυσυ(.)υχ̣συχ > éLeTe VeSZőVe' SZaVa ViSSZaVeTi VáGYa SZíVüGY > élete veszővel szava visszaveti vágya szívügy (with loosing life his word casts him back: his desire is a case of the heart)


          Ég űt viszi, úr öli, vallja vívó szava követővel, élete veszővel szava visszaveti: vágya szívügy. (Heaven takes him, Lord kills him, (but) his fighting word is taken upon by his follower, with loosing life his word casts him back: his desire is a case of the heart.)


B:       τοτσοτουτ > TÖTTeS O'T Ő VeT > Töttes olt, ő vet. (The culprit extinguishes, he sows.)

           λ(.)λσλσ(ϝ)λ(.) > éLőVeL SZóL ViLáGa > Élővel szól világa. (One's world speaks with a living person.)

υ(.)υ[...](.)συγχι(.) >> ()

AVI 5534; BAD 306435

AVI5534New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 06.1021.47. BF oinochoe (olpe). From Vulci. Unattributed. Euphiletos (bf.), kalos. Last quarter sixth

Decoration: Apollo and 3 Muses.

Inscriptions: To left of the two women at left: nonsense: οι(σ)τοhε. On their right: (σ)ιοετσ. Above the heads of the figures, in the upper left: νεοτλοευ. To lower right of the woman at right: Ευφιλετος. Between her and Apollo's)legs: καλε.

Commentary: One wonders if the two sense inscriptions are by the same hand as the nonsense. I take καλε to refer to the Muse at right; I do not take it as a vocative to go with the name. Beazley in ABV 667 says: "Ευφιλετος, with καλε and meaningless inscriptions." Three-stroke sigma in sense and sideways sigmas in nonsense; the latter might possibly be nu's.

Bibliography: *ABV (1956), 667. — Add.[2] (1989), 148.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5756


            οι(σ)τοhε > οιντοhε{Commentary} > OLY iNTŐ HE' > oly intő hely (such a warning place)

(σ)ιοετσ > νιοετσ{Commentary} > é'NI Ő É'TeSSe > élni ő éltesse (let it make him live)

νεοτλοευ > é'NE ÖTLŐ EVVe' > élne ötlő evvel (would he live resourceful with this)

            Ευφιλετος καλε > EVVe' iFI LeTT ŐS oKKAL É' > evvel ifi lett ős okkal él (with this the young become old lives with reason)

           Oly intő hely, élni ő éltesse! Élne ötlő evvel? Evvel ifi lett ős okkal él! (Such a warning place, let it make him live! Would he live resourceful with this? With this the young become old lives with reason!)

AVI 5535; BAD 306785

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 06.1021.49. BF skyphos. Theseus Painter. Ca. 500

Decoration: A: two bearded wrestlers between a man with a pouch and a trainer. B: two pankratiasts between a man with a pouch and a trainer.



Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: above the heads: (ο)στνοσ[.?]σν. To right of the trainer: οσ(ν)ι. B: to right of the man at left: (ο)σ̣τ vac. To left of the trainer's head: (ο)στν.

Commentary: The pouch a money purse or an astragalos bag? The omicrons are irregular.

Bibliography: *Haspels (1936), 251/43. — ABV (1956), 703, bottom (addendum to 518). — Add.[2] (1989), 129. — *AttScr (1990), no. 574, fig. 103.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5757


A:       (ο)στνοσ[.?]σν οσ(ν)ι > ÖSZTöNÖS [LoPá]SoN OSoNNI > Ösztönös [lopá]son osonni. (It is instinctive to sneak when stealing.)


B:       (ο)σ̣τ vac (ο)στν > ŐSíT ÖSZTöN > Ősít ösztön! (Instinct makes one primitive!)

AVI 5536; BAD 303275

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 06.1021.61. BF oinochoe. Unattributed; related to the Keyside Class. Early fifth

Decoration: Heracles, Andromache and another Amazon.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: between the heads of Heracles and Andromache: τοεο(σ)σ, retr.

Bibliography: ABV (1956), 427/2. — *Bothmer (1957), 49/119, pl. 39,3.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5758


τοεο(σ)σ > uTÓÉ ÖSSZeS > Utóé összes! (All belongs to the last one!)

AVI5539AVI 5539; BAD 1071

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 06.1021.85. BF neck amphora. Unattributed. Last quarter sixth Ca. 520 (Bothmer).

Decoration: A: two horsemen, one dismounting. B: Dionysus between a maenad and a satyr.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: below the belly of the left horse: λυσ(.)(.). Below the belly of the right horse: υσκ[.](ι){1}.

Footnotes: {1} my readings from CVA, pl. 31,1, which are uncertain as the letters are very small. Bothmer gives: δλσ(.)(.) (two blobs at the end) and λσκ Ι. These readings are close to mine and probably better.

Bibliography: Sambon (1904), pl. 1,11. — Richter (1917), 75, fig. 45. — Richter–Milne (1935), fig. 14. — *M.B. Moore and D. von Bothmer, CVA New York 4, USA 16 (1976), pl. 31,1-4 (bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5761


           λυσ(.)(.) > λυσ{ToSZ}{ToSZ}{1} > LoVaS TiSZTeS > Lovas tisztes. (The rider is honest.)

           υσκ[.](ι) > ViSZi Ki RáÜ' > Viszi ki ráül. (It carries the one sitting on it.)

AVI 5540; BAD 200864

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 06.1021.92. WG alabastron. Group of Paidikos Alabastra. Last quarter sixth

Decoration: Palmettes; on the bottom, black palmette on white ground.

Inscriptions: On the topside of the mouth, nonsense: hαοσκασελ:*.

Bibliography: *ARV[2] (1963), 99/6. — Add.[2] (1989), 172.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5762


           hαοσκασελ:* > hαοσκασελΞ* > HA Ő SoK A SZELe KöZ > Ha ő sok, a szele köz! (If it is too much, its wind is dividing!)


* The triple dot (:*) is the Ξ (iksz, ks, K_S/Z) letter. There is no use for word-divider after a single “word”.

AVI 5553; 204497

AVI5553New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 06.1021.188. RF cup. Dokimasia Painter. First quarter fifth

Decoration: Komos: Int.: a bearded komast with a lyre. A: a dancing youth; a youth getting wine from a krater to put into a cup; a man about to receive the cup. B: a youth playing the flutes; a man with a skyphos, singing; another with a lyre.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: Int.: around the komast, widely spaced: γγσ[.]γ^χδσ. A: on the cup: ννσνν{1}. B: before the mouths of the youth and the man with the skyphos, each: γ.

Commentary: Small and weak letters.

Footnotes: {1} the nu's are reversed. The sigma is three-stroke, with sharp angles.

Bibliography: *Richter–Hall (1936), i, 67/46, pls. 45 and 180. — ARV[2] (1963), 413/15. — Para. (1971), 372.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5775


Int.:     γγσ[.]γ^χδσ > GéGeSÉG íGY éDeS > Gégeség így édes. (Gluttony is sweet this way.)

A:       ννσνν > iNNi öNöS iNNeN > Inni önös innen. (It is selfish to drink from here.)

B:        γ γ > Gé Ge > Gége (Throat)

AVI 5556; BAD 203101

AVI5556New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 06.1070. RF/WG lekythos{1}. Diosphos Painter. Diosphos Potter (see ARV[2]). First quarter fifth

Decoration: Perseus and Medusa.

Inscriptions: Scattered in the field: nonsense:four imitation inscriptions: ιιυχι<. .ιχυ(τ)χ<χυχ. ιιυι<. ιυυχι.

Footnotes: {1} `Semi-outline,' Beazley in ARV[2]; i.e., some figures are in outline, one is in BF.

Bibliography: *Haspels (1936), 235/71. — ABV (1956), 702/71. — ARV[2] (1963), 301/3. — Para. (1971), 248. — Add.[2] (1989), 127 and 212. — *AttScr (1990), no. 573, fig. 108. — Robertson (1992), 131, fig. 134.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5778


           ιιυχι< > ιιυχι{Λ DőL} > ÍJJáVa' íGY Ű LeDőL > Íjjával így ű ledől. (He lies down with his bow this way.)

           .ιχυ(τ)χ<χυχ > .ιχυ(τ)χ{Λ DőL}χυχ > ÜGYe UTó íGY eLDőL GYáVa íGY > Ügye utó így eldől, gyáva így. (His case is decided subsequently this way, he is cowardice this way.)

           ιιυι< > ιιυι{Λ DőL} > ÍJJáVa' Ű LóDuL > Íjjával ű lódul. (He gives an impetus with his bow.)

ιυυχι > Ű VíVa GYŰ > Ű víva gyű. (He comes fighting.)

AVI 5562; BAD 204344

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 07.156.8. Fr. of RF cup. Foundry Painter. First quarter fifth 490-480

Decoration: A: upper part of a trainer. At right a large object.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: to right of the trainer's head: hενε(.)νν(σ){1}.

Commentary: + Heidelberg 73 and 74 (loan to Met. Mus., L. 1986.91?), Once Vatican, Astarita 275 (loan to Met. Mus., L. 1986.41): all in Beazley Lectures, pl. 50,1. Beazley lecture, p. 80: on the [Astarita] fr.: upsilon, epsilon, nu. A second inscription: nu, sigma reversed, epsilon. "everywhere the characteristic inscriptions." Cf. also London E 78.

Footnotes: {1} (.) = two vertical lines; the sigma is peculiar.

Bibliography: ARV[2] (1963), 401/4, 401/5. — *Beazley (1966), pl. 5, fig. 9,d. — Para. (1971), 370. — Beazley (1989), 80, pl. 50,1.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5784


           hενε(.)νν(σ) > hενε{KéT}νν(σ){1}* > Hí ENNÉ' KiTűNő NoSZa > Hí ennél kitűnő nosza! (At him calls you his excellent urging!)


* II = 2 = KéT/KeTTő 'two'.

