The “names” on the ancient Greek vases are there for everyone to see, but only the Scythic speaking people can read the hidden message of these scytales! What a revealing name! that goes unnoticed by scientists for two and a half thousand years.The small cup from Corinth (1883 or earlier), now in Paris, Louvre MNC 332, has these “names” added to the boxing scene:
> Víjó (vívó) ki elbukta fél vége. (The fighter, who lost it, fears his end.)

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Blog : 'Nonsense Inscriptions'?!Keywords : Robert Graves, Greek myths, nonsense vase inscriptions, Ajax, Cassandra, Troilos

Common sense in nonsense inscriptions VIII

from AVI numbers 7000 to the end

The transliteration into modern Greek from the different ancient handwritings is done by H. R. Immerwahr and others, which in turn is transcribed by me, using this simple ABC table, at the same time backfilling the left out vowels, to reconstruct the inscriptions in today's spelling.

All the descriptions are pasted in from Henry R. Immerwahr’s AVI (Attic Vase Inscriptions) Project homesite ( Where it could be identified, there the inscription’s Beazely Archive Database (BAD: ) number is also given, which can be very useful for the pictures supplied on this website to most of the inscriptions.

There are two categories of nonsense inscriptions: those with imitation letterings are real nonsense and not the subject of our attention, but most of the others – which imitate words by using real letters – are actually legible texts that make perfect sense when one fills back the left out vowels by the applied method of writing, the so called defective notation of vowels method, wildly used in the era and area (see for example I. J. Adiego in The Carian Language).

In the followings, the Greek letters of the “nonsense” inscriptions are transcribed or transliterated (in green) CAPITAL letters, while the left out vowels are filled back in small/lower case letters. It is still only a transcription/transliteration from one lettering (Greek alphabet) to Hungarian Roman lettering and from one method of writing (defective notation of vowels) to the today’s full phonetic notation in use by the current grammar. In these legitimate transcriptions the language of the inscriptions is not changing, we still read the inscriptions in their original language, that is in Scythian/Hun/Hungarian and only occasionally we need explanation for some words with, by now, faded away meanings.

This is all the science needed to read the “nonsense” inscriptions. But to analyse and further investigate these, from here and now on meaningful, common sense texts, all scientists are welcome, from linguists, historians, artists and art-historians, aestheticians etc.

Going the other way around is only groping about in the dark, as it turns out the inscriptions are integral parts of the depictions. They complement it in such a way that our perception or first impression often changes for good. With the hindsight of the text we sometimes see and comprehend an entirely different picture with a valuable message only accessible by these readings. So, like it or not, these readings of the “nonsense” inscriptions are hard facts and without them neither the message nor the artistic value of the Attic vases cannot be fully apprehended nor it can be fully appreciated.


<>: omitted letters

(): miswritten letters

{}: letters inserted by mistake

[]: letters lost

^ : gap between letters, whether caused by intervening objects or not

v. vac. vacat: letter spaces left blank

: two-dot punctuation

:* three-dot punctuation

|: line break

dotted letters: letters uncertain when taken out of context accents and breathings: in principle omitted for the vase inscriptions, but sometimes added for clarity long marks: added sporadically especially for the ending –on strike-through: used for ligatures and for the so-called syllabic heta(h<e>)

For abbreviations of Books and Archives see

AVI 7018; BAD 303905

Rome, Vatican 16582. RF cup. From Vulci. Brygos Painter. Brygos, potter. First quarter fifth

Decoration: Int.: symposium: a youth playing the flutes and a man singing, both reclining. A-B: Hermes and the catlle of Apollo.

Inscriptions: Int.: above the scene, nonsense: υσεισι. Ext.: similar letters.

Commentary: This seems rather different from other Brygan nonsense. Cf. the Briseis Painter?

Bibliography: *Photos. — ARV[2] (1963), 369/6, 1649. — *Cambitoglou (1968), pls. 2,2 and 4. — Para. (1971), 367. — Add.[2] (1989), 224.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7274

υσεισι > eVéSSE' ISZI > Evéssel iszi. (One drinks it with eating.)

AVI 7022; BAD 310055

Rome, Vatican 34526 (G 13). BF Tyrrhenian neck amphora. From Vulci. Guglielmi Painter (Bothmer: Komos Painter). Third quarter sixth 550-530 Late period (Kluiver).

Decoration: Shoulder: A: Amazonomachy. B: duel between women and horsemen{1}. Body: three animal friezes.

Inscriptions: Shoulder: nonsense: A: between the feet of the leftmost warrior: (.)ο(.)οπογ. Between the central warrior's feet: υοπονο. Between the legs of the warrior at right: νονον. B: to right of the left horse: ιγοϝσν(ο), retr. Between the legs of the left warrior: εσυσνσ, retr. Similarly between the right warrior's legs: ουτο(.)τον, retr.

Commentary: Large clear letters, squarish. B is in thinner letters, perhaps by a different hand. See further under Villa Giulia 50700, CAVI 7209, for the inscription on an Amazon's shield, with bibl.

Footnotes: {1} Bothmer: A: a Trojan Amazonomachy; B, Achilles and Memnon.

Bibliography: *Photo. — *Beazley–Magi (1939), 25/13, pl. 2 (A, B). — Bothmer (1944), 170/6 (Komos Painter = Guglielmi Painter). — ABV (1956), 95/iv, 99/56, 684. — Para. (1971), 38. — AttScr (1990), no. 190. — Kluiver (1993), 192, fig. 3f. — Kluiver (1996), 21/217 (inscrr. not mentioned).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7278

Sh A: (.)ο(.)οπογ > NŐ TOPOG > Nő topog. (The woman stamps.)

υοπονο > óVÓ BONYO' > Óvó bonyol(ít). (She complicates for protection.)

νονον > NŐ öNNÖN(e) > Nő önnön(e, önmaga). (That is her being.)

Sh B: ιγοϝσν(ο) > JoG-ÓVáSoN Ő > Jog-óváson ő. (He is on right-protection.)

εσυσνσ > E SZUSZa NőS > E szusza nős! (This puffer is married!)

ουτο(.)τον > ÓVaTOS uTÓN > Óvatos utón. (He is careful posterior.)

AVI 7026; BAD 200137

Rome, Vatican G 71. RF hydria (kalpis). From Vulci. Euthymides. Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: Komos: a man between two youths.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: along the left margin: χχει{1}. To right of the left youth's head: εχυκ. Below the last: κτοτλε. By the man's foot: τι. To right of his middle: [..2..](λ)υτ{2}. Along the right margin, facing in: κχυο. Under the foot, Gr.: πι.

Commentary: On this type of nonsense inscriptions, characteristic especially for kalpides of the Pioneer Group, see AttScr (1990), 71 n. 35. My reading in AttScr differs slightly from the above.

Footnotes: {1} or σχει(?). {2} I read: λ̣υτ, retr.

Bibliography: *Photo and *dr. by Beazley. — *Beazley–Magi (1939), iii, pl. 25. — ARV[2] (1963), 28/14. — Johnston (1979), 115/2D 8 (graffito). — Add.[2] (1989), 156. — *AttScr (1990), no. 380, fig. 91. — Neils (1995), 441, fig. 17 (a fair picture).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7282

χχει > íGY üGYELJ > így ügyelj (be warned)

εχυκ > EGY VaK > egy vak (a blind)

κτοτλε τι > κτοτυετι > Ki TÖ'Ti VÉTI > ki tölti véti (who fills it, misses it)

[..2..](λ)υτ > λυτ{2} > LeVeT > levet (the juice)

κχυο πι > κχαο πι > KiiGYA Ő eBÜ'/eBBŰ' > kiigya ő ebül/ebbűl (he should drink like a dog / out of this)

Így ügyelj: egy vak ki tölti, véti, levet kiigya ő ebül/ebbűl. (Be warned: a blind who fills it and misses it, should drink the juice like a dog / out of this.)

AVI 7028; BAD 306561

Rome, Vatican Astarita. BF lip cup. From Orvieto. Sakonides. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: A, B, each: lip: a female head in outline.

Inscriptions: A or B (ph. in Guarducci): handle zone: well centered in small letters: nonsense: εγοεισ(.)ο̣(.)σοσιτυι̣οσε(ν)(ε)ν{1}.

Commentary: Listed in ABV as Naples, Astarita, w/o number. The cup lacks the foot. Not all letters are certain. Beazley says that the monstrous interpretation in Riv. is noted in Glotta.

Footnotes: {1} a break runs through letters 8-10. Letter 7 is a smudge; letter 9 is the bottom of a vertical stroke; letter 20 is a reversed nu; the epsilon, letter 21, has very short strokes and is unclear.

Bibliography: Ribezzo (1931), 141-42. — *ABV (1956), 688 (add as no. 7 bis). — *Guarducci (1974), 494, fig. 199 (A or B).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7284

εγοεισ(.)ο̣(.)σοσιτυι̣οσε(ν)(ε)ν > ελοζισυθ(λ)σοζιτυι̣οζε(υ)(ε)ν{see picture & footnotes} > ELŐZI SaV-CSaLó SÓZ ITáVa' JÓ íZZE' VENNi > Előzi sav-csaló, sóz itával (italával) jó ízzel venni. (It is preceded by acid provoking (aroma), foisting with its drink to be taken with good taste/appetite.)

The three z-s are clearly written, the first λ and υ also, the rest is possible and follows from the requirement for a meaningful sentence, contextually suited very much to the dish served in the cup by the pictured lady.

AVI 7058; BAD 302311

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia. BF column krater. Leagros Group. Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: A: Heracles and the Bull between two women; behind, a tree with his quivver suspended. B: four komasts.

Inscriptions: A: above the central scene: nonsense: προχ^σε^(σ)(ε)ο(κ)σλοι{1}.

Commentary: = M. 452.

Footnotes: {1} the bracketed letters are very uncertain. Heracles' head and the tree intervene.

Bibliography: Mingazzini (1930), 219/452, no phs. — ABV (1956), 376/230 (no bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7314

προχ^σε^(σ)(ε)ο(κ)σλοι > προχ^σε^(σ)(ε)οπσλοι{1} > BáR Ő üGYeS ÉSSZe' Ö' BoSSZuLÓJa > Bár ő ügyes, ésszel öl bosszulója. (Although it is clever, its avenger kills shrewdly.)