AVI 5573; BAD 303736

AVI5573New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 07.286.68. BF lekythos. Athena Painter. Early fifth

Decoration: Gigantomachy with Athena and Hermes.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: imitation letters: to right of Hermes' mouth: σ(γ)σσ{1}. Above a giant: σσυγσσ(σ)σ{1}. To right of Athena's head: σο̣σ(σ)σσ. Near a dead giant: σπσ.

Commentary: Small letters. The sigma's could be reversed nu's.

Footnotes: {1} not a real gamma.

Bibliography: *Haspels (1936), 149 n. 2, 255/30, pl. 45,4. — ABV (1956), 522/30. — Stella (1956), 138. — Para. (1971), 260.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5795


σ(γ)σσ > SúG eSZeS > Súg eszes. (The clever whispers.)

            σσυγσσ(σ)σ > éSZ SÚGáSa SZeSZeS > Ész súgása szeszes. (The whisper of the mind is capricious.)

σο̣σ(σ)σσ > SZÓ iS SZeSZeS > Szó is szeszes. (The word is also capricious.)

σπσ > SZéP SZó > Szép szó! (Nice word!)

AVI 5591; BAD 200439

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 10.210.18. RF psykter. From Campagnano. Oltos. AVI5591Antiphanes (?) Epainetos (?) Dorotheos (?), kalos. Last quarter sixth Ca. 510 520-510 (Richter).

Decoration: Athletes with a flutist and with trainers.

Inscriptions: A youth playing flutes; under his arms: Σμικυ[θος]. A youth preparing to jump; to left of his middle: hαλούμενος εἶσι, retr., complete. Behind his back: (Δ)οροθεος. A bearded man crowning a boy; to right of his face: Κλεαινετος. To right of the boy's back: Επαινετος, and at the lower left: καλος, retr., i.e., Επαινετος | καλος{1}. A bearded trainer; between him and the next figure: AVI5591bΑλκετες. A youth with a discus; between his legs and the next figure's: Αντιφανες. A bearded trainer; from his face: Α[ντ]ι[μ]ε̣[ν]ες, retr. Behind his head, toward the next figure's face, but not retr.: πομε{2}. To right of his lower body and starting from the buttock of the next figure: χασ.[.](ο), retr.{3}. A youth with a javelin; to right of his body, below his raised elbow: Βα[τρ]αχος.

Commentary: + Rome, Villa Giulia{4}. Richter notes that Dorotheos and Batrachos occur together on a cup by the early Panaitios Painter, Paris, Cab. Méd. 523. On the construction of hαλούμενος εἶσι, see AttScr.

Footnotes: {1} Richter, but not so listed by Beazley. It is portrait-kalos. {2} Beazley in ARV[2] suggests πῶ με, `drink me', cf. Cl. Rev. 57, 102-103, but I think it is meaningless. Richter says that a letter may be missing at the beginning, but I thought this unlikely. {3} χασκ̣ο̣, Richter. χασκο = χάσκω, `I open my mouth wide', Beazley in ARV[2]. The fourth letter is the slightly slanted top of a stroke, as in lambda or upsilon; it could be part of a kappa. After it, there is space for a letter. The last letter is Ο, Δ(?), or Α(?). I take this word to be nonsense also. {4} one fr.; see CF, 33/3.

Bibliography: *Richter–Hall (1936), i, 17/3, pls. 4 (dr.) and 173. — ARV[2] (1963), 54/7 (much bibl.), 1565, 1575, 1608. — Para. (1971), 326. — Add.[2] (1989), 163 (much bibl.). — AttScr (1990), no. 342.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5813


Σμικυ[θος] > SZó MIKo' Vi[CCÖS] > szó mikor vi[ccös] (word when funny)

           hαλουμενος > HÁLÓVa' MENő ŐS > hálóval menő ős (Ancestor going with a net)

εἶσι > ϝισι > VISZI > viszi (takes him)

           (Δ)οροθεος > iDŐRe Ö'TJE ÖSSZe > időre öltje össze (let he stitch him together on time)

           Κλεαινετος > öKLE Á' INNÉT ÖSSZe > ökle áll innét össze (his fist comes together from here)

            Επαινετος καλος > ÉP ÁLLJoN E üTŐS Ki ÁLLÓS > ép álljon e ütős ki állós (let this hit-man, who is outstanding, stand sound)

Αλκετες > ÁLL KÉTES > áll kétes (he stands doubtful)

            Αντιφανες > A NYűT IFi Á'Ná ESZ > a nyűt ifi állná esz (would the young man stand the wear down? eaten)

Α[ντ]ι[μ]ε̣[ν]ες > A[NNYiT] ÍM E[NY]ÉSZ > a[nnyit] ím e[ny]ész (many, look, decay)

πομε > aPÓ íME > apó íme (old man, look)

            χασ.[.](ο) > χασκ[ρ]δ{3} > íGY Á' SiKe[Re]D > így áll sike[re]d (your success stands this way)

Βα[τρ]αχος > BA' [TáR]ADJa ŐS > baj [tár]adja ős (trouble's stock is ancestral)

           Szó mikor vi[ccös]: Hálóval menő ős viszi, időre öltje össze! Ökle áll innét össze, ép álljon e ütős, ki állós! Áll kétes. A nyűt ifi állná? Esz a[nnyit] ím e[ny]ész. Apó, íme így áll sike[re]d! Baj [tár]adja ős. (Word when funny: Ancestor takes him by going with a net, let he stitch him together on time! His fist comes together from here, let this hit-man, who is outstanding, stand sound! He stands doubtful. Would the young man stand the wear down? Look, many is eaten by decay. Old man, look how your success stands! Trouble's stock is ancestral.)

AVI 5597; BAD 202679

AVI5597New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 12.229.13. Fragmentary RF oinochoe. From Athens{1}. Harrow Painter. First quarter fifth Ca. 480

Decoration: A satyr as athlete (jumping weights, discus, pick axe).

Inscriptions: Nonsense: on his left, retr.: [...]ι(ρ)λοσοχλοχλοχυοσ{2}. On his lower right: vac. καλος ισονσο(ν){3}.

Commentary: Small and hasty letters.

Footnotes: {1} Richter states that Stackelberg claimed the vase to be from Athens, in the Fauvel Collection. {2} Richter says: καλος followed by meaningless letters; the rho may be an alpha. The letters are very cursory. {3} much neater than the first inscription.

Bibliography: *Richter–Hall (1936), i, 48/24, pl. 33 (photo). — ARV[2] (1963), 276/80.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5819


           [...]ι(ρ)λοσοχλοχλοχυοσ > [...]ιαλοσοχλοχλοχυοσ{2} > ÍjALÓ SZÓ íGY LŐ üGGYeL Ő GYáVa ŐS > Íjaló szó így lő üggyel: ő gyáva ős. (Shooting word shoots this way awkwardly: he is a coward ancestor.)

           καλος ισονσο(ν) > KiÁLLÓS ÜSSÖN őSÖN > Kiállós üssön ősön! (Let the outstanding strike on ancestral!)

AVI 5612; BAD 306783

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 17.230.9. BF skyphos. Theseus Painter. Ca. 500

AVI5612Decoration: A: Poseidon(1) on a sea horse. B: similar.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: above the sea horse's tail: οστσ. Above `Poseidon's' head: οσ(.)σγο. B: in the same position: οστ(σ). οστσοσ.

Commentary: The inscriptions are probably nearly the same on both sides.

Footnotes: {1} Nereus(?), Beazley, who compares ABV 381/297, q.v. for parallels.

Bibliography: Haspels (1936), [[250/]] no. 22. — ABV (1956), 703.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5835


A:       οστσ > Ő SüTőS > Ő sütős. (S/he/it is burning.)

οσ(.)σγο > Ő SüTőS éGŐ > Ő sütős égő. (S/he/it is burning hot.)

B:       οστ(σ) > Ő Su'TóS > Ő sujtós. (S/he/it is striking/afflicting.)

οστσοσ > Ő Su'TáSOS > Ő sujtásos. (S/he/it is laced.)


AVI 5622; BAD 200196

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 21.88.2. RF hydria (kalpis). Unattributed Pioneer{1}. Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: Two youths dancing the pyrrhiche, with a flautist.



Inscriptions: Nonsense: behind the youth at left: ποιπιοι. Above his head: λποισ. To right of his head: πιοπ. To right of his thigh: χυπυ. Behind the youth at right: οπγο(π){2}. Above the youth at right: σπισ(ο){3}. Beside his thigh: οιστλο, retr.{4}. Under the foot, Gr.: Π Ι. See Johnston (1979), 115/2D 9 and Richter–Hall, p. 221.

Commentary: Richter refers to Beazley's grouping of the vase with London E 254, E 255, Louvre G 45, etc. The inscriptions here after Hall's drs. These are the typical short nonsense inscriptions on Pioneer kalpides, cf. Vatican G 17 (Euthymides), Harvard 1972.40 (recalls Euthymides and the Kleophrades Painter), perhaps Munich 2420 (Pezzino Group).

Footnotes: {1} recalls the Dikaios Painter; cf. also Louvre G 41 (Beazley). {2} the last pi is upside down. {3} the last omicron a dot. {4} except the sigma.

Bibliography: *Richter–Hall (1936), i, 33/11, pls. 11 and 172 (bibl.). — ARV[2] (1963), 34/14, 1621. — Add.[2] (1989), 157.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5845


ποιπιοι > BŐJéBe JŐJJ > bőjébe jőjj ()

λποισ > LoBOLJ iS > lobolj is ()

πιοπ > Be JOBB > be jobb ()

χυπυ > GYúVa BőVe' > gyúva bővel ()

οπγο(π) > Ó BőGŐBe' > ó bőgőbe' ()

σπισ(ο) > σπισ{ToSZ}{3} > iS BŰ SZíTáS > is bű szítás ()

οιστλο > OLY SZiTáLÓ > oly szitáló ()


            Bőjébe jőjj, lobolj is, be jobb! Gyúva bővel ó bőgőben is bű szítás, oly szitáló! (Come into its plenty, wave also, now to right! Burning with plenty, in the old double-bass is plenty of encouragement, it is so shaking!)