AVI 7061; BAD 9017711

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia. Plain lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Ext.: no figured decoration.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: A: a long inscription ending in: ... λχυχυ. B: εποχεχπσχυχ(ν){1}.

Commentary: B is easier to read than A, as it has larger letters. By a different hand?

Footnotes: {1} the last letter is a reversed nu.

Bibliography: *Photos in Beazley Archive (A, B).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7317

A:     ... λχυχυ > éL eGYÜGYŰ > él együgyű (… half-witted)

B:     εποχεχπσχυχ(ν) > εποχεχπσχυχσ{1} > EBBŐ' úGY EGYe eBBe SZeDJe VeGYeS > Ebből úgy egye, (hogy) ebbe szedje vegyes. (Eat it from here by taking it into this mixed.)

AVI 7127; BAD 302392

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 861. BF oinochoe (olpe). From Cività Castellana (Falerii Veteres), necropoli di Celle, tomb 60. Unattributed{1}. Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: An Amazon in hoplite costume, with a dog.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: to the Amazon's left: χεγσλγσ, retr. On her right: (σ)ε(π)(.)νεο{2}.

Footnotes: {1} goes with other olpae in the Villa Giulia, which are closely connected; one is VG M. 540, another 25,002, q.v. (see ABV 382), a third VG 50,394, q.v. {2} it is not certain that the first letter is a sigma.

Bibliography: *G.Q. Giglioli, CVA Villa Giulia 3, Italy 3 (1927), III H e, pl. 51,2. — ABV (1956), 382, middle.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7384

χεγσλγσ > íGY EGéSZ iLLeGőS > így egész illegős (this way quite a preening)

(σ)ε(π)(.)νεο > (σ)ε(π){ToSZ}*νεο > SZÉP TeSZNYE Ő > szép tesznye ő (she is a nice sloppy/disorderly person)

Így egész illegős szép tesznye (rendetlen viseletű) ő. (This way she is quite a nice preening sloppy/disorderly person.)

* See the picture: it is a blot 'tosz' in Hungarian and stands for the {T+S/Z} ligature.

AVI 7132; BAD 13029

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 1225. BF eye cup. From Cività Castellana (Falerii Veteres){1}. Unattributed. 530-520

Decoration: Between eyes: A: Heracles shooting an arrow; at left, Athena. B: Geryon. Under the left handle, a youth lying on his back with a sword through his stomach. Under the right handle, a seated youth.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: above Heracles: ασοκχσ. To right of Athena's helmet crest: εσοι.

Commentary: Large letters.

Footnotes: {1} necropoli di Celle, tomba LXXII.

Bibliography: *G.Q. Giglioli, CVA Villa Giulia 3, Italy 3 (1927), III H e, pl. 29,2 (bibl.). — AttScr (1990), no. 1105.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7389

ασοκχσ > A SZÓ KeGYeS > A szó kegyes. (The word is gracious/lenient.)

εσοι > ÉSZ OLY > Ész oly! (The mind is such!)

AVI 7166; BAD 13085

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 44314. Fragmentary BF neck amphora. From Veii (probably). Unattributed. Date unclear

Decoration: A: Apollo citharoedus, with a panther, between two goddesses. B: Gigantomachy? (mostly missing): at left, Athena to left, fighting; a helmet crest (of a giant)?

Inscriptions: B: to left of Athena's face, but closer to the helmet: nonsense: αχοσνι, retr. ινιο{1}.

Footnotes: {1} so CVA; I read: ινσοχα, not retr. ινιο.

Bibliography: *G.Q. Giglioli, CVA Villa Giulia 3, Italy 3 (1927), III H e, pl. 18,1-2 (no bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7423

αχοσνι > ινσοχα{1} > INNi SZÓ áGYA' > Inni szó ágyal. (Word prepares one for drinking.)

ινιο > INNi JÓ > Inni jó! (It's good to drink!)

AVI 7169; BAD 303360

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 47466. BF/WG oinochoe (olpe). From Cerveteri. Gela Painter. First quarter fifth

Decoration: Two warriors leading horses.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: between the horses: ννν. At right: οτ(.)ν{1}.

Footnotes: {1} (.) looks like a solid square with a small L next to it: miswritten.

Bibliography: ABV (1956), 475/28 (no bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7426

ννν οτ(.)ν > Nő NYí'Na OTTHoN > Nő nyílna otthon! (Woman would blossom at home!)

AVI 7172; BAD 202567

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 48238. RF pelike. From Cerveteri, Banditaccia cemetery. Matsch Painter{1}. First quarter fifth Ca. 480 (CVA).

Decoration: A: Heracles and Geras. B: Dionysus with a kantharos and a maenad pouring for him.

Inscriptions: A: from Heracles' (closed) mouth to near Geras' face: λαυεο vac. 2{2}. B: nonsense: between the upper bodies: χλ(υ)χε(γ){3}.

Footnotes: {1} akin to the Flying-Angel Painter. {2} uncertain reading from the photo, not certainly complete. There is a slight gap between the third and fourth letters. CVA reads: (κ)λαυσει, `you will weep,' which seem dubious also, but is reported by Shapiro. I too thought that this inscription, which I read only imperfectly and incompletely, might be something spoken by Heracles, but in view of the inscription on B, which is clearly nonsense, this is perhaps unlikely. {3} complete. The bracketed letters are clear but disjointed.

Bibliography: *Photo (A). — Beazley (1949–51), 19. — Brommer (1952), 60. — ARV[2] (1963), 284/1. — LIMC iv (1988), 181, Geras 5. — Add.[2] (1989), 208. — *G. Barbieri, CVA Villa Giulia 4, Italy 64 (1991), pl. 28, fig. 8; facss., p. 25 (much bibl.). — *Shapiro (1993), 239/36, 93, fig. 47 (A).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7429

A:       λαυεο vac. 2 > λαυερ ({KéT}) > áLLÁ VERő(KeT) > Állá verő(ket). (It standed the beaters.)

B:       χλ(υ)χε(γ) > íGY LeVe eGYE'G > Így leve egyelg/egyeng (egyenül, egyenlővé lesz). (This way its juice equalizes.)

AVI 7176; BAD 201725

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 50384. RF hydria. From Cerveteri. Kleophrades Painter. First quarter fifth Later (Beazley).

Decoration: A youth and a boy.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: συτυ.

Commentary: According to Beazley, the vase is close to Naples 242 (ARV[2] 189/74); but there the inscriptions are not nonsense.

Bibliography: *Beazley (1933a), no. 56 (not ill.). — ARV[2] (1963), 189/75, 1632. — Add.[2] (1989), 189.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7433

συτυ > SUTU' > Sutul (sajtol, „valamit nyomkodva szorongat, különösen, hogy valami kijöjjön belőle” CzF) (It extrudes (can be used to rub off))

AVI 7179; BAD 9017721

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 50394. BF oinochoe (olpe). Unattributed. Date unclear

History: Ex Castellani collection.

Decoration: An Amazon(?) and a dog.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: at left: πh(.)^(ο)σ, retr.{1}. At right: υ^(ν)σε{2}.

Footnotes: {1} the third letter is an upright BG rectangle; the fourth is miswritten or corrected from something. Spears intervene. {2} the nu is reversed. Spears intervene.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7436

πh(.)^(ο)σ > πhΗ^(ο)σ{1} > eB Ha éHÖS > eb ha éhös (dog when hungry)

υ^(ν)σε > Ű NeSZE' > ű neszel (it snoops.)

Eb ha éhös, ű neszel. (Dog when hungry it snoops.)

AVI 7184; BAD 9156

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 50413. Fragmentary RF cup. Unattributed. First quarter fifth Ca. 490 (Mingazzini).

Decoration: Int.: a woman lifting a large oinochoe. Ext.: plain.

Inscriptions: Int.: nonsense: υχ>(σ)ο.

Commentary: Ruined. The inscription is taken from the facs., but the letters are unclear.

Bibliography: *Mingazzini (1971), 43/652, phs. pl. 123.2,4, dr. text-pl. C, fig. 4 (no bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7441

υχ>(σ)ο > υχ{DőL Λ}(σ)ο > ÚGY DőL eL eSŐ > Úgy dől el eső. (That way tumbles/settles the falling.)

AVI 7189; BAD 302135

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 50450. BF neck amphora. Leagros Group. Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: A: Heracles in battle(1), with a falling warrior, between Athena and Hermes. B: athletes with a flautist.

Inscriptions: A: on Athena's right: (Α)θεναα, retr. To right of Heracles' face: hερακλες. Nonsense(?): to Athena's lower right: (κ)[.](.). Between Heracles' legs: ιος. (The last two inscriptions probably go together). By the falling warrior: Νικο[.?] (complete?). Near Hermes: h[ερ]μες.

Commentary: = M. 1195. B is near the Acheloos Painter, A not so near (Beazley). One of the inscriptions should be the name of Heracles' opponent; is Kyknos possible? Attic alphabet. The letters are smeared.

Footnotes: {1} see Para. ABV has: Heracles striking down a warrior (Kyknos?).

Bibliography: Mingazzini (1930), 262/495, phs. pls. 74,6, 75,4, 76,4 (uncl.), dr. text-pl. 3. — ABV (1956), 371/140. — Para. (1971), 162.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7446

(Α)θεναα (κ)[.](.) > θεναα ρ[τ](ο) > CÉ'NÁ' ÁRTÓ > célnál ártó (at the target malice)

hερακλες ιος >HÉRe AKoL ÉSZ JÓ SZó > hére akol ész jó szó (on fever the mind is a fold, good word)

Νικο[.?] > Νικο[γυ] > NYIKOGVa > nyikogva (querulously)

h[ερ]μες > HÉ RéMESe > hé rémese (the despair of fever)

Célnál ártó hére akol ész, jó szó nyikogva (nyafogva)(hév, hevesség) rémese. (On malice fever at the target the mind is a fold, the good word querulously is the despair of fever.)

AVI 7193; BAD 302853

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 50472. BF band cup. BMN Painter. Third quarter sixth 540-530

History: Ex Castellani collection.

Decoration: Handle zone: A, B, each: foot race: two runners.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: at left: τσοινι. At right: (σ)ε(σ)ι(.)οε(π){1}. B: at left: χπσοιεν{2}. At right: seven nonsense letters.

Commentary: = M. 596. "A kind of band cup," Beazley and Payne in JHS; they compare London B 600.40.

Footnotes: {1} (σ) resembles reversed nu: it is probably a sideways sigma. (.) is the bottom of an upright stroke. The pi is reversed. {2} so Beazley and Payne; my note has: χποιεν. My error?

Bibliography: *Beazley–Payne (1929), 268. — *Mingazzini (1930), 321/596, phs. pls. 91.2, 93.1 (uncl., partly invis.), dr. text-pl. 4. — ABV (1956), 227/16.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7450

A:       τσοινι > uTóSÓ JöNNI > utósó jönni (coming last)

(σ)ε(σ)ι(.)οε(π) > (σ)ε(σ)ιτοε(π){1} > SE SúJTÓ EBBe' > se sújtó ebben (isn't so stunner in this)

Utósó jönni se (le)sújtó ebben. (Coming last isn't so stunner in this.)

AVI 7205; BAD 310041

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 50652. Fragmentary BF Tyrrhenian neck amphora. Castellani Painter (Bothmer). Third quarter sixth Early period (Kluiver).

Decoration: A: Centauromachy. B: Amazonomachy.

Inscriptions: A{1}: nonsense: between the legs of the leftmost warrior: γ̣ϙεϙα{2}. Above the branch held by a centaur: γχοh(ο)νh{3}. Under the centaur's belly: γτ[...].

Commentary: Note that all three inscriptions seem to begin with gamma. Odd writing.

Footnotes: {1} done from autopsy on the assumption that this is the vase listed in ABV and the bibliography in Beazley. {2} a doubtful interpretation of the letters, which are peculiar: the first koppa has a large head with a very short vertical; epsilon and `alpha' are written kionedon; the second koppa has a vertical above and below the circle and might be a phi; the final alpha has a vertical cross stroke (arrow alpha). {3} the bracketed letter could be a badly written alpha; the hetas could be etas.

Bibliography: Mingazzini (1930), 222f./454, phs. pl. 53.2, 54.4, 55.1,3 (uncl.). — ABV (1956), 98/42, 683. — Para. (1971), 37. — Add.[2] (1989), 26. — Kluiver (1996), 7/131, fig. 40 (inscrr. not mentioned).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7462

γ̣ϙεϙα > γ̣θξθγ{2} > GöCKéS CSÖG > göckés csög (gappy stripping)

γχοh(ο)νh{3} > GaGYi Ő HA NéHa > gagyi ő ha néha (he is crazy when he sometimes)

γτ[...] > áGaT [fog] > ágat [fog] ([gets] a branch)

Göckés (hézagos) csög (hántolás). Gagyi ő ha néha ágat [fog]. (Gappy stripping. He is crazy when he sometimes [gets] a branch.)

Just look at the picture: the letters between the legs are one under the other, so the ϙ-s are θ-s with horizontal stokes, the third letter is definitely Ξ, the Γ-s exactly as they should be. And in the hands of the centaurs, there is no mistake, the branches are stripped of bark in regular intervals, that is going around in a spiral.


AVI 7210; BAD 302886

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 50714. BF neck amphora. Manner of Acheloos Painter. Last quarter sixth 510-500

History: Ex Castellani collection.

Decoration: Athletes: A: discobolus, flautist, acontist. B: jumper, flautist, acontist{1}.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: between the two figures at left: (ν)χορεhσ[..]{2}. Between the the right-hand figures: (ν)κρ^(σ)ι{2}. B: not inscribed.

Commentary: = M. 494. Leagran-type writing.

Footnotes: {1} Beazley reverses A and B. {2} the nu's may be sideways sigmas. The bracketed sigma in the second inscription is a four-stroke sigma lying on its back. A spear intervenes.

Bibliography: Mingazzini (1930), 260f./494, phs. pls. 74.5, 75.3, 76.5 (sm. and uncl.), dr. text-pl. 2. — ABV (1956), 386/9. — Add.[2] (1989), 102.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7467

(ν)χορεhσ[..]{2} > NaGY ŐR E HoSSZú > Nagy őr e hosszú … (His big guard is this long ...)

(ν)κρ^(σ)ι{2} > NYaKRa VíVJa > Nyakra vívja. (He fights for the neck.)

AVI 7213a; BAD 350320

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 64216. BF Tyrrhenian neck amphora. From Vulci. Guglielmi Painter (Bothmer). Late period (Kluiver).

History: Ex Vulci, Museo del Castello.

Decoration: Shoulder: A-B: komos of naked men and youths. Below: floral; then three rows of animals.

Inscriptions: Shoulder: A: nonsense: the ph. in Kluiver, fig. 29, shows: below a man's middle, diagonally down: ι̣υ(ο)νσ̣ (uncertain reading). Below another man's raised foot, downward: (τ)οστε, retr. (the first letter upside down). Between two figures' lower legs, vertically down: τ(ρ)ο(ϝ)(σ) (the second letter vertical, not certainly a rho; the `digamma' with the horizontals pinched together, not cerainly a digamma; sigma reversed). Similar, further to right: γο(γ)οι (the third letter, an arrow gamma). One more inscription shows, distorted. There may be more.

Commentary: Large and coarse letters of sometimes uncertain identification.

Bibliography: Riccioni–Falconi Amorelli (1968), 27/16. — Kluiver (1996), 21/221 (inscrr. not mentioned), figs. 28-29 (29: A, center; shows inscriptions).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7471

ι̣υ(ο)νσ̣ > IVÓN SZó > ivón szó (in waterhole, the word)

(τ)οστε > ζοστε > íZÖSíTő E > ízösítő e (flavouring, this)

τ(ρ)ο(ϝ)(σ) > τδορ(σ) > TuDOR iS > tudor is (pundit is also)

γο(γ)οι > γο(γ)ος > GŐGÖS > gőgös (arrogant)

Ivón szó ízösítő, e tudor is gőgös … (In waterhole the word is flavouring, this pundit is also arrogant ...)

AVI 7219; BAD 9017725

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 79525. Fr. of BF lip cup{1}. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: A: lip: grazing deer to left.

Inscriptions: A: handle zone: [.]στενο̣[...]{2}.

Footnotes: {1} from the rim. {2} Hannestad gives the inscription as complete: στενο̣. Is this sense or nonsense?

Bibliography: *Hannestad (1989), 4/24, 64, 24 (ph.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7477

[-]στενο̣[--] > [ι]στενο̣[λο]/στενο̣{2} > ISTENi OLLÓ / iSTENi Ő > Isteni olló (gida) / isteni ő (A divine kid / she is divine)

AVI 7226; BAD 9017821

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 79537. Frs. of BF lip cup{1}. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: No decoration preserved.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: fr. a: vac. τογ vac.{2}. Fr. b: [...]ϙ(ο)χϙτγϙυγχ vacat. Fr. c: v. ϙχγ(h)χϙ(α)υ̣[...]. See below.

Commentary: Three frs.: they could be rearranged to make one inscription of side A: c+a+b: v. ϙχγ(h)χϙ(α)υ̣[--]τογ[--]ϙ(ο)χϙτγϙυγχ vacat. Fr. a, if it belongs, shows that some of the letters were written in groups. At any rate,there were one or two long nonsense inscriptions. The koppas are perhaps all (or in part?) omicrons with a dot at the bottom; they have a large circular top and a short vertical at the bottom. This is a known shape.

Footnotes: {1} handle zone with BG line above and BG area below. {2} a short vacat at each break, but probably: [--]τογ[--].

Bibliography: *Hannestad (1989), 8/68, 71, 68 (ph.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7484

Commentary: Three frs.: they could be rearranged to make one inscription of side A: c+a+b:

ϙχγ(h)χϙ(α)υ̣[--]τογ[--]ϙ(ο)χϙτγϙυγχ > ϙχγ(h)χϙ(α)υ̣[τλ]τογ[τνλχϙτγϙυγχ > Ki GYuG HaGYJa Ki AVVa' [TöL]TÖGe[TNi] Ki LáGYéKáT iGe Ki ViGaDJa > Ki gyug (dug) hagyja ki avval töltögetni ki lágyékát, - ige (babonás mondat annak) ki vigadja. (Who diddles let he give a miss to fill out her loin, - a superstitious saying for the one who fancies it.)

AVI 7230; 9017818

Rome, Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia 79554. Fr. of BF band cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: A: handle zone: a nude male running; hind quarters of a feline.

Inscriptions: A: handle zone: between the two: nonsense: κο(λ)(σ)ι{1}.

Commentary: Lambda and sigma are uncertain.

Footnotes: {1} complete.

Bibliography: *Hannestad (1989), 15/114, 82, 114 (ph.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7488

κο(λ)(σ)ι > κο(λ)τι{1} > KÖLLeTI > Kölleti (He puts on airs)

AVI 7270; BAD 9017787

Rome, Private: Marchesa Isabella Guglielmi. BF lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Lip: A: female head in outline{1}.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: A: nonsense: A: χχυ(χ)(χ)χυχχχεχοχχχοχ{2}.

Commentary: B was no doubt similar.

Footnotes: {1} the head is wearing a pilos and does not look like a Hermogenean head. {2} the upsilons are miswritten chi's.

Bibliography: *Photo (A). — *The same photo of A in Beazley Archive, seen 1994.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7528

χχυ(χ)(χ)χυχχχεχοχχχοχ > íGY GYÚ' GYóGY aGY VáGYa GYóGY EGY Ö'GY íGY GYÓGY > Így gyúl gyógy: agy vágya gyógy; egy ölgy (elegy) így gyógy. (Cure starts this way: the brain desires the cure; a compound is the cure that way.)

The reading made perfect sense in the time of the writing and it took a long time for the modern medicine to find out the importance of the brainpower in the healing process.

AVI 7348; BAD 200198

St. Petersburg, Hermitage 625. RF hydria (kalpis). Unattributed{1}. Last quarter sixth Ca. 500 (Peredol’skaya).

Decoration: Shoulder: a fountain scene: a woman with a hydria; a fountain; a bearded man next to a hydria (kalpis) on the ground; a crouching woman; above her, her clothes.

Inscriptions: Shoulder: nonsense: to lower right of the left woman: εχοι{2}. To right of woman's head: συισι{3}.

Commentary: = inv. 1560. = St. 1612. I note that the inscriptions are the kind of nonsense that is typical of the Dikaios Painter.