AVI 5639; BAD 302479

AVI5639New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 25.78.86. BF lip cup{1}. Caron Group. Third quarter sixth 550-530

Decoration: Lip: A: a stag. B: the like.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: A: πολϝαναονασεα(λ)α. Complete. B: [...]ναν̣[...].

Footnotes: {1} fragmentary and restored; the foot alien.

Bibliography: *G. Richter, CVA New York 2, USA 11 (1953), pl. 12,15a-c. — ABV (1956), 188/1. — Add.[2] (1989), 52. — AttScr (1990), no. 1032.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5862


A:       πολϝαναονασεα(λ)α > πολϝαναθνασξα(λ)α > POL(Y)VÁN A Fő-iNAS KáSÁLÁ > Pol(y)ván a fő-inas kásálá. (The head-valet did mill it on chaff.)

AVI 5647; BAD 14759

AVI5647New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 27.122.27. BF lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth 550-530

Decoration: Lip: A, B, each: chimaera.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: A: hhποιhhυhπ. B: hυπο(h)υπυhι.

Commentary: The bracketed heta may be a pi.

Bibliography: *G. Richter, CVA New York 2, USA 11 (1953), pl. 9/11. — *AttScr (1990), no. 281, fig. 57.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5870


A:       hhποιhhυhπ > HóHáBÓ' IHuHU HiBa / HaHó BŐJe HóHáVa' HiBa > Hóhából ihuhu hiba. / Hahó bője hóháva' hiba. (From sadden stop command sending forth is a mistake. / Sending forth with plenty of stopping command is a mistake.)


B:       hυπο(h)υπυhι > HíVőBŐ' HŰ BűVe HÍ > Hívőből hű bűve hí. (The plenty of faithfulness calls from the faithful.)


B:       hυποπυπυhι{Commentary} > HíVőBŐ' BŰ BőVe HÍ > Hívőből bű bőve hí. (The plenty of charm calls from the faithful.)

AVI 5649; BAD 207552

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 28.57.11. RF lekythos. Oionokles Painter. Second quarter fifth

Decoration: Goddess (Hera).

Inscriptions: Nonsense: Serbeti: γσκοστγ, retr. γυιοσειλτιο.

Commentary: Four-stroke sigma in the first inscription; three-stroke in the second.

Bibliography: ARV[2] (1963), 649/40 (no bibl.). — Add.[2] (1989), 275. — *Serbeti (1989), 40.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5872


           γσκοστγ > éGi SZó oKOST aGG > Égi szó okost agg. (Heavenly word troubles the wise man.)

           γυιοσειλτιο > éGi VíJÓ SEJLeT JÓ > Égi víjó sejlet jó. (Heavenly fighting presentiment is good.)


AVI 5652; BAD 211738

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 28.167. WG bobbin. From Athens (near). Penthesilea Painter. Second quarter fifth 460-450

AVI5652Decoration: A: Zephyrus and Hyacinthus. B: Nike and a boy victor{1}.

Inscriptions: A: Along the margin, starting above Hyacinthus' head: hο [πα]ις καλος{2}. B: behind Nike's legs, a horizontal two-liner, roughly stoich.: hο παις | καλος. On the boy's diadem: nonsense: λλδε.

Commentary: B is interpreted by Richter as Eos and Cephalus (rejected by Diepolder (1936), 16, n. 40). Mixed alphabet (Ionic except for heta).

Footnotes: {1} H.R.W. Smith, AJA 41 (1917) 343: surely Eros rather than Zephyros. So also Diepolder (1936). {2} so R-H, text, but the photo shows traces of all letters: hο π̣α̣ι̣ς̣ κ̣αλος.

Bibliography: *Richter–Hall (1936), i, 103/74, pls. 76 and 178. — ARV[2] (1963), 890/175 (much bibl.), 1673. — Add.[2] (1989), 302. — *AttScr (1990), no. 657, fig. 119 (B). — Robertson (1992), 164-65, fig. 172.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5875


           hο παις | καλος λλδε > HO' BA' ÜSSe KiÁLLÓS éL-eLőDDE' > Hol baj, üsse kiállós él-előddel! (If there is trouble, let the outstanding with leading predecessor beat it!)


AVI 5659; BAD 212483

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.1. RF cup. From Vulci. Thorvaldsen Group{1}. First quarter fifth 500-490

Decoration: Int.: a young warrior; behind him, a boy. A: athletes (two pankratiasts between spectators, two youths at left, two men at right, one being the trainer). B: athletes (two youths; a trainer; two young boxers).



Inscriptions: Nonsense: Int.: to right of the warrior's head: εοσπ[.](.){2}. A: above and to right of the pankratiasts: εο[.?]οιπ{3}. Between the trainer and spectator: εια(ι)κι{3}. Above and to right of the second athlete: γ̣ογοει{3}.

Commentary: Large and clear letters.

Footnotes: {1} near the Magnacourt Painter and the earliest Douris, Beazley. {2} the last letter is the top of a diagonal stroke; it could be a sigma. Beazley refers to AJA for this inscription. {3} complete before and aft. The bracketed iota is made in two strokes.

Bibliography: *J. Hoppin and A. Gallatin, CVA Hoppin & Gallatin, USA 1 (1926), pls. 10-12. — Beazley (1950), 318. — ARV[2] (1963), 455/1. — Para. (1971), 377. — Add.[2] (1989), 243.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5882


Int.:     εοσπ[.](.) > εοσπ[.]σ{2} > E ŐS BŐSZ > E ős bősz. (This ancestor is enraged.)


A:       εο[.?]οιπ > E ŐS BOLYBa' > e ős bolyban (in this ancient assemble)

          εια(ι)κι > E JAJ KÜ' > e jaj kül (this wail is strange)

           γ̣ογοει > γ̣ογοϝι > GŐG ÓVJa > gőg óvja (arrogance protects against)


           E ős bolyban e jaj kül, gőg óvja. (In this ancient assemble this wail is strange, arrogance protects against.)

AVI 5662; BAD 200303

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.8 (formerly on loan L 2625). BF/RF cup. Pheidippos. Hischylos, potter. Last quarter sixth

History: Ex Gallatin collection.

Decoration: Int.: BF: Dionysus. Between eyes: A: a hoplitodromos picking up his spear{1}. B: runner.



Inscriptions: A: between the eyebrows and the eyes: nonsense: νεκε and κα[.]εσ{2}.

Commentary: Beazley said in a lecture that the cup is potted by Hischylos because of the foot. The inscriptions in large and clear letters.

Footnotes: {1} Beazley says: hoplitodromos at the tape (BSA 46, 11/2). {2} so CVA, text.

Bibliography: *G.H. Chase and M.Z. Pease, CVA Fogg & Gallatin, USA 8 (1942), pl. 46,1. — ARV[2] (1963), 165/6 and 44/96. — Add.[2] (1989), 182.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5885


?         νεκε Δ? κα[.]εσ > NEKi E DáK A [K]ÉS > Neki e dák (dákos) a [k]és. (For him this spear is the knife.)

AVI 5664; BAD 205972

AVI5664New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.16. RF neck amphora. Alkimachos Painter. Second quarter fifth

Decoration: A: Amazon and a falling Greek. B: youth.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: above the Greek, non-stoich. two-liner: γσγοσγ(ο) | h(.)γο(σ)γ.

Commentary: The second letter in line 2 is unclear. Harvard, Fogg Museum 1927.148, ARV[2] 529/7, and London E 306, ARV[2] 529/3, both by the same painter, have very similar inscriptions.

Bibliography: *J. Hoppin and A. Gallatin, CVA Hoppin & Gallatin, USA 1 (1926), pl. 22,1. — ARV[2] (1963), 529/1. — AttScr (1990), no. 662.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5887


           γσγοσγ(ο) | h(.)γο(σ)γ > iGaSSáGOSSáG Ó | Ha JoGOSSáG > Igazságosság ó ha jogosság! (Administering justice protects if it is lawfulness/rightfulness!)



AVI 5667; BAD 305500

AVI5667New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.30. BF/WG lekythos. From Attica{1}. Sappho Painter. Late sixth

History: Ex Gallatin collection.

Decoration: Heracles introduced into Olympus, with Iris, Athena, Zeus, Ganymede, and Ares.

Inscriptions: Nonsense (imitation letters): to the right of Iris' mouth: γσ(γ)γσ. To right of Athena's mouth: μγσ(.)(.)(μ). To right of her body: (.)(ο)συυσ(γ)γ. Around Zeus' chest and head: traces of 5 letters. On Ares' left: ον(ο)α̣χ̣.

Commentary: Letters have partly flaked off; the readings are uncertain, the mu’s probably misread.

Footnotes: {1} from the same tomb as New York 41.162.29.

Bibliography: Richter (1930), 217,d (part). — *Haspels (1936), 97 n. 7, 98, 226/10, pl. 35.1 (part, showing the second and third inscriptions). — *G.H. Chase and M.Z. Pease, CVA Fogg & Gallatin, USA 8 (1942), pl. 45,1. — ABV (1956), 507/10, 702.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5890



γσ(γ)γσ > iGaSSáG GuSZa > igazság gusza (justice is entangled/confused)

μγσ(.)(.)(μ) > MéGiS KeLLeM > mégis kellem (never the less it is pleasant)

(.)(ο)συυσ(γ)γ > BOSSZú'Va/BOSSZúVa' ViSZ éGiG > bosszúlva/bosszúval visz égig (it takes one to heaven revenging/with revenge)

ον(ο)α̣χ̣ > ονθα̣χ̣ > ONTJa AGY > ontja agy (shed by the brain)

Igazság gusza, mégis kellem. Bosszúlva/bosszúval visz égig, ontja agy. (Justice is entangled/confused, never the less it is pleasant. It takes one to heaven revenging/with revenge, shed by the brain.)