Footnotes: {1} Dikaios Painter (Peredol’skaya). {2} the epsilon shows in pl. 13,2; the inscription here done from the facs. {3} the ph. shows only the sigma.

Bibliography: *Peredol’skaya (1967), 29/22, pls. 10,2, 13,2 (detail) and 167,5 (facs.). — Para. (1971), 509 (not by Dikaios Painter).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7607

εχοι > εχηι > EGY HŰ > egy hű (a faithful/devoted)

συισι > SZű VISZI / SZíV ISZI > szű viszi / szív iszi (heart carries it / heart drinks it)

Egy hű szű viszi / szív iszi. (A faithful/devoted heart carries it / drinks it.)

A very clever inscription, playing with words using the flexibility of the defective notation of vowels writing system, the writing without word dividers and the perfect knowledge of the language in which the word 'heart' has two forms szű and szív, both originating in szí 'to suck'.

AVI 7350; BAD 206338

St. Petersburg, Hermitage 632. RF column krater. Myson. First quarter fifth 500-490 (Peredol’skaya).

Decoration: A: a mounted warrior{1}. B: komast: a youth with a wineskin.

Inscriptions: Peredol’skaya, pl. 169 gives: nonsense: A or B(?): near horizontal: οισολσ. Downward: ιυι(σ)(ο)ιο, retr. B: on the wineskin, downward: (.)γ(ο)(ι)(σ){2}. Under the foot, Gr.: ΦΙ{3}.

Commentary: = inv. 1581. = St. 1602. Cf. St. Petersburg B 4510 by the same painter. For the inscriptions compare objects on two other column kraters by Myson: the kantharos on New York 07.286.73, ARV[2] 240/45 and the volute krater on Copenhagen 3836, ARV[2] 241/48.

Footnotes: {1} according to Bothmer, probably an Amazon. {2} this inscription, which is clearly that on the wineskin in Peredol’skaya, pl. 27,2, is wrongly given to the next Myson vase, St. Petersburg B 4510, Peredol’skaya, no. 36. I had earlier counted seven letters. {3} so Johnston (1979); Peredol’skaya gives ΙΦ. Circular phi.

Bibliography: *Photo (detail of B). — Bothmer (1957), pl. 73,6. — ARV[2] (1963), 240/43. — *Peredol’skaya (1967), 40/35, pls. 26 (A), 27,2 (detail of B), 169,2-4 (facss.). — Para. (1971), 510. — Johnston (1979), 104/18B 10, and p. 198.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7609

A:      οισολσ > OLY SZÓLáS > oly szólás (some phrase/idiom)

ιυι(σ)(ο)ιο > ιυιτ(ο)ιο > JaVÍTÓ JÓ > javító jó (good improver)

Oly szólás javító jó. (Some phrase/idiom is good improver.)

B:      (.)γ(ο)(ι)(σ) ΦΙ > aNGÓ/iNGÓ/LóGÓ ISZa FI > angó (szájtáti)/ingó/lógó (henyélő) isza fi (a jay/loose/drone drunkard boy)

AVI 7361; BAD 210103

St. Petersburg, Hermitage 658. RF cup. From Orvieto. Telephos Painter{1}. Second quarter fifth 480-470 (Peredol’skaya).

Decoration: Int.: an old man fleeing with a small boy on his shoulders (Orestes rescued by his paedagogus? Beazley). Ext.: Iliupersis: A: Death of Priam. B: Ajax and Cassandra.

Inscriptions: Int.: in a circle: [κ]αλος. Ext.: nonsense: οιυσσπ. κυσσ.

Commentary: = inv. 2068. Done from the facss. in KAV.

Footnotes: {1} follower of Makron.

Bibliography: ARV[2] (1963), 817/3 (much bibl.), 1671. — *Peredol’skaya (1967), 82/82, pls. 44,13, 60, 174,8-9, 175,1 (facss.). — Schettino Nobile (1968–9), pls. 5-6, figs. 10-12 (all). — Para. (1971), 515. — Boardman (1975), fig. 381 (Int.). — LIMC i (1981), pl. 263, Aias II/64 (part of B). — Add.[2] (1989), 292.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7621

The text as told by

Ajax:         οιυσσπ κυσσ > OLY VéSSe eSZéBe KiVe' eSéSe > Oly vésse eszébe kivel esése! (Let the one, with whom is its fall, chisel it into one's mind.)

Cassandra: οιυσσπ κυσσ > OLY VéSZeS éPP KőVe' eSéSe > Oly vészes épp kővel esése. (His fall exactly by stoning is so ruinous.)

No sooner had the massacre begun in Troy than Cassandra fled to the temple of Athene and clutched the wooden image which had replaced the stolen Palladium. There Little Ajax found her and tried to drag her away, but she embraced the image so tightly that he had to take it with him when he carried her off into concubinage; which was the common fate of all Trojan women. Agamemnon, however, claimed Cassandra as the particular award of his own valour, and Odysseus obligingly put it about that Ajax had violated Cassandra in the shrine; which was why the image kept its eyes upturned to Heaven, as if horror-stricken. Thus Cassandra became Agamemnon’s prize, while Ajax earned the hatred of the whole army; and, when the Greeks were about to sail, Calchas warned the Council that Athene must be placated for the insult offered to her priestess. To gratify Agamemnon, Odysseus then proposed the stoning of Ajax; but he escaped by taking sanctuary at Athene’s altar, where he swore a solemn oath that Odysseus was lying as usual; nor did Cassandra herself support the charge of rape. Nevertheless, Calchas’s prophecy could hardly be disregarded; Ajax therefore expressed sorrow for having forcibly removed the image, and offered to expiate his crime. This he was prevented from doing by death: the ship in which he sailed home to Greece being wrecked on the Gyraean Rocks. When he scrambled ashore, Poseidon split the rocks with his trident and drowned him ...” (r. Graves: The Greek Myths, 168.f.)

AVI 7364; BAD 203132

St. Petersburg, Hermitage 671(?). BF/WG lekythos (outline). Near Sappho Painter (Haspels). End of sixth (?) Ca. 500

Decoration: Hoplite to left between two Oriental archers facing him; to left of the right archer, BF dog.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: to right of left archer's face, upwards: ι<υχι<ε; above the dog, bearing slightly upward: (.)ιλυπ{1}; to left of the right archer's upper body and face, (between it and the hoplite's shield), upwards: ικσυχιδ{2}.

Commentary: Haspels on p. 113: near Sappho Painter. "mock inscriptions in the manner of the Diosphos Painter in his bolder mood." H. compares Euthymides for the three-figure group and the attitudes of the archers. I would not compare these inscriptions with the Diosphos Painter so much as with Euthymides. The < I think are sigma S 11 (see chart in AttScr). - Earlier readings: nonsense: (1) readings from Haspels: diagonally up: ιλυιι<ϝ. Horizontal: ιλυπ. As the first: ικσυχιδ. (2) Readings from photo: ι(σ)υι ιε(τ) (witha a small gap). ισυπ. ιχσυ(σ)ιδ. - The number must be wrong, as 671 is a RF pelike by the Agrigento Painter, ARV(2) 578/73 (there numbered St. 1529).

Footnotes: {1} the first letter is a raised horizontal stroke. I see no letter after the epsilon. But there is a slight gap after the fourth letter, as noted above. {2} perhaps one letter is missing in the following break.

Bibliography: *dr. — *Haspels (1936), 113, pl. 39,3a-c (show inscriptions) (no bibl. given).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7624

ι<υχι<ε > ιλυχιλε > ILLő VáGY ILL E' > illő vágy ill el (seemly desire evaporates)

(.)ιλυπ > τιλυπ{1} > TILo'Va éPP > tilolva épp (exactly by swingling)

ικσυχιδ > ιυσυχιδλ{2} > IVáSVáGY IDőáLLó > ivásvágy időálló (the desire to drink is weather-proof)

Illő vágy ill el tilolva épp. Ivásvágy időálló. (Seemly desire evaporates exactly by swingling (fragmentation). The desire to drink is weather-proof.)

AVI 7373; BAD 209662

St. Petersburg, Hermitage 712. RF neck amphora. Painter of Munich 2660. Second quarter fifth 475-470 (Peredol’skaya).

Decoration: A: a youth with a stick talking to a boy. B: a bearded man with a stick in a similar pose as the youth.

Inscriptions: A or B: nonsense: γγγοι. γσγ(.).

Commentary: = inv. 1618. = St. 1630. Unclear readings. Some gammas may be intended for alpha without the cross stroke.

Bibliography: ARV[2] (1963), 784/27. — *Peredol’skaya (1967), 115/123, pls. 91 and 176,12-13.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7633

γγγοι γσγ(.) > γγγθι γσγ > GőG GöCSéJe GaSSáG > Gőg göcséje gazság. (The bulge of arrogance is villainy.)

AVI 7388a; BAD 310034

St. Petersburg, Hermitage B 1403. BF Tyrrhenian ovoid neck amphora. Castellani Painter (Bothmer). Ca. 550

Decoration: A: a wedded pair in a chariot. B: komos (men and women dancing). Below: floral; two rows of animals.

Inscriptions: A: on the extreme left, vertically down, nonsense: (υ)τιετοτ{1}.

Commentary: = St. 151. The inscription, and its location, are typical of the Castellani Painter.

Footnotes: {1} the first letter is lying sideways.

Bibliography: *Thiersch (1899), pl. 5 (dr. of A). — Pfuhl (1923), fig. 205 (after Tiersch). — ABV (1956), 98/34. — Para. (1971), 37 (bibl.). — Add.[2] (1989), 26 (bibl.). — *Oakley–Sinos (1993), 35, fig. 99 (dr., after Pfuhl, i.e. Tiersch).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7649

(υ)τιετοτ > {DőL υ}τιετοτ{1} > éDDeL ÚTJa E'TÖ'Ti > Éddel útja eltölti (Her journey will satiate her with sweetness.)

AVI 7390; BAD 302026

St. Petersburg, Hermitage inv. 173. BF hydria. Antiope Painter (Leagros Group). Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: Shoulder: A Warrior Leaving Home, with a chariot. Body: Achilles about to drag the body of Hector.

Inscriptions: Body: by Hector's corpse: νεκυ.