AVI 5670; BAD 305498

AVI5670New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.34. BF/WG lekythos. From Attica{1}. Sappho Painter. Early fifth 500-490 (CVA).

History: Ex Gallatin collection.

Decoration: Hermes and two Nereids (one in a chariot) flying over the waves.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: inscriptions by the figures' mouths: Hermes: γσοασο. First Nereid: γσο(ι)ο. Second Nereid: ιοσ(α)γσοι, retr.(?){2}.

Commentary: Thick letters, some disjointed.

Footnotes: {1} see New York 41.162.29. {2} I thought of the gammas as alphas without cross bar.

Bibliography: *Haspels (1936), 225/5, cf. 97, n. 4. — *G.H. Chase and M.Z. Pease, CVA Fogg & Gallatin, USA 8 (1942), pl.44,2. — ABV (1956), 702. — Add.[2] (1989), 126. — *AttScr (1990), no. 572, fig. 106.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5893


γσοασο > GúSZÓ A SZÓ > Gúszó a szó. (The word is sneaking.)

γσο(ι)ο > éGi SZÓ JÓ > Égi szó jó. (The word from heaven is good.)

ιοσ(α)γσοι > JÓSÁG SZÓLJ > Jóság szólj! (Goodness speak up!)

AVI 5671; BAD 305497

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.35. BF/WG lekythos. From Attica{1}. Sappho Painter. First quarter fifth 500-490 (Haspels).

AVI5671History: Ex Gallatin collection.

Decoration: A chariot with its charioteer. Athena fighting a giant.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: to right of the charioteer's beard: γσο(.){2}. To right of Athena's head, extending to the giant's helmet crest: [.]σογ(.)(.)ιονσγ{3}.

Commentary: Many letters are disjointed.

Footnotes: {1} from the same tomb as New York 41.162.30, etc. {2} the bracketed letter consists of two parallel vertical strokes, characteristic of this painter, perhaps intended for omicron or gamma. {3} traces are extant of the two bracketed letters.

Bibliography: Haspels (1936), 225/3. — *G.H. Chase and M.Z. Pease, CVA Fogg & Gallatin, USA 8 (1942), pl. 45,2. — ABV (1956), 507/3, 702.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5894


           γσο(.) > γσο{KéT}{2} > éGi SZÓ KöT > égi szó köt (heavenly word binds)

           [.]σογ(.)(.)ιονσγ > Ha SZO'GÁLJa ÖNöSSéG > ha szolgálja önösség (when served by selfishness)


Égi szó köt, ha szolgálja önösség. (Heavenly word binds, when served by selfishness.)

AVI 5672; BAD 13405

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.72. Plain band cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth 550-530

History: Ex Gallatin collection.

Decoration: No figured decoration.



Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: A: υιγκυγιαι(γ)ιυ :* vac.


Inscriptions: B: νι(γ)υγι(ν)ιοιγι̣κ vac.{1}.

Footnotes: {1} the gammas are hardly lambdas at this erly period, although that would perhaps make a play on κυλικα.

Bibliography: *G.H. Chase and M.Z. Pease, CVA Fogg & Gallatin, USA 8 (1942), pl. 41,2. — *G. Richter, CVA New York 2, USA 11 (1953), pls. 18/29 and 39/29. — *AttScr (1990), no. 285, fig. 67.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5895


A:        υιγκυγιαι(γ)ιυ :* > υιγκυγται(γ)ιυξ > VÍG Ki üVeGeT ALJiG ÍVa KéSa > víg ki üveget aljig íva késa (jolly is who drinking out the bottle to the bottom, rebel)

B:        νι(γ)υγι(ν)ιοιγι̣κ > νιλυγι(ν)ιουγι̣κ > NYILVéGIN JÓ' VíGIK > nyilvégin jó' vígik ( rejoicing well on the arrow tip)


           Víg, ki üveget aljig íva, késa nyilvégin jól vígik. (Jolly is, who drinking out the bottle to the bottom, rejoicing well on the arrow tip of a rebel.)

AVI 5673; BAD 202236

AVI5673New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.73. RF column krater. From Cumae. Manner of Göttingen Painter. First quarter fifth

History: Ex Gallatin collection.

Decoration: A: Theseus and the bull. B: a duel of two warriors.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: scattered letters{1}: above Theseus' back: γγ(.)(ο)σ(ε). Continued above his head and a tree: υ v. (.)σ(ε)(ε)(ε)ισ. Between Theseus' legs: π and γ. To right of his mouth: γ. Under the bull's belly: (ι). Between his legs: γ turned 90 degrees. Above his rear: γ{1}. B: on the right-hand shield, kionedon, but horizontal and retr.: Λ Τ Σ{2}. In the field: ιγ/(.)γ^σσσλ(ο)σ{3}.

Commentary: According to CVA, Beazley compares Mon. Linc. 22, 518-19, figs. 191-191a (= Naples RC 131, ARV[2] 234/9) and New York 06.1021.97 (ARV[2] 234/10), both column kraters by the Göttigen Painter. Imitation letters.

AVI5673bFootnotes: {1} 21 letters show in the facs. of CVA; I saw only 20. {2} the sigma is reversed. {3} after the facs. in CVA; the first part is horizontal, the second vertical. My notes show that the letters are more scattered and uncertain.

Bibliography: *J. Hoppin and A. Gallatin, CVA Hoppin & Gallatin, USA 1 (1926), pl. 9,5 and p. 8 (facs. of inscriptions). — ARV[2] (1963), 235/7.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5896


A:      γγ(.)(ο)σ(ε) > GőG HŐSSE' > gőgös hőssel (arrogance of a hero)

υ (.)σ(ε)(ε)(ε)ισ > υ (.)σ(ε)(ε)ϝισ > óV BőSSZE' E'VISZ > óv bősszel elvisz (protects, of an exasperated carries him away)

π γ γ > éP GőG > ép gőg (healthy arrogance)

(ι) γ γ > λ γ γ > LeGuGG > legugg (yields)

Gőg hőssel óv, bősszel elvisz. Ép gőg legugg! (Arrogance of a hero protects, of an exasperated carries him away. Healthy arrogance yields!)

B:       Λ Τ Σ > Σ Τ Ν{2} > őSTaN > őstan (ancient lesson)

ιγ/(.)γ^σσσλ(ο)σ > ιγ{I DőL}(.)γ^σσσλ(ο)σ > IGe IDüL MíG SZó SZóSZóLÓS > ige idül míg szó szószólós (the action/deed stays, while the word speaks to/for others)

Őstan: ige idül, míg szó szószólós. (Ancient lesson: the action/deed stays, while the word speaks to/for others.)


AVI 5677; BAD 202468

AVI5677New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.101. RF amphora. Gallatin Painter{1}. Early fifth

History: Ex Gallatin collection.

Decoration: A: Theseus and Skiron. B: Theseus and the Minotaur.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: to right of Theseus' head, above Skiron: λον(σ)ι. Between Theseus' legs, retr.: hο[...]. B: to right of Theseus' head: ντυσ. Between his legs, retr.: υτε. Under the foot, Gr.: Μ. Not in Johnston (1979).

Commentary: Thick and rough letters. Note that the position of the inscriptions on A and B is nearly identical.

Footnotes: {1} He may be a very early phase of the Syleus Painter: see ARV[2] 245.

Bibliography: *G.H. Chase and M.Z. Pease, CVA Fogg & Gallatin, USA 8 (1942), pl. 51,1. — ARV[2] (1963), 247/3 (bibl.). — Para. (1971), 350. — Add.[2] (1989), 202.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5900


A:     λον(σ)ι hο[...] > iLLŐN SZáLLJ HO[Va iLLŐ] > Illőn szállj ho[va illő]' (Fly befittingly where you belong!)


B:     ντυσ υτε > NőT ViSZ VéTE > Nőt visz véte! (Woman is carried by her sin!)

THESEUS set out to free the bandit-ridden coast road which led from Troezen to Athens. He would pick no quarrels but take vengeance on all who dared to molest him, making the punishment fit the crime, as was Heracles’s way.

f. … Sciron used to seat himself upon a rock and force passing travellers to wash his feet: when they stooped to the task he would kick them over the cliff into the sea, where a giant turtle swam about, waiting to devour them. (Turtles closely resemble tortoises, except that they are larger, and have flippers instead of feet.) Theseus, refusing to wash Sciron’s feet, lifted him from the rock and flung him into the sea.” (R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 96.a, g.)

As the picture clearly shows, Theseus kicked him off the rock to make the punishment befitting the crime!


AVI 5679; BAD 13217

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.103. BF amphora. Unattributed. Second half sixth

History: Ex Gallatin collection.

AVI5679Decoration: A: a Lapith fighting a centaur. B: similar (partly destroyed).

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: to left of the Lapith's leg: κ̣υκ(ν){1}{2}. To right of the centaur's chest: κι̣υ{2}. Under his belly: (.)υκ(.)ι̣{2}. To right of his back: κυκισ̣{3}. B: κνκνκν̣[κ]ν̣{4}. Between the Lapith's legs: (.)(.)υ̣α{2}{5}.

Commentary: The letters are much damaged by flaking.

Footnotes: {1} the last letter looks more like a gamma. {2} not given in CVA. {3} κυκισ, CVA. {4} κνκνκν̣[--, CVA. {5} much damaged.

Bibliography: *J. Hoppin and A. Gallatin, CVA Hoppin & Gallatin, USA 1 (1926), p. 3 (facs.), pl. 2,14. — D. von Bothmer, CVA New York 3, USA 12 (1963), pl. 4,1-4.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5902


A:        κ̣υκ(ν) κι̣υ > κ̣υκ(ν) κι̣ν > KUKáN KÍN > Kukán kín! (To be muted is torment!)

            (.)υκ(.)ι κυκισ̣ > Ki VaKSI KUKa IS > Ki vaksi kuka is! (The blind is muted also!)


B:        κνκνκν̣[κ]ν̣ (.)(.)υ̣α > KiNeK eNNi/iNNi/Nő KéNe KíN A SZóVA' > Kinek enni/inni/nő kéne kín a szóval. (Who would need to eat/ to drink/ a woman is struggled with words.)

AVI 5686; BAD 207853

AVI5686New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.131. RF Nolan amphora Manner of Painter of London E 342{1}. Second quarter fifth

Decoration: A: warrior; scabbard. B: youth holding a scabbard.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: to right of the lower half of the shield: σ(ι)οντι̣{2}.

Commentary: Overfired.

Footnotes: {1} "painter of insignificant Nolans, mostly undersized," Beazley. {2} the first iota has a blot attched to its middle, which makes it resemble the `Argive' lambda; the last iota is much rubbed, perhaps not a letter.

Bibliography: *G.H. Chase and M.Z. Pease, CVA Fogg & Gallatin, USA 8 (1942), pl. 54,2. — ARV[2] (1963), 670/7.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5909


σ(ι)οντι̣ > σλοντι̣{2} > SZüLŐ iNTI > Szülő inti. (The parent warns him.)




AVI5694AVI 5694; BAD 305534

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.178. BF neck amphora. Diosphos Painter. Early fifth

History: Ex Gallatin collection.

Decoration: A: Heracles and Cerberus; at left, Hades seated in a portico. B: (continued:) Hermes and Athena, both looking back.

Inscriptions: Nonsense, partly imitation letters: A: to left of Heracles' face: χαιλυι, retr. Between his legs: (λ)λχχχ, retr. B: to left of Hermes' face: ιλυι̣[.?], retr. To Athena's lower left: χχυλχχ̣χ. To her lower right: χχχλχ.

Commentary: A small vase. Very small letters. My readings. - Readings from CVA are: nonsense: imitation letters: above Heracles’ right arm, slightly bearing downward: 6 letters, rendered as ιυυιαχ in CVA. Between his legs, diagonally downward: 5 letters, rendered χυχχχ. B: to left of Hermes’ head, diagonally downward: 4 letters, rendered ιυυι.To left of Athena’s legs, downward: 7 letters, rendered χχχγχυχ (Attic gamma?). To her lower right, vertically down: 5 letters, rendered χχχυχ.

Bibliography: Haspels (1936), 240/155. — ABV (1956), 509/155, 703. — *M.B. Moore and D. von Bothmer, CVA New York 4, USA 16 (1976), pl. 50,5-6. — Add.[2] (1989), 127.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5917


A:        χαιλυι, retr. > ιυυιαχ{Commentary} > JaVu' VaJ AGYa > Javul, vaj, agya? (Does his mind improves?)

           (λ)λχχχ, retr. > χυχχχ{Commentary} > GYáVa aGY GYaGYa > Gyáva agy gyagya. (The mind of a cowardice is faltered.)


B:        ιλυι̣[.?], retr. > ιυυι{Commentary} > JóVa' VÍ > Jóval ví. (He fights with good.)

           χχυλχχ̣χ > GYóGYUL íGY GYaGYa > Gyógyul így gyagya. (This way the faltered heals.)

           χχχλχ > íGY GYóGYuL aGYa > Így gyógyul agya. (This way his mind heals.)

AVI 5695; BAD 302169

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 41.162.179. BF neck amphora. Group of Würzburg 210 (Leagros Group){1}. Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: A: Perseus(?) pursuing two maenads(?). B: Dionysus between two satyrs; a man-headed goat.



Inscriptions: A: nonsense: to right of the left woman's head: υγγ^υ{2}. To Perseus' right: χχπχνχγ{3}. To right of the right woman: ι(σ)χδχπο{4}.

Commentary: Some letters are imitation letters.

Footnotes: {1} attributed to the same hand as Würzburg 210 by M.Z. Pease. For the group see ABV 357-58. {2} Perseus' head intervenes. {3} after CVA, text. {4} after CVA, photo. The sigma Z-shaped.

Bibliography: Kretschmer (1892), 32-37, fig. on p. 33 (A; after Gaz.). — Beazley (1942), 99. — *G.H. Chase and M.Z. Pease, CVA Fogg & Gallatin, USA 8 (1942), pl. 38,2 (bibl.). — ABV (1956), 373/174. — Add.[2] (1989), 99.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5918


 υγγ^υ > VéGiG Ű > végig ű (all along he)

           χχπχνχγ > íGY GYöPáGYoN GYuG > így gyöpágyon gyug (bungs this way on lawn-bed)

           ι(σ)χδχπο > ιzχδχπο{4} > ŰZ íGY iDe áGYáBÓ' > űz így ide ágyából (chasing us here from his bed this way)


           Végig ű így gyöpágyon gyug, űz így ide ágyából. (All along he bungs this way on lawn-bed, chasing us here from his bed this way.)

AVI 5713; BAD 302025

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 56.171.29. BF hydria. Leagros Group. Last quarter sixth 510-500

AVI5713History: Ex San Simeon, Hearst 9969.

Decoration: Shoulder: a warrior leaving in a chariot. Body: Ajax and Achilles playing a board game, with Athena.

Inscriptions: Body: to left of the left hero's armor, at the top: ορδι(.)(.). To right of the armor: σχοδεγ. Above the head of the left warrior: (ν)χε(h)ι. Between the left warrior and Athena, facing her: μχ^δο^ευ, retr.{1}. Above the right warrior's head: (ν)χ^ι^αι{2}. Above the knee of the right warrior: χδευ, retr. Above and around the armor of the right warrior: χρεριχε, retr.{3}.

Commentary: Typical Leagran nonsense inscriptions of the νχαο type. Reversed nu (or sideways sigma?); the rho variable. Some letters of doubtful identification.

Footnotes: {1} spears and a hand intervene. {2} Athena's raised hand and a spear intervene. {2} the first rho is nearly triangular, the second has an extended vertical.

Bibliography: ABV (1956), 362/30. — *Bothmer (1957), 174,1. — Para. (1971), 161. — Add.[2] (1989), 96. — *AttScr (1990), no. 448, fig. 94.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5936


ορδι(.)(.) > ŐRöD ÜGYeL > őröd ügyel (your protector is guarding)

σχοδεγ > SZű íGY Ó De ÉG > szű így ó de ég (the heart guards this way, but heaven)

(ν)χε(h)ι > NaGY ÉHŰ > nagy éhű (has big appetite)

μχ^δο^ευ > MeGY aDÓ EVVe' > megy adó evvel (tax is applied to it)

(ν)χ^ι^αι > iNGYÜ' ÁLLJa > ingyül állja (she stands for free)

χδευ > üGYeD EVVe' > ügyed evvel (your case with this)

χρεριχε > GYéRE' üRÜGYE > gyérel ürügye (gets rarer her pretext)

          Őröd ügyel, szű így ó, de ég nagy éhű, megy adó evvel. Ingyül állja ügyed, evvel gyérel ürügye. (Your protector is guarding, the heart guards this way, but heaven has big appetite, tax is applied to it. She stands your case for free, (but) with this gets rarer her pretext.)

AVI 5716; BAD 206467

AVI5716New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 56.171.40. RF neck amphora. From Capua. Pig Painter. Second quarter fifth

History: Ex [San Simeon?], Hearst. Ex Naples, Bourguignon.

Decoration: A: a trainer and a hoplitodromos. B: komos: a woman playing the lyre, and a youth.

Inscriptions: A: on the shield, device, a lion, and around it, near the edge, nonsense: εhεο.

Bibliography: *F. Hauser (1895), 198-99, fig. 34 (A). — ARV[2] (1963), 565/37.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5939


εhεο > ÉHE Ó > Éhe ó! (Its (the lions) hunger guards!)





AVI 5739AVI 5739; BAD 705

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art G.R. 523. BF neck amphora. Diosphos Painter. Ca. 500 (Bothmer).

Decoration: A: Heracles and the Nemean Lion, with Athena; between them, upright, the club. B: Hera sending out Iris, with the Nemean Lion (M. Milne){1}.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: to right of Athena's head: 5 imitation letters: υχυχι{2}. To left of the club: χιχχχεχ (retr.?){3}. B: curving around the lion's head: 8 imitation letters: ιιχχχυυυ, retr. To right of Iris' left thigh: 5 letters: χχχλχ.

Commentary: = X.21.15. A small vase.

Footnotes: {1} this should be A. {2} very tiny letters. {3} so the ph. and CVA, text; the epsilon is large and very clear.

Bibliography: *Luce (1916), 440 ff., fig. 5. — V.Pol. (1928), 4. — Richter–Milne (1935), fig. 17. — Haspels (1936), 239/138. — *M.B. Moore and D. von Bothmer, CVA New York 4, USA 16 (1976), pl. 50,1-2 (bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5965



B:       ιιχχχυυυ > {KéT}χχχυυυ* > KéT eGYüGYű üGYe'Ve VíV > Két együgyű ügyelve vív. (Two halfwitted will fight carefully.)

χχχλχ > eGYüGYű üGYeL íGY > Együgyű ügyel így. (A halfwitted cares like that.)


A:       υχυχι > ÜGYéVe' eGYÜ' > Ügyével együl. (He identifies with his case.)

χιχχχεχ > üGY ÍGY eGYüGYű ÉDJe > Ügy így együgyű édje. (The case is this way the sweetness of halfwitted.)


* ii is a ligature, stands for {K+T}: II=KéT/KeTTő 'two'.


c. Hera, vexed by Heracles’s excesses, drove him mad.” or halfwitted!, literally: one-sided, who pursues only one course, or in biblical sense: straight-hearted, devout.

1. The sacred king’s ritual combat with wild beasts formed a regular part of the coronation ritual in Greece, Asia Minor, Babylonia, Syria; each beast representing one season of the year. … in a four-seasoned year, they have been bull, ram, lion, and serpent, like the heads of Phanes (see described in Orphic Fragment); or bull, lion, eagle, and seraph, as in Ezekiel’s vision (Ezekiel I.); or, more simply, bull, lion, scorpion, water-snake, the four Signs of the Zodiac which once fell at the equinoxes and solstices.” R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 122.c, 123.1.)