Commentary: Bibl. in Beazley. Smith calls this: nonsense deviating into sense; see CVA; but perhaps it is only the common omission of final sigma: νεκυ<ς>(?).

Bibliography: *H.R.W. Smith, CVA San Francisco 1, USA 10 (1943), p. 30 (mention). — ABV (1956), 362/31. — Para. (1971), 161. — Add.[2] (1989), 96.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7651

νεκυ > eNYEKÜ' > Enyekül (nyálkásodik). (He is getting slimy/mucous.)

AVI 7403; BAD 9017637

St. Petersburg, Hermitage inv. 4513. RF Nolan amphora Unattributed{1}. Third quarter fifth Ca. 450 (Peredol’skaya).

Decoration: A: a youth presenting a cock to a boy; a stool. B: a youth.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: left-aligned near-stoich. two-liner, diagonally downward: γνογ | νι(α)ρ. . . . . . . ..

Footnotes: {1} Achilles Painter, Peredol’skaya; not accepted by Beazley.

Bibliography: *Peredol’skaya (1967), 168/193, pls. 126,2,4, 128,3, 178,1 (facs.). — Para. (1971), 516.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7664

γνογ | νι(α)ρ > γνορ | νι(α)ρ > GúNYOR | aNNYi JÁR > Gúnyor annyi jár ... (Plenty satires are going around …)

AVI 7431; BAD 23452

Vathy (Samos), Archaeological Museum K1460. Frs. of BF band cup. From Samos? Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Fr. a: handle. Fr. b: komos of satyrs and maenads.

Inscriptions: Fr. b: handle zone: three nonsense inscriptions; one: το εκεκεσ.

Commentary: Two frs.

Bibliography: BADB: 23452. — *Photo.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7692

το εκεκεσ > eTTŐ' ÉKE' éKES > Ettől ékel ékes. (From this the ornate/horny wedges in.)

AVI 7432; BAD 9017514

(?) Vathy (Samos). Fr. of BF band cup. From Samos? Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: A: handle zone: upper part of an animal; tail of another(?).

Inscriptions: A: handle zone: above the animal's back: nonsense: δεσδσευ. Between the animals, downward: τε[...].

Commentary: In a letter of 15 March 1978, Gerhard Schmidt refers to this fr.: a lion is attacking a stag. Beside the stag: δεσδιε(ν) [reversed nu], which he interprets as δειδιεν, `er hat Angst.' It is more likely nonsense.

Bibliography: BADB: 9017514. — *Photo.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7693

δεσδσευ τε[...] > iDE SZeDi S EVVe' TE[SZi …] > Ide szedi s evvel te[szi …] (Pick it out to here and put with this ...)

AVI 7449; BAD 350329

San Antonio, TX, Museum of Art 86.134.169. . BF Tyrrhenian neck amphora. Castellani Painter (Bothmer). Third quarter sixth Ca. 550 (Shapiro). Early period (Kluiver).

History: Ex collection G.M. Denman, Jr. Para. lists the vase as Basel Market (M.M.).

Decoration: Shoulder: A: a chariot race: two chariots, each with a running dog; at left, in the middle, and at right, an onlooker. B: symposium: three couches. Body: a dot band; a lotus chain; two animal friezes.

Inscriptions: Shoulder: A: above the reins of the right chariot: nonsense: δ(.)υο(ε)ν{2}.

Commentary: Thick lettering; odd letters. There is only the one inscription.

Footnotes: {1} Add.[2] 28 (Basel Market (M.M.) is probably not this vase but the item following it in Para. 42. {2} the second letter is unclear in the ph. The fifth letter may be a mu or an epsilon lying horizontally.

Bibliography: Christie (1965), lot 179. — Para. (1971), 42{1}. — Christie (1985a), lot 159. — *H. Alan Shapiro in Shapiro–Picón–Scott III (1995), 79/35. — Kluiver (1996), 8/141 (inscrr. not mentioned).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7710

δ(.)υο(ε)ν > διυομν{2} > DÍVÓ MéN > Dívó (divatos) mén. (Fashionable stallion.)

AVI 7454; 301931

San Francisco, M.H. de Young Memorial Museum 701. BF lekythos. Perizoma Group{1}. Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: Race of two chariots.

Inscriptions: Under the horses' bellies of the leading team: ελϝοσαι.

Commentary: Smith thinks the inscription is not quite pure nonsense; he suggests that without the digamma it is ἐλῶσαι, intransitive [from ἐλάω], present rather than future participle, and compares other Leagran `nonsense' inscriptions. But it is clearly just meaningless. Threatte (1980) also raises the possibility of reading.

Footnotes: {1} connected with the Michigan Painter (ABV).

Bibliography: *H.R.W. Smith, CVA San Francisco 1, USA 10 (1943), pls. 11,2 and 30,1. — ABV (1956), 345/2. — Threatte (1980), 23-24. — *Threatte (1980), 23-24. — AttScr (1990), no. 957.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7715

ελϝοσαι > E LóVa' ŐS ÁLLJa > E lóval ős állja! (With this horse the ancestor endures/is in (for the race)!)

AVI 7459; BAD 15043

San Simeon, Private: Hearst. BF lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Lip: A, B. each: a sphinx moving to right while looking back.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: nonsense: A: χολολυολυολ. B: χο(α)οουολυο.

Commentary: The present location of the vase is unclear to me. Squat letters. The lambda is not a real letter: imitation inscriptions.

Bibliography: *Photos in Beazley Archive. — *H.R.W. Smith (1945), 469, fig. 2.5a-b.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7720

A:     χολολυολυολ > χθλθλυθλυθλ > GYú'TJa LoCSoLVa ó'TJa LUCCSaL > Gyújtja locsolva, oltja luccsal (loccsal, híg sárral). (One ignites it by by sprinkling, extinguish it with mud.)

B:     χο(α)οουολυο > χθηοθυθλυο > GYú'TJa Ha OCSU' ó'TJa aLVÓ > Gyújtja ha ocsul (ébred) oltja alvó. (One ignites it when waking, extinguish it sleeping.)

The lip cup is definitely a night-lamp!

AVI 7475; BAD 8611


Sarajevo, National Museum 654. . RF one-handled plastic vase (mug) (see below). From Camiros. Unattributed. First quarter fifth


Decoration: Plastic body: a naked satyr crouching on an amphora, making the wine flow. Neck: RF: The Struggle for the Tripod; a palm tree; Hermes; Heracles with the tripod; Apollo with his bow.


Inscriptions: Between Heracles and Apollo, facing Heracles: γυ(π)οσ.



Commentary: I am not certain that the vase is Attic. The inscription is surely nonsense. Could it be read retr.? A good ph., pl. 28,3; facs. on p. 36.


Bibliography: *M. Parovic-Pesikan et al., CVA Sarajevo, Yugoslavia 4 (1975), pls. 17,1-2 and 28,1-4 (no bibl.).


Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7741

γυ(π)οσ > γυνοσ > GÚNYOS > Gúnyos (Scornful/sarcastic)

AVI 7505; BAD 41308

Stuttgart, Württembergisches Landesmuseum KAS 74. BF skyphos. Theseus Painter (Kunze-Götte). Early fifth

Decoration: A: a bull lead to sacrifice. B: a youth catching a boar; a man and a youth carrying an amphora on a pole.

Inscriptions: A has no inscriptions. B: nonsense: above the amphora, bearing downward, three small letters: ϝσ(ν){1}.

Commentary: Beazley compares the skyphos Tampa Museum (ex Maplewood, Noble, ABV 704/27 ter).

Footnotes: {1} the pictures in Scheibler and in CVA are very small: the `digamma' could be an epsilon; it is no doubt so intended. The last letter may be a heta.

Bibliography: *E. Kunze-Götte, CVA Stuttgart 1, Germany 26 (1965), pls. 19,1-2 and 20,1. — Para. (1971), 258, near top. — *Scheibler (1987), 71, fig. 8.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7774

ϝσ(ν) > εσ(ν){1} > ESőN > Esőn! (About to fall!)

AVI 7506a

Switzerland, Private. BF Tyrrhenian neck amphora. Kyllenios Painter (Kluiver). Middle period (Kluiver).

Decoration: A: Achilles pursuing Troilos. B: four horsemen racing to right.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: at least seven inscriptions. E.g.: to right of Achilles head, horizontal: λτυ(ο)σ^πσ, complete{1}. B: not inscribed.

Commentary: The letters thicker and the inscriptions more closely fitted in the spaces than on Louvre E 836 (CAVI 6261 as corrected).

Footnotes: {1} the omicron is disjointed. Troilos' head intervenes.

Bibliography: HAC (1993), 4. — *Kluiver (1996), 2/112 (inscrr. mentioned, not given), figs. 5-6 and 37 (5 shows most inscriptions).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7776

λτυ(ο)σ^πσ > éLeTéVe' ŐS BoSSZú > Életével ős bosszú. (With his life he is an ancient vengeance.)

the city was fated not to fall if Troilus could attain the age of twenty.” (R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 162.g.)

AVI 7511; BAD 9017633

(?) Switzerland, Private. BF oinochoe (olpe). Unattributed. 530-520

Decoration: Two mounted Amazons.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: to right of one face: νοε. Similarly for the other: οκτσ. Between the horses' legs: ευο(.)με{1}. To right of the last: καλε. On the horses' right: τιυενανεοσ.

Commentary: = a lost olpe mentioned in ABV 667? This note is based on the identification of the vases mentioned in my note from the tracing, ABV and Add.[2]. Bothmer compares New York 06.1021.47, which has similar inscriptions including however the name Ευφιλετος.

Footnotes: {1} the bracketed letter somewhat resembles a disjointed Ionic gamma. Is this intended for a proper name?

Bibliography: *dr. (Hartwig's tracing from Micali). — Micali (1849), pl. 91,1. — Bothmer apud Beazley, ABV (1956), 667/under Euphiletos. — LIMC i (1981), pl. 516, Amazones 711 (?). — Add.[2] (1989), 148.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7782

νοε > NŐÉ' > nőé(rt) (for a woman)

οκτσ > Ő KiTeSZi > ő kiteszi (she gives the gate)

ευο(.)με > ευοτμε{1} > E VŐT ME' > e vőt me(rt) (to this son-in-low, because)

καλε > KiÁLL E > kiáll e (started this)

τιυενανεοσ >iTTIVE' NYA'Ni E ŐS > ittivel nyalni e ős (this ancestor licking with this one here)

Nőé(rt) ő kiteszi e vőt, me(rt) kiáll e ittivel nyalni e ős. (She gives the gate to this son-in-low for a woman, because this ancestor started licking with this one here.)