AVI 5742; BAD 302216

New York, Private: Bastis. BF amphora. Unattributed{1}. Andokides, potter. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: A: chariot (the charioteer is bearded, with a Boeotian shield). B: similar, but no shield; preceded by a man with wreath and branch (perhaps a victorious chariot).

AVI5742Inscriptions: A: between the left handle palmette and the chariot's lower left, facing out: nonsense: hοινος<. To right of the charioteer's face: Ανδοκιδες. Below the horses' bellies: εποιεσ<ε>ν{2}. At right, between the horses and palmette: nonsense: πιοτσινσ.

Commentary: Also listed as Bronxville, Bastis. The earliest signature of Andokides. It seems to me that the two nonsense words play with the words οινος and εποιεσεν. The vase was lent to the Met. Museum, number: L 64/31.

Footnotes: {1} akin to Group E (Beazley). {2} the last letter in the ph. in the Bull. is not an epsilon; an error in ABV (εποιεσε)?

Bibliography: Fogg Art Museum (1954), 34/254, pl. 76 (B [[invis.]]). — *ABV (1956), 253, 715. — *Vermeule–Bothmer (1956), pl. 112. — Bothmer (1961), pl. 73. — ARV[2] (1963), 1. — *Bothmer (1966), 207, fig. 8 (A). — Para. (1971), 113. — Add.[2] (1989), 65.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5968


          hοινος< > hοινος{Λ DőL} > Ha OLY NŐS LóDuL > ha oly nős lódul (when such a married man departs suddenly)

Ανδοκιδες > Á' iNDOK ÜDE S > áll indok üde s (a motive stands readily, and)

εποιεσ<ε>ν > ÉPP Ő iJESSZeN > épp ő ijesszen (exactly that should frighten you)

πιοτσινσ > BŰ OTT SZŰNe iS > bű ott szűne is (there its break is frequent also)

          Ha oly nős lódul, áll indok üde s épp ő ijesszen: bű ott szűne is! (When such a married man departs suddenly, a motive stands readily, and exactly that should frighten you: there its break is frequent also.)


AVI 5751; BAD 205981

AVI5651New York, Private: Gallatin. RF Nolan amphora From Campania. Alkimachos Painter. Second quarter fifth Ca. 470

Decoration: A: a jumper with halteres. At left, a pillar. B: a trainer.

Inscriptions: A: on the pillar, in BG (brown): nonsense: (κ)οσνοσ{1}. In the field: καλος.

Commentary: The nonsense inscription recurs on Warsaw 142,335 (ex Goluchow 53), ARV[2] 529/4.

Footnotes: {1} very neat letters filling the length of the pillar (planned).

Bibliography: *G.H. Chase and M.Z. Pease, CVA Fogg & Gallatin, USA 8 (1942), pl. 54,1. — ARV[2] (1963), 529/10, 1658.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5977


          (κ)οσνοσ καλος > KÖSSöN ŐS KiÁLLÓ SZó > Kössön ős! Kiálló szó. (Let ancestor oblige you! Outstanding words.)



AVI 5766

Unlocated. BF skyphos{1}. Unattributed{2}. Third quarter sixth

History: Ex New York Market.

Decoration: A: sphinx. B: similar.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: A: [...]νσκνεα[...]. B: [...]εινσ[...].

Footnotes: {1} band skyphos. {2} compared by Beazley with a skyphos, Swiss Private, the figure work of which is similar to vases in the manner of Elbows Out.

Bibliography: *Para. (1971), 113.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5993


A:        ν̣σκνεα > NáSZ/NőSZ KiNÉ' Á' > Nász/nősz kinél áll. (Womaniser is at whom it stands.)

B:        [...]εινσ[...] > ÉJ NőSZé … > éj nőszé … (… night belongs to womaniser ...)

AVI 5767; BAD 340444

Unlocated. BF lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

AVI5766History: Ex New York Market.

Decoration: Lip: A, B, each: a sphinx to right looking back.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: short nonsense: A: ν̣σκνεα. B: [...]ει[.]σ{1}.

Commentary: The photos. with the accompanying location are old. Clear letters.

Footnotes: {1} the last two letters are under some dirt and smudged.

Bibliography: *Photos in Beazley Archive (A, B).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 5994


A:        ν̣σκνεα > NáSZ/NőSZ KiNÉ' Á' > Nász/nősz kinél áll. (Womaniser is at whom it stands.)


B:        [...]εινσ[...] > ÉJ NőSZé … > éj nőszé … (… night belongs to womaniser ...)


AVI 5806; BAD 202975

Orvieto, Museo Claudio Faina e Museo Civico 1045. RF neck amphora. From Orvieto. Syriskos AVI5806Painter. First quarter fifth

Decoration: A: a boy before a man with his stick. B: similar (reversed; the man offering a flower).

Inscriptions: A: to right of the boy's body: [κ]αλος ει. To left of the man's open mouth: καλος ει, retr. B: to right of the man's face: κ̣[α]λος ει. To the boy's left, under his armpit, partly kion., nonsense (mock) inscription, imitating the others: κγσγ(ο)ι{1}.

Commentary: Listed as Orvieto, Opera del Duomo 1045 in CVA. The men are praising the boys and the painter is too.

Footnotes: {1} i.e., alpha without a cross bar, twice intended? The reading is from a photo.; CVA reads καλος ει twice on this side.

Bibliography: *Photos. — *G. Becatti, CVA Umbria 1, Italy 16 (1940), pl. 4,3-4. — ARV[2] (1963), 261/21.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6036


A:        [κ]αλος ει > KALLó ŐS ÉLJ > Kalló ős, élj! (Weary ancestor, stay alive!)

           καλος ει > Ki A LÖSZ ÉLJ > Ki a lösz, élj! (Who is the future, stay alive!)


B:        κ̣[α]λος ει > κ̣[υ]λος ει > KiVeL ŐSEI > Kivel ősei? (With whom are their ancestors?)

           κγσγ(ο)ι > Ki eGéSSéGe OLY > Ki egéssége oly. (The one whom health is such (good).)


AVI 5808; BAD 200539

Orvieto, Museo Claudio Faina e Museo Civico 1049. RF cup. From Orvieto. Oltos. Memnon, kalos. Last quarter sixth 520-510

Decoration: Int.: warrior. A: Dionysus with four satyrs and two maenads. B: Dionysus on a donkey with three satyrs and three maenads.



Inscriptions: Int.: in a circle around the scene: Μεμ[ν]ον κα[λο]ς{1}. A: καλος three times among numerous nonsense inscriptions; they are not clear in the photos. CVA's text, gives ελοολο(ς). Above Dionysus' head: μεανε. Between Dionysus and a satyr: αο^γυο. Between one satyr and a maenad: εγο αλ(ς). Under one handle: γκξϙς{2}. B: above the head of the left maenad: καλο(ς). Nonsense inscriptions. Between a satyr playing the flutes and Dionysus: καλο(ς). Under the other handle a lotus bud.

Commentary: The nonsense inscriptions done after CVA, text; the photos are not clear.

Footnotes: {1} κα[λ]ος, ARV[2]. {2} so CVA, text. The xi is probably a zeta with a blot. The koppa may be an omicron.

Bibliography: *G. Becatti, CVA Umbria 1, Italy 16 (1940), pls. 1-2. — ARV[2] (1963), 64/103.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6038

           ΜΕΜ[Ν]ΟΝ ΚΑ[ΛΟ]Σ > íM E Me[N]ŐN/Me[NNY]ÖN Ki ÁLLÓS > ím e me[n]őn/me[nny]ön ki állós (look, on this going on (movement/change) / sky who/what is constant/stable/standing)

           ΕΛΟΟΛΟ(Σ) > ÉLŐ Ő áLLÓS > élő ő állós (the living is constant)

           ΜΕΑΝΕ > MÉ’ Á’Na E > (rt) állna e (why would it stand/be constant)

           ΑΟ^ΓΥΟ > ΔΟ^ΓΥΟ > DŐ’ aGGÚ’ Ő > dől aggúl ő (he leans as an aged)

           ΕΓΟ ΑΛ(Σ) > ÉG Ő ÁLLÓS > ég ő állós (heaven is constant)

           ΓΚΞϙΣ > ΓΚΟΣ{2} > éG KóKáZÓS > Ég kókázós (összekoccanós) (Heaven is quarrelsome (the bodies often knock against each other))

           ΓΚΞϙΣ > ΓΚΖΟΣ (see: Footnotes: {2}) > éG KöZÖS > ég közös (közökkel teli, hézagos) (heaven is imperfect)

           ΚΑΛΟΣ > KiÁLLÓS > kiállós (outstanding)*

           Ím, e me[n]őn/me[nny]ön ki állós: élő ő állós. Mé(rt) állna e? Dől aggúl ő. Ég ő állós. Ég kókázós (összekoccanós) (/ Ég közös (közökkel teli, hézagos)), kiállós. (Look, on this going on (movement/change) / sky who/what is constant/stable/standing: the living is constant. Why would it stand/be constant? He leans as an aged. Heaven is constant. Heaven is quarrelsome (the bodies often knock against each other) (/ Heaven is imperfect), outstanding.)

* Word-play: ΚΑΛΟΣ > Ki ÁLLÓS : KiÁLLÓS > ki állós : kiállós (who is constant/stable/standing : outstanding)

AVI 5812; BAD 310099

Orvieto, Museo Claudio Faina e Museo Civico 41. BF Tyrrhenian neck amphora. From Orvieto? Guglielmi Painter (Bothmer). Third quarter sixth 550-530 Middle period (Kluiver).

Decoration: A: love-making: men and youths, and a naked woman; column krater. B: Dionysus seated on a stool; maenad, satyr and a man; grape vine. A, B, each: below: three animal friezes.

AVI5812Inscriptions: A: nonsense: λοϝ(.)γ(.):. ιοικΕο(κ)ισ. σομιγμ. λ(ο)ϝγιμι{1}.

Commentary: = 2664. There may be other inscriptions. Attic alphabet with the sigma three- and four-stroke.

Footnotes: {1} the omicron may be a delta.

Bibliography: BADB: 310099. — *Photo. — ABV (1956), 102/100, 684. — Para. (1971), 38. — Add.[2] (1989), 27. — Kluiver (1996), 21/208 (inscrr. not mentioned), fig. 26 (shows 2 inscriptions well, and one in glare).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6042

λοϝ(.)γ(.) > LOVAGLó > lovagló (the rider)

ιοικΕο(κ)ισ > JÓ ÍKE' Ő Ki IS > jó íkel ő ki is (wedges well, he out as well)

σομιγμ > SZÓ' MI GaMÓ > szól mi gamó (calls, what is a stick)

λ(ο)ϝγιμι > LOVaGI MŰ > lovagi mű (it's also a knightly work)

           Lovagló jó íkel, ő ki is szól: mi gamó, lovagi mű! (The rider wedges well, he calls out as well: what is a stick, it's also a knightly work.)

AVI 5855; BAD 11863

AVI5855Oxford, Ashmolean Museum G 137.32. Fr. of BF vase{1}. From Naukratis. Unattributed. Middle to third quarter sixth

Decoration: At the bottom of the scene: a woman (lower part); male legs facing left.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: between the figures: [...]νειοπειοπ[...].

Commentary: My reading from the photo. Beazley in CVA read: γειονειο(γ)ι; the second gamma is given as Attic with unequal legs.

Footnotes: {1} probably the lid of a Nikosthenic pyxis.

Bibliography: *Photo. — *J.D. Beazley, CVA Oxford 2, Great Britain 9 (1931), III H, pl. 2,25.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6087

           γειονειο(γ)ι > éGGE' JÖN E JÓ éGI > Éggel jön e jó égi ... (With heaven comes this good heavenly ...)


AVI 5871; BAD 361410

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum G 217. small BF neck amphora. Diosphos Painter. First quarter fifth

AVI5871Decoration: A: two Amazons arming, with a lion. B: a warrior restraining his horse; a dog.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: imitation letters: A: between the Amazons' heads: 5 letters. B: above the horse's rump: υχυ(γ)ιγχ. Under the horse's belly and around the dog's head: 7 letters. To right of the warrior's back: 5 letters.

Commentary: = 1885.710. The letters are close to imitation letters. The phs. in CVA are too small to see the letter forms, but the imitation inscriptions seem to follow the Diosphos Painter's regular practice of varying the shapes of the letters to give the illusion of real inscriptions. B has more inscriptions than A; hence it is probably the more important side.

Bibliography: Gardner (1897), 12/217. — V.Pol. (1928), 6 n. 4. — Haspels (1936), 238/129. — ABV (1956), 703/129. — Para. (1971), 248. — *J. Boardman, CVA Oxford 3, Great Britain 14 (1975), pl. 25,1-2. — Add.[2] (1989), 127.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6103

υχυ(γ)ιγχ > ViGYe VéGIG íGY > Vigye végig így ... (Let he carry it to the end this way ...)

AVI 5881

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 247. BF lekythos. Athena Painter. Early fifth

Decoration: Poseidon on a sea horse.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: above the figures, just below the top margin, horizontal: δογ(ρ)γ^ογ{1}. Complete.

Footnotes: {1} in Haspels' ph., the third letter looks like a reversed regular rho; it could be a koppa. Between the fifth and sixth letters there is a gap caused by the heads of Poseidon and the horse, but there are some odd little black strokes which I do not think are part of the inscription.

Bibliography: *Haspels (1936), 147, 148, 255/19, pl. 44,4a-c (all show letters).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6113

δογ(ρ)γ^ογ > iDŐ éGRe GÓG > Idő égre góg (góc). (Time is focus on heaven.)

AVI 5882; BAD 3013

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 251. BF lekythos. From Gela. Manner of Athena Painter (Haspels). Kynippos (?), kalos. First quarter fifth

Decoration: Shoulder: between eyes: a hunter with a spear; a doe having been hit by two spears (in thigh and head); a stag rushing off to right. [The lower legs and feet of hunter and front legs of right doe are missing.]

AVI5882Inscriptions: Shoulder: (.)υον καλος̣ Κυνιππος{1}.

Commentary: Listed as Oxford 1889.1013, ABL 262/1. - Haspels 161: shoulder: stag hunt. The inscription: (.)ΥΟN, ΚΑΛΟ(.) [Attic lambda], ΚΥNΙΠΠΟΣ [three-stroke sigma]. To left of the first word a piece is missing but H. disagrees with Gardner that there was room there for another letter. "Apart from these words, our painter strews a number of small blots in the field, which give the illusion of an inscription from a distance, but which do not even pretend to be mock letters." The kalos-name is not in Beazley, but see LGPN ii; the name Kynippos is found in Athens in the fifth century; see also PA 8945-46.

Footnotes: {1} Κυνιππος is known from the late fifth century, see LGPN ii who also lists the present vase, although it is not in Beazley. The ph. in Bérard shows: to lower right of the hunter, [--]λον (there probably was more at left, not in ph. and probably lost). Above these letters, close to the right of the hunter's left arm: six small nonsense (imitation) letters in irregular sequence, typical of Athena Painter nonsense. To the smitten doe's right, vertically down and facing it: καλο(ς) (the sigma indistinct). Below the stag's belly, horizontal: Κυν..., the rest cut off by the ph.

Bibliography: P. Gardner (1893), 18[[/251]]. — Klein (1898), 52. — *Haspels (1936), 161 and 262/1 (not ill.). — *Bérard et al. (1989), 63, fig. 88 (shoulder, shows much of the inscriptions).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6115

           (.)υον καλος̣ Κυνιππος > (.)λον καλολ Κυνιππος{1} > KüLÖN oKKAL ÖL Ki VéNÜ' PúPOS > Külön okkal öl ki vénül púpos. (The one who is aging humpbacked kills with peculiar reason.)

AVI 5889; BAD 207373

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 277. RF Nolan amphora From Gela. Providence Painter. 480-470

Decoration: A: Athena running. B: a man with a scepter.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: below her right arm: νογν. To right of her head: νοναι. B: on the left: ...εν...

Commentary: = G 260. The very faint inscriptions are here given from CVA, text.

Bibliography: *J.D. Beazley, CVA Oxford 1, Great Britain 3 (1927), pls. 17,2 and 18,7. — ARV[2] (1963), 636/22. — Add.[2] (1989), 273.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6122

A:       νογν νοναι > NŐ-iGéNY NŐN ÁLLJ > Nő-igény nőn állj! (Woman's claim/want/demand let stay on woman!)

AVI 5898; BAD 23907

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 311. RF lekythos. From Gela. Unattributed. Ca. 480 (Beazley).

Decoration: Eros flying with a lyre and fillet.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: At left: ν[.]νι. At right: νονει̣ι.

Bibliography: *J.D. Beazley, CVA Oxford 1, Great Britain 3 (1927), pl. 39,1.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6131

           ν[.]νι νονει̣ι > NőSZNI NŐN E ÍJ > Nőszni nőn e íj. (For womanising this bow is aimed at woman.)

AVI 5899; BAD 207589

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 316. RF lekythos. From Gela. Nikon Painter. Ca. 480-470

Decoration: Eos.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: on the left: οε(.)(.){1}. On the right: καεακσ.

Commentary: = 1890.24. Done from CVA, text. Beazley's description is confusing, as he speaks of a rough stoichedon, but gives the inscriptions as being on either side of the figures. The photo in CVA may show some letters on the left, possibly kionedon. Attic sigma.

Footnotes: {1} "ΟΕ and two more letters," Beazley in CVA.

Bibliography: *J.D. Beazley, CVA Oxford 1, Great Britain 3 (1927), pl. 34,3. — ARV[2] (1963), 651/23. — Add.[2] (1989), 276.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6132

οε(.)(.) > ο(.)ε(.){1} > ÖLÉS > ölés (killing)

          καεακσ > oKA E A KéS > oka e a kés (is the knife the reason)

Ölés oka e a kés? (Is the knife the reason of killing?)

AVI5900AVI 5900; BAD 207436

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 317. RF lekythos. From Gela. Providence Painter. Ca. 480 (Beazley, orig. [[i.e. on his dr.?]]). 465 (Jacobsthal apud Beazley, CVA Oxford 2).

Decoration: Athena (? see below) running with a shield and spear.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: to left of her mouth, along the spear: γσγσβο, retr.

Commentary: Rumpf is probably right in calling `Athena' Thetis or a Nereid (Beazley in CVA GB 9, who gives parallels for the subject).

Bibliography: *dr. by Beazley. — *J.D. Beazley, CVA Oxford 1, Great Britain 3 (1927), pl. 34,4. — Rumpf (1930), 66. — J.D. Beazley, CVA Oxford 2, Great Britain 9 (1931), p. vii. — ARV[2] (1963), 641/84. — Add.[2] (1989), 274.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6133

           γσγσβο > iGaSSáG SZóVa' Ö' > Igazság szóval öl. (Truth/justice kills with words.)

AVI 5907; BAD 340767

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 512. BF/WG lekythos. From Thebes. Cactus Painter. Early fifth

Decoration: Ajax with the body of Achilles.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: in the spaces between palmettes: σο, four times. Once: σοσο. Twice: σ.

Commentary: The sigmas three-stroke and rounded.

Bibliography: Gardner (1904), 302, pl. 7. — *Haspels (1936), 61-62, 110, 198/4, pl. 18,3. — Para. (1971), 212.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6140

           σο σο σο σο > SZÓ SZÓ' éSZ Ö' SZŐ > szó szól ész öl sző (the word speaks, the mind kills, weaves/plots)

           σοσο > σοσλ > SZÓSZóLó > szószóló (the mediator)

           σ σ > eSZ éSZ > esz ész (the mind bothers)

Szó szól, ész öl, sző szószóló, esz ész. (The word speaks, the mind kills, the mediator weaves/plots, the mind bothers.)