AVI 7528; BAD 9016913

Syracuse, Museo Archeologico Regionale Paolo Orsi. band cup. From Syracuse? Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: A: No figured decoration.

Inscriptions: A: handle zone: in large letters, between palmettes: nonsense(?): διεχ̣νι̣{1}.

Footnotes: {1} the dotted letters are very uncertain. BADB: 9016913. —

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7802

διεχ̣νι̣ > DíJ EGYéNI > Díj egyéni. (The award is personal/individual.)

AVI 7529; BAD 350847

Syracuse, Museo Archeologico Regionale Paolo Orsi 12161. BF skyphos. From Syracuse. Unattributed; Ure's Class of Skyphoi A 1. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: A: Gigantomachy? Three pairs of men and women fighting; twice the woman is Athena. B: five Athenas dancing; Hermes.

Inscriptions: A: on the shield of the second warrior, which is seen from the side, in large letters: nonsense: αολν.

Bibliography: BADB: 350847. — *Para. (1971), 85.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7803

αολν > αθλν > ACéLoN / A CéLoN / A CéL öN > acélon / a célon / a cél ön (on the steel / on the target / you are the target)

AVI 7530; BAD 320238

Syracuse, Museo Archeologico Regionale Paolo Orsi 50960. BF calyx krater. From Syracuse. Related to Antimenes Painter. Last quarter sixth

Decoration: A: Athena mounting a chariot, with Heracles; at left, Dionysus; behind the horses, Apollo with cithara and Artemis(?); at right, Hermes and Leto(?). B: Dionysus with maenads and satyrs. Predella: A: between palmettes: Dionysus with a satyr and a maenad. B: between palmettes: a chariot, racing.

Inscriptions: Predella: B: nonsense: between the driver's and horses' heads: ασοιετ. Under the horses' bellies: γοισ.

Bibliography: BADB: 320238. — *Cultrera (1943), 69-72, figs. 28-31. — ABV (1956), 281/18.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7804

ασοιετ > ασϙςετ > A SZöKéSÉT > a szökését (for his escape)

γοισ > λοισ > LÓ ISSZa > ló issza (the horse holds the sack)

A szökését ló issza. (The horse holds the sack for his escape.)

AVI 7531; BAD 275822

Syracuse, Museo Archeologico Regionale Paolo Orsi 45981. WG lekythos. From Gela. Bowdoin Painter. Second quarter fifth

Decoration: Nike at a fountain; a pointed amphora on the ground.

Inscriptions: In front of Nike's face, nonsense: σ(τ)εοσ{1}.

Footnotes: {1} NSc. thinks the letters are the end of a kalos-name. The tau has the shape of Ionic gamma, according to the dr.

Bibliography: BADB: 275822. — *Orsi (1932), 140-41, fig. 4 (dr.). — Para. (1971), 406/199 bis.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7805

σ(τ)εοσ > σγεοσ{1} > SeGÉ' ŐSe/Ő Se > Segély őse/ő se. (The ancestor help. / She's not a help either.)

AVI 7544; BAD 390336

Syracuse, Museo Archeologico Regionale Paolo Orsi 19901. BF lekythos. Diosphos Painter. First quarter fifth

Decoration: A chariot; a warrior pursuing an opponent.

Inscriptions: Nonsense and imitation letters: to right of the warrior's head: (.)(.)(.)^χ{1}. Under the horses: (.)ιπχ(ο){2}. To right of the horses' heads: ιλ(α)χι.

Commentary: A Homeric fight?

Footnotes: {1} an object intervenes. {2} the omicron is unclear.

Bibliography: BADB: 390336. — *Photo. — Haspels (1936), [[232/]] no. 10.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7818

(.)ιπχ(ο) > πιπχα{2} > PIPoGYA > Pipogya (Gutless)

ιλ(α)χι > ILLA GYÍ > Illa, gyí! (Run, gee!)

AVI 7558; BAD 207438

Syracuse, Museo Archeologico Regionale Paolo Orsi 21971. RF lekythos. From Gela. Providence Painter. Second quarter fifth

Decoration: A woman puts her himation on a chair.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: on her left: (σ)εο, retr.{1}. To right of her head: γσεισ.

Footnotes: {1} regular three-stroke sigma, i.e. not turned.

Bibliography: BADB: 207438. — *dr. — ARV[2] (1963), 641/86. — Para. (1971), 400.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7832

(σ)εο > ΟΞΣ not retr.{1} > Ő KeZeS > ő kezes (she is easy on hand)

γσεισ > eGéSSZE' IS > egésszel is (also with the whole (that is: the himation and its owner))

Ő kezes egésszel is. (She is also easy on hand with its owner.)

AVI 7579; BAD 351170

Tampa, Museum of Art. BF neck amphora. Michigan Painter. Last quarter sixth Early fifth (Murray).

History: Ex Maplewood, Noble.

Decoration: A: Heracles and Antaeus, between two columns; above, Heracles' bow and club. B: a youth dressing a horse with a currycomb; at left, a column.

Inscriptions: A: above Heracles' weapons: nonsense: νοσι{1}.

Footnotes: {1} there are some smudges below the left end of the club, which `Auktion' reads οοι, printing: οοι νοσι; but I am not sure they are letters.

Bibliography: *Schauenburg (1959), 41/109, pl. 50 (A, B). — Para. (1971), 157/9 quater. — Add.[2] (1989), 94.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7853

νοσι > öNÖSÜ' > önösül (selfishly (he touches the earth))

King Antaeus, son of Poseidon and Mother Earth, was in the habit of forcing strangers to wrestle with him until they were exhausted, whereupon he killed them; for not only was he a strong and skilful athlete, but whenever he touched the earth, his strength revived.” (R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 133.g)

AVI 7580; BAD 351170

Tampa, Museum of Art. BF oinochoe. Painter of Villa Giulia M 482 (Beazley). Last quarter sixth Ca. 510 (Murray).

History: Ex Tampa, Florida, Noble collection (formerly Maplewood, NY, Noble).

Decoration: Two horsemen fighting over a fallen archer.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: to left of the left horseman, along the left margin: (α)ον^(χ)(.)σσ{1}. Under the horse's belly: λεσ. Under the right horse: κο^κο(σ){2}. To right of the right horseman: λενσ.

Commentary: Most readings are uncertain.

Footnotes: {1} distorted in the photo.; the horse's tail intervenes. {2} the horse's rear legs intervene.

Bibliography: Bonaparte (1829), 61/534. — Dubois (1843), no. 119. — Bothmer (1961), 54/210, pl. 76 (very small). — Para. (1971), 297. — *S.P. Murray (1985), 42/33 (ill.). — Add.[2] (1989), 140.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7854

(α)ον^(χ)(.)σσ > ϝον^(χ)εσυ{1} > óVÓN üGYESÜ' > óvón ügyesül (to protect himself artfully)

λεσ > LES > les (ambushes)

κο^κο(σ) > Ki OKOS > ki okos (the clever)

λενσ > eLÉ NYeS > elé nyes (he dubs you in front of himself)

Óvón ügyesül les ki okos, elé nyes. (The clever ambushes to protect himself artfully, he dubs you in front of himself.)

Look at the picture again! The archer hits the horse's legs to fall on its knees, a clever tactic used by the Scythes against mounted enemies.

AVI 7592; BAD 350934

Tarentum, Museo Nazionale. BF stemless cup. From Leporano. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: A, B, each: lip: BG. Handle zone: a cock and a hen between grazing fawns.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: between the left fawn and the cock: ιλυ<λ(.). Between the hen and the right fawn: υ<(υ)ινι.

Commentary: Misshapen letters, partly imitation.

Bibliography: Quagliati (1903), 38. — *C. Drago, CVA Taranto 2, Italy 18 (1942), III H e, pl. 6,1.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7867

ιλυ<λ(.) > ιλυ{Λ DőL}λ(.) > ILLő VeLe DaLoLNi > Illő vele dalolni! (It is appropriate to sing with it!)

υ<(υ)ινι > υ{Λ DőL}(υ)ινι > VeLe DaLo'Va INNI > Vele dalolva inni! (To drink with it by singing!)

({Λ DőL} stands for 'Λ leans over'.)

AVI 7600; BAD 310530

Tarentum, Museo Nazionale I.G. 4434. BF Droop cup. From Tarentum{1}. Unattributed. Antidoros, potter. Third quarter sixth 550-530

Decoration: A-B: chariot race: three chariots with charioteers on each side. Under one handle: a standing figure; under the other, a seated figure.

Inscriptions: A-B: nonsense: A: to left of the leftmost chariot{2}: (ν)σλνιν. To right of the chariot rail: νυν:{3}. To right of the charioteer's hands: ν(.)νσ{4}. Below the horse, close to the bottom of the picture: ν(π)νhνhν(.)[...?]{5}. Under the foot, around the central hole: Αντιδορος εποε.

Commentary: The location of the signature is as in 4435, but it is more carefully done; the words are NOT separated as they are in 4435; the signature fills 1/2 of the circumference and there is no word separation at all. By the same hand as the signature of 4435 [if so and if, as it seems to me, the nonsense is NOT by the same hand, then the signatures must be written by another, e.g. the potter, which would explain their position.] Pl. 31,1 shows all of B, with 10 inscriptions (one is fragmentary), mostly horizontal and mostly in sequences featuring nu's. The scheme of two short horizontal inscriptions to the charioteer's right and a long one under the horses is repeated; in addition, the central charioteer has a short one behind his back as does the lefthand charioteer illustrated in pl. 31,3 (from A). These inscriptions do not look to be by the same hand as the single one on 4435; note what Beazley says about the hands of the figured decoration.

Footnotes: {1} from the same tomb as I.G. 4435: Via Nitti, 1897. {2} see pl. 31,3. {3} the two dots may be accidental, as they are fainter. {4} the first nu could be a sideways sigma; the second consists of two parallel vertical strokes; the final sigma is three-stroke. {5} the inscription extends to the break.

Bibliography: ABV (1956), 160/2. — *C. Drago, CVA Taranto 3, Italy 35 (1962), p. 7, fig. 2 (ph. of signature), pl. 31. — Para. (1971), 67. — Juliis–Loiacono (1985), 150/136 (A). — Add.[2] (1989), 46.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7875

(ν)σλνιν: > (ν)σλνϙν{HúSZ}{3} > uNóS LeNNe KöNNYű HoSSZ > unós lenne könnyű hossz (the light length would be boring)

νυν: > νυν{HúSZ}{3} > NYÚ'Na HoSSZa > nyúlna hossza (would its length stretch)

ν(.)νσ > ν{KéT}νϙ{4} > NeKi TűNiK > neki tűnik (it seems to him)

ν(π)νhνhν(.)[...?] > νλνhνhνλ[...?]{5} > NYíLNi Ha NéHáNNYaL > nyílni ha néhánnyal (to open, if with some of the others)

Αντιδορος εποε > Αντιδορος επθε > ANNYiT IDŐRe ÖSSZEBeCSE' > annyit időre összebecsel (that much match up on time)

Unós lenne könnyű hossz. Nyúlna hossza neki tűnik nyílni, ha néhánnyal annyit időre összebecsel (összemér). (The light length (of the racecourse) would be boring. It seems opportunity opens for him would its length stretch, if with some of the others he could match up on time.)

For the corrected transcription see the picture: the sign : for 20 (húsz) is clearly there after the first and second inscriptions, in the third there is sign for 2: II (két/kettő). The other correction are realistically probable, but strongly supported by the roundness of the sentences perfectly suited to depicted scene.

AVI 7601; BAD 310529

Tarentum, Museo Nazionale I.G. 4435. BF Droop cup. From Tarentum{1}. Unattributed{2}. Antidoros, potter. Third quarter sixth 550-530

Decoration: A: boar hunt. B: battle of pygmies and cranes.

Inscriptions: B: at the extreme left, a crane attacks some pygmies. Above the crane: nonsense: imitatiom letters: α(.)(δ)(π)(.)(.). Under the foot, around the central hole: Αντιδορος ^ επ̣οε. The words are slightly separated.

Commentary: Location of the signature: around the central hole, very close to the edge, covering less than 1/2 of the circumference. The verb is slightly separated from the name (not so in 4434). The lettering is less careful than in 4434. For signatures under the foot, which are not uncommon on Droop cups, see AttScr (1990), 49 n. 47. The nonsense inscription is in thick and coarse letters, probably not by the hand of 4434.

Footnotes: {1} from the same tomb as I.G. 4434, Via Nitti, 1897. {2} Beazley: "I cannot be sure that the pictures are by the same hand on both cups [this and Ι.G. 4434]."

Bibliography: ABV (1956), 159/1. — *C. Drago, CVA Taranto 3, Italy 35 (1962), p. 7, fig. 1 (ph. of signature), pl. 30. — Para. (1971), 67.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7876

α(.)(δ)(π)(.)(.) > ΔΔΠ{HúSZ} > iDe iDő BeHoZ > Ide idő behoz. (Time brings you here.)

Αντιδορος ^ επ̣οε > Αντιδορος ^ επ̣ϙε > ANNYi iTT IDŐRe ÖSSZeBéKÉ' > Annyi itt időre összebékél! (Here many people makes it up with others on time.)

AVI 7604; BAD 301103

Tarentum, Museo Nazionale I.G. 6221. BF band cup. From Leporano. Sakonides. Kaulos, potter. Third quarter sixth 550-530

Decoration: A: a male with a woman and a youth; a king seated, with Nike, a woman and a youth; a horseman with a woman and a youth. B: similar.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense inscriptions, e.g.: above the horse's head: μαισεσ. εχσει. ετχ[.]χι(ν)ι, retr. χει(θ)τρ, retr. σιχο. επιχσι. ετχοσχο, retr. χσοσχο{1}. Under one handle: Καυλ̣ος | εποιεσεν. Under the other: Σακονιδες | εγραφσεν. The signatures are each a two-liner, not stoich., the lines rather far apart. Fig. 7 shows: Κ(α)υλ̣ος [ε]ποι̣εσεν. Fig. 6: the Sakonides signature is clear; line 2 starts to left of line 1 by one letter space.

Commentary: A multifigured cup. On the hands connected with Sakonides, see AttScr. Beazley in ABV 172 notes that Louvre F 150, BF pyxis, is close and probably by the same hand [it has very similar nonsense inscriptions]. Beazley in Para.: only the fourth letter of the `Kaulos' signature is doubtful; the second letter may be [a pointed alpha]. This is in answer to ABV, where it is said that the last three letters of the name are hard to read.

Footnotes: {1} B should be similar.

Bibliography: *Photo. — Quagliati (1903), 34/2, figs. 1-4 (Shows nonsense inscriptions.). — *Beazley (1932), 188 and 201. — *ABV (1956), 171/ii. — *C. Drago, CVA Taranto 3, Italy 35 (1962), III H, 8, figs. 6-7, pl. 33. — *Para. (1971), 71. — Add.[2] (1989), 48. — AttScr (1990), no. 256.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7879

The transcriptions in green is my own reading from the above pictures (unfortunately, there are no close pictures of side B):

επιχσι > ÉPP ÜGYeSÜ' > épp ügyesül (just cleverly)

ελει > ELÉJe > eléje (in forefront of him)

εταλτ > E iTALT > e italt (this drink)

μαισεσ > μαισϝσ > MA IS ViSZi > ma is viszi (carries today also)

ετχοσχο > E TuDJa ŐS aGY Ó > e tudja ős agy ó (this one knows, the old brain cautions)

νιχι > iNNI GYŰ' > inni gyűl (to drink, collects)

χτϝτλ νι > GYüTTéVe' iTaL iNNI > gyüttével ital inni (with his coming drink collects)

νιπι > aNNYI eBBŰ' > annyi ebbűl (so much from this)

χσοσχο{1} > íGY iSZOS aGY Ó > így iszos agy ó (drunkard's brain cautions from this way)

εχσει > δχσει > De üGYeS E Ű > de ügyes e ű (but is it astute enough?)

ετχ[.]χι(ν)ι > E TuDJa GY[Ó]GY INNI > e tudja gy[ó]gy inni (he knows it is healing to drink)

χει(θ)τρ > üGYELJ CSuToRa > ügyelj csutora (be careful, the drinking vessel)

σιχο > νιχο > iNNI íGY Ó > inni így ó (warns you this way to drink)

Épp ügyesül eléje e italt ma is viszi. E tudja, ős agy ó (óv) inni. Gyűl gyüttével ital inni annyi ebbűl, így iszos agy ó, de ügyes e ű? E tudja gy[ó]gy inni, (de) ügyelj, csutora (boros edény) inni így ó! (He just carries today also this drink cleverly in forefront of him. This one knows, the old brain cautions drinking. With his coming drink from this collects so much that drunkard's brain cautions from this way, but is it astute enough? He knows it is healing to drink, (but) be careful, the drinking vessel warns you this way to drink!)

handle 1:

Κ(α)υλ̣ος | εποιεσεν > Κδυλ̣ος | εποιεσεν{Commentary} > Ko'DULÓ SZó E BŐJE SZeNNY > Kolduló szó e bője szenny! (The plenty of begging word is filth/squalor.)

handle 2:

Σακονιδες | εγραφσεν > iSZÁKON ÜDE SZó ÉG RÁ FeSSEN > Iszákon üde szó, ég rá fessen (omoljon)! (On drinking the word is comely, let sky collapse on it!)

AVI 7628; BAD 310032

Tarquinia, Museo Nazionale RC 1043. BF Tyrrhenian neck amphora. From Tarquinia. Fallow Deer Painter (Bothmer). Third quarter sixth 550-530 Middle period (Kluiver).

Decoration: A: Apollo and Tityos. B: horsemen.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: in front of a woman at left: ν(ι)νογογ{1}. Similarly in front of Apollo, facing him: (α)οιγογο, retr.{2}. By his left leg: νονσασγοας. To right of (behind) a woman's head: γογσν. - Another reading: A: the first inscription cannot be read in the photo. The second: read orthograde: υοιυουο. At any rate, the first letter is not upside down. The third inscription: νονσ̣(γ)σσογσ (hard to distinguish between gammas and alphas; the fourth letter partly in a break).

Commentary: Large firm letters.

Footnotes: {1} the iota may be a sigma. {2} the first letter is upside down.

Bibliography: *Photo. — ABV (1956), 97/32. — *G. Jacopi, CVA Tarquinia 2, Italy 26 (1956), III F, pl. 1,1-3. — Para. (1971), 37. — AttScr (1990), no. 201. — Kluiver (1996), 26/236 (inscrr. not mentioned), figs. 35 (A, shows inscriptions) and 51.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7904

ν(ι)νογογ > νςνογογ{1} > NáSZoN Ő GŐG > nászon ő gőg (on nuptials she is arrogance)

(α)οιγογο > υοιυουο{2} > VŐ-JaVa ÓVÓ > vő-java óvó (as to protect the right of the groom)

νονσ̣(γ)σσογσ > νονσ̣ασγοδσ > NŐ NáSZA SZeGŐDéS > nő násza szegődés (the marriage of the woman is hiring herself out)

γογσν > GŐGöSeN > gőgösen (arrogantly)

Nászon ő gőg, vő-java óvó. Nő násza szegődés, gőgösen. (On nuptials she is arrogance as to protect the right of the groom. The marriage of the woman is hiring herself out, arrogantly.)

AVI 7640; BAD 397

Tarquinia, Museo Nazionale RC 4194. BF lip cup. From Tarquinia. Unattributed; [[Xenokles Painter (A.–H.–S.)]]. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Int.: tondo: Heracles and Triton; five fish. Interior frieze: a zone with 17 dancing Nereids holding hands, in a complete circle. Ext.: lip: A, B, each: a chariot between two columns; at the handles, sphinxes.

Inscriptions: Int.: under the armpit of each Nereid, along the body: nonsense: a row of closely placed tiny dots (17 rows in all). A, B, each: handle zone: χαιρε και πιει ευ{1}.

Commentary: = RC 1773 (the number is given by Beazley in JHS). A large cup of high quality. [[Diameter: 320.]]

Footnotes: {1} in a wavy line (A). B is not illustrated.

Bibliography: BADB: 397. — *Beazley (1932), 178, fig. 14 (Int.). — *G. Jacopi, CVA Tarquinia 2, Italy 26 (1956), III H, pl. 21,5-6 (bibl.) [[one side, sm.]]. — Arias–Hirmer–Shefton (1962), pls. 49 and XIV (all) [[but only one side]].

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7916

χαιρε και πιει ευ > χαιρε και τιει ευ > iGYÁ' ÍR E KAJTI ÉJ EVVe' > Igyál, ír e kajti (kutató) éj evvel! (Drink, this prospector night is medicine with this!)

AVI 7649; BAD 13857

Tarquinia, Museo Nazionale inv. 569. BF eye cup. Unattributed. Last quarter sixth

Decoration: A: betweeen eyes: a goddess with a diadem (Hera?) and a bearded god (Zeus?) looking back at her, both seated. B: ?

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: to left of the goddess' head: εοιτοσ. Between the divinities: ειοκ(κ)(.){1}. B: ειε. ποιε(υ){2}.

Commentary: Curious lettering. The inscriptions on B may imitate a signature.

Footnotes: {1} so the photo, which is not very clear; CVA has ειορν, with rho = R. {2} CVA, text, not ill. The last letter is printed as an Attic Lambda with a long diagonal. = εποιει(?). (CVA).

Bibliography: *G. Jacopi, CVA Tarquinia 2, Italy 26 (1956), III H, pl. 40,5.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7925

A:       εοιτοσ > εφιτοσ > E FITOS > e fitos (this snub-nosed)

ειοκ(κ)(.) > ειορν{1} > E JÓRa Nő > e jóra nő (grows for this good)

E fitos e jóra nő. (This snub-nosed (girl) grows for this good.)

B:       ειε. ποιε(υ) > ειε ποιελ{2} > ÉJJE' BŐ JEL > Éjjel bő jel. (Plenty of sign during the night.)

AVI 7651; BAD 38

Tarquinia, Museo Nazionale inv. 679. BF neck amphora. Unattributed. 550-500 (Bea. Arch.).

Decoration: A: Heracles and Athena in a chariot, with a warrior{1}. B: Heracles playing the lyre before an altar, with Iolaus, a woman and Athena.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: to right of Athena's head: (ν)κπhογπh{2}. B: above the scene: (ν)κπκ(σ)υκ{3}. Between the legs of Heracles and Athena: οπκπιν(.).

Commentary: The bracketed nu's are reversed.

Footnotes: {1} Iolaus? {2} CVA, text. {3} so the photo in CVA.

Bibliography: BADB: 38. — *G. Jacopi, CVA Tarquinia 1, Italy 25 (1954), II H, pl. 12,2-3. — Boardman (1975a), pl. 3,c (B).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7927

A:       (ν)κπhογπh > NeKi PiHÖGő PiHe > Neki pihögő pihe. (For him gasping is featherweight.)

B:       (ν)κπκ(σ)υκ{3} > NeKi BéKéS éVeK > neki békés évek (for him the peaceful years)

οπκπιν(.) > ορκπινι > ÖRöK BŰNÜ' > örök bűnül (for eternal punishment)

Neki békés évek örök bűnül. (For him the peaceful years are eternal punishment.)

AVI 7702; BAD 351252

Toledo, Museum of Art 1958.69. BF pointed amphora with stand. Acheloos Painter. 510-500 Ca. 520 (Boulter–Luckner).

Decoration: A: Heracles and the Stag(1); at right, Athena. B: similar.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: to right of Athena's legs: σδεγ. B: between the stag and Athena: σδεσ.

Commentary: The writing is rather more sloppy than is usual for this painter. Done from the facss. in CVA. The stand is not by the Acheloos Painter: see Para. 169.

Footnotes: {1} the animal is male, not female as had been thought.

Bibliography: BADB: 351252. — Para. (1971), 168/2 bis. — *C.G. Boulter and K.T. Luckner, CVA Toledo 1, USA 17 (1976), figs. 3-4 (facss.), pls. 14 and 15,1-2. — *Moignard (1982), pl. 8 (A, B). — Add.[2] (1989), 101.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7986

A:     σδεγ > SZűD ÉG > Szűd ég! (Your heart is burning!)

B:     σδεσ > SZiD ÉSZ > Szid ész! (Your mind chides you!)

AVI 7711; BAD 7276

Toledo, Museum of Art 1972.54. BF amphora. Rycroft Painter (Bothmer). Last quarter sixth Ca. 520 (Shapiro). 520-510 (Boulter–Luckner).

Decoration: A: Ransom of Hector: Hermes; an attendent carrying a tripod and a stack of three phialae; Priam; Achilles reclining; a woman [Briseis?] with a hydria{1}. B: Departure of a Warrior, in a chariot.

Inscriptions: Mainly nonsense: A: to right of Hermes' face; (κ)(ε)(.)[h]ερμε[ς]. Around Priam's head: (δ)ο(γ)(.)αδ(.). B: to right of the charioteer's face: σσυσ. To right of an old man's face, similar: τλοσ{2}.

Commentary: Very small letters, quite different from the sense inscriptions on London B 195. The inscriptions are sloppy and CVA's facss. are hard to decipher; B.&L. do not explain them. My readings are therefore uncertain. It is hard to distinguish the letters from drips.

Footnotes: {1} Shapiro thinks she is a servant to wash Hector's corpse rather than Briseis. {2} the sigma is a reversed three-stroke sigma.

Bibliography: BADB: 7276. — *C.G. Boulter and K.T. Luckner, CVA Toledo 1, USA 17 (1976), figs. 1 and 2 (facss.), pls. 4-5. — *Moon (1985), 55 n. 25, fig. 15 (A). — Shapiro (1994), 41-42, fig. 24 (A). — M.C. Miller (1995), 450, fig. 28.4 (A, small), n. 14 (full bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 7995

A:       (κ)(ε)(.)[h]ερμε[ς] > (κ)(ε)ϝ ερμε[λ] > Ki EVVe' É' ReMÉ[Li] > ki evvel él reméli (he who lives with this hopes)

(δ)ο(γ)(.)αδ(.) > DO'Ga HADúRi > dolga hadúri (his cause is warlord-like)

Ki evvel él reméli dolga hadúri. (He who lives with this hopes that his cause is warlord-like (divine).)

B:       σσυσ > Só SaVaS / SZó SZíVeS/SZíVóS > Só savas. / Szó szíves/szívós. (The salt is sour. / The word is hearty/tough.)

τλοσ > íTéLŐ SZó > Ítélő szó. (Judging word.)

AVI 7755; BAD 9523

Tübingen, Museum der Universität: Originalsammlung der Klassischen Archäologie S./10 1507A (D 56). Frs. of BF phormiskos{1}. Unattributed. First quarter fifth

Decoration: Fr. a: at left, a huge naked male on one knee, with an object (a cup?) in his hands; black and white stripes representing rocks; a ship, with a seated bearded man; another rock on which appears (part of) a large siren. At the extreme left, drapery of a female(?) figure. Fr. b: ornament only.

Inscriptions: Fr. a: nonsense: behind the giant's back: imitation letters: [...]υ(τ)σι{2}; to right of his chest: υτσ(ο){3}.

Commentary: = S./10 1507a-b. Two frs. Burow thinks with Fellmann that the rocks separate the Polphemus adventure from that of the sirens; Touchefeu-Meynier had interpreted the whole as the Polyphemus adventure, but that does not fit the siren.

Footnotes: {1} the shape was identified by Bothmer, Mary Moore and A.J. Clark. Not an oinochoe as Watzinger thought. {2} my readings from the photo in Watzinger. υτσο, Watzinger; υτσε, Fellmann; υτσϲ, Touchefeu-Meynier. This could represent the name of Odysseus (Burow). I think it is probably nonsense. The tau resembles an Ionic gamma. {3} the omicron open at the top.

Bibliography: BADB: 9523. — *Watzinger (1924), 31, pl. 15. — Morrison–Williams (1968), 115 Arch 96. — Touchefeu-Meynier (1968), 60/160, 147/246, passim. — Fellmann (1972), 54ff., 114 (Br 4), fig. 14. — Brommer (1973), 441/2. — *J. Burow, CVA Tübingen 3, Germany 47 (1980), pl. 22,6-7; p. 32, facs. of one inscription.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8040

[...]υ(τ)σι > υγσο{2} > VéGSŐ > Végső (The final one)

υτσ(ο) > UTóSÓ > Utósó (The last one)

AVI 7771; BAD 200876

Tübingen, Museum der Universität: Originalsammlung der Klassischen Archäologie S./10 1390 (E 49). RF alabastron. Group of Paidikos Alabastra (γ) (Manner of Euergides Painter){1}. Last quarter sixth

Decoration: A seated woman, and a woman pouring a libation at an altar.

Inscriptions: On the top of the mouth, taking four-fifth of the circle{2}: αισκοσλοι vac.1-2{3}.

Commentary: = S./10 1390. The inscription is nonsense and mocks hο παις καλος. Or it could be miswritten.

Footnotes: {1} the group may be by one hand, Beazley. {2} no doubt in BG. {3} Watzinger reads it differently: λοι : δισκος, but I did not note the interpoint, and the delta looks more like an alpha.

Bibliography: BADB: 200876. — *Watzinger (1924), 40/E 49, pl. 22. — ARV[2] (1963), 100/18. — *J. Burow, CVA Tübingen 5, Germany 54 (1986), pl. 36,1-4. — Add.[2] (1989), 172.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8056

αισκοσλοι vac.1-2{3} > Δισκοσλολι{picture} > DŰ' SZűKÖS iLLóOLaJ > Dűl szűkös illóolaj. (The scant/meagre volatile oil pours.)

AVI 7809; BAD 201359

Torino, Museo di Antichità 4117. RF cup. Unattributed{1}. Last quarter sixth

Decoration: Int.: a warrior running. Ext.: komos: A: four nude komasts dancing. B: in the center, three naked youths in an obscene attitude, between, on each side, two dancing youths.

Inscriptions: Int.: CVA, text: around the warrior: hο παι̣ς, retr., παις καλ<>. I.e.: hο παις παις καλ<ος>{2}. A: on a wineskin: CVA, photo.: along the middle: nonsense: κλγ(γ)ο(.){3}. In the field: hο παις καλος. B: in the field: hο παις καλος. [[Addenda:]] <