AVI 5913; BAD 200611

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 520. RF cup-skyphos. Epiktetos. Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: A: two boys fetching wine at a krater. B: a boy with two horses.



Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: by the head and raised cup of the left boy: ιε^οιε^οιε. Behind the boy at left: τσ, retr. To left of the boy at right: οιεν, retr. B: above the left horse: [...]ι(ε)...ιε. To right of the right horse's legs: εο(ι)ε.

Commentary: = G 276. The inscriptions after JHS. Beazley gives parallels for the inscriptions: Naples, Racc. Porn. 1 (ARV(2) 77/85, CAVI 5484) and Orvieto, Faina 148 (ARV(2) 77/89, CAVI 5829), both by Epiktetos.

Bibliography: *Gardner (1904), 306 (drs.). — *J.D. Beazley, CVA Oxford 1, Great Britain 3 (1927), pl. 41,9-10. — ARV[2] (1963), 76/84. — Para. (1971), 328. — Add.[2] (1989), 168.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6146

A:        ιε^οιε^οιε τσ οιεν > JE'ÖLJE Ó JE' iTaSS Ő iLYEN > Jelölje ó jel: itass - ő ilyen! (Let it mark this ancient sign: make mi drink – it is such.)


B:        [...]ι(ε)...ιε εο(ι)ε > JE' … JE' E Ó JE' > jel … jel, e ó jel. (… sign … sign, this ancient sign.)

AVI 5937; BAD 200881

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 1916.6. RF alabastron. From Boeotia. Group of Paidikos Alabastra. Last quarter sixth

Decoration: A youth and a woman, separated by columns.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: on the columns, in BG (brown), retr.: λγγολιλ and λιλγολι{1}. On the mouth, retr.: υιγουσσ.

Commentary: First published in Auktion Helbig: see ARV[2]. Beazley in CVA compares Oxford 1921.1214, q.v.

Footnotes: {1} my note of the second inscription differs: γιγ(λ)ογ(.), the last letter a dot. The letters are askew, since the vase was not turned when writing on it.

Bibliography: *J.D. Beazley, CVA Oxford 1, Great Britain 3 (1927), pl. 41,3-4. — ARV[2] (1963), 100/23.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6170

λγγολιλ > LeGuGGOLó ÜL > leguggoló ül (the squatting one sits)

λιλγολι > öLI LóGÓ LŰ > öli lógó lű ( the hanging thing in one lap is shooting)

υιγουσσ > VÍG ÓVáSoS > víg óvásos (jolly preventive saying)

           Leguggoló ül, öli lógó lű, - víg óvásos. (The squatting one sits, the hanging thing in one lap is shooting, - jolly preventive saying.)

AVI 5944; BAD 205977

AVI5944Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 1919.23. RF Nolan amphora Alkimachos Painter. Second quarter fifth Ca. 470

Decoration: A: a warrior setting out. B: youth.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: to left of the warrior's face, a horizontal two-liner with attempted oblique stoichedon: νοσγσγ | hυγσ(γ)σ{1}. . . . . . . .. .. . .

Commentary: Clear letters. For similar inscriptions (several by the Alkimachos Painter) see AttScr (1990), 99 and n. 5.

Footnotes: {1} CVA prints the first gamma as an alpha with an interrupted cross bar. The second line is given as: hσγσνγ. I follow my reading; the penultimate letter, given as nu in CVA, looked to me like a gamma with an oblique stroke through the right bar - some kind of correction?

Bibliography: *J.D. Beazley, CVA Oxford 1, Great Britain 3 (1927), pls. 17,8 and 18,8. — ARV[2] (1963), 529/6. — AttScr (1990), no. 663.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6177

           νοσγσγ | hυγσ(γ)σ > NŐS GaSSáG Hű VíGaSSáG iS > Nős gazság hű vígasság is. (The villainy of the married is also faithful blitheness/happiness.)

or by CVA reading given in Footnotes:

           νοαγσγ | hσγσνγ > NŐ A GaSSáG HűSéGeS iNoG > Nő a gazság, hűséges inog. (Villainy grows, the faithful vacillates.)

AVI 5949; BAD 200874

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 1921.1214. RF alabastron. From Greece. Group of Paidikos Alabastra. Last quarter sixth

Decoration: A seated woman and two standing women.

Inscriptions: On the mouth, between two black bands, in BG: nonsense: υσγσο{1}.

Commentary: Large letters.

Footnotes: {1} so CVA; my reading differs: circular: in the upper half: οστυ, with the tau's horizontal shifted to the left. In the lower half: υσ.

Bibliography: *J.D. Beazley, CVA Oxford 1, Great Britain 3 (1927), pl. 41,1-2. — ARV[2] (1963), 100/16.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6182

           οστυ υσ > OSZíTVa aVaSS > Oszítva avass! (Initiate others (into secrets) by inciting.)

AVI 5998; BAD 320425

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 1965.141. BF amphora. Manner of Princeton Painter{1}. Third quarter sixth Ca. 550 (Boardman).

History: Ex Northwick Park, Spencer-Churchill.

Decoration: A: a warrior leading a woman (Menelaus and Helen?); at left, a bearded man and a warrior; at right, a dog and a bearded man. B: Heracles and the Lion, between Athena and Iolaus; at the far right, a man.



Inscriptions: A: nonsense: to right of one old man's legs: ειονϝιϝοι. Between the warrior's legs: ει(ο)ειοι. To their right: ε[.]ο̣χϝιο(λ). To right of the woman's face: ειοχχι̣ι̣σ. To right of her middle: ειοχε. To left of another old man's legs: ειοχειο(λ). To their right: ειο(.)ειοχ(σ)οχυ{2}.

Commentary: The digamma’s may be incomplete epsilon’s, the ‘Argive lambda’ is probably a truncated chi. For the type of inscriptions see Munich 1379. Beazley found the same inscriptions matched on five other vases which he attributed to the Painter of Berlin 1686 (ABV 296f., nos. 3, 6, 17-19). A similar type appears on three other vases by the same hand (nos. 3 ter, 4 (the name piece) and 7). The Oxford vase was attributed by him to the manner of the Princeton Painter and in Para. he compared it with Munich 1379 which he considered very close. Boardman thinks the Oxford and Munich vases should also be by the Painter of Berlin 1686, in an early phase; the inscriptions by the Painter of Munich 1379 (two other vases in Munich) are not very different.

Footnotes: {1} so ABV; in Para. Beazley says: "Compare Munich 1379 by the Painter of Munich 1379 [ABV 303/1]." {2} Beazley in AJA reads, in the same order: ΕΙΟWRΙ(ϝ)Ο·, the digamma upside down. ΕΙΟΕΙΟΙ. Ε·ΟΧ(ϝ)ΙΟΧ. ΕΙΟΤΧ··Σ, with three-stroke sigma. ΕΙΟΧΕ. ΕΙΟΧΕΙΟ(Λ), the last letter, the `Argive' lambda. EIOXEIOXKOXI. All chi's are upright crosses. Some of these readings may be better than mine, which are from a photo.

Bibliography: *Photo. — *Beazley (1929a), 360 f., fig. 1. — Dugas (1936), 163/18. — Ghali-Kahil (1955), 107(e). — ABV (1956), 299/1. — Dugas (1960), 29/18. — Hamilton (1965), no. 53, pl. 7. — Para. (1971), 130. — Brommer (1973), 133/5 and 410/24. — *J. Boardman, CVA Oxford 3, Great Britain 14 (1975), pls. 31,2 and 32,3,4. — Add.[2] (1989), 78.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 6231

ειονϝιϝοι > E'JÖN VÍVÓJa > eljön vívója (her fighter comes)

ει(ο)ειοι > E JÓ ÉJ OLY > e jó éj oly (this good night is such)

ε[.]ο̣χϝιο(λ) > E[R]ŐDJe VÍ ÖL > e[r]ődje ví öl (stronghold for, he fights, kills)

ειοχχι̣ι̣σ > E JÓ íGY eGYÜ' IS > e jó így együl is (this good man, also unites this way)

ειοχε > É' JÓ' üGGYE' > él jól üggyel (lives well with the case)

ειοχειο(λ) > E JÓ üGYE' JÓL > e jó ügyel jól (this good man takes care of her well)

          ειο(.)ειοχ(σ)οχυ > E'JŐ íGY ÉJ Ő GYáSZO' üGYéVe' > eljő így éj ő gyászol ügyével (comes night this way, she is in mourning for the case)

           Eljön vívója, e jó éj oly e[r]ődje. Ví, öl e jó, így együl is. Él jól üggyel e jó, ügyel jól. Eljő így éj, ő gyászol ügyével. (Her fighter comes, this good night is stronghold for such. He fights, kills this good man, also unites this way. This good man lives well with the case, he takes care of her well. Comes night this way, she is in mourning for the case.)

Mihaly Mellar

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The Scythian language resurrects as Scythic-Hun-Magyar.


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'Nonsense Inscriptions'?!
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és a betlehemi csillag

A könyv a múlt és a jelen sérthetetlen dogmáit kérdőjelezi meg, érzékeny pontokat érintve a társadalmi közérzeten, mind a hétköznapokra, a tudományos életre és a hit világára vonatkoztatva. Szó lesz a valódi betlehemi csillagról, a történelmi, azaz a pártus Jézusról, a valós keresztre feszítéséről és egy szörnyű végű összeesküvésről, aminek egyik következménye a téves időszámításunk és a kronológiánk sötét középkora.
Talán nem is véletlen, hogy most íródott meg a könyv. Ismét az útkeresés korában járunk. Létezésünk és hitvilágunk alapjai esnek szét, új kérdések jönnek, új válaszok kellenek.
Ezek alapjait érinti meg a könyv, új szemléletet adva az eddig érinthetetlennek gondolt tabuknak.

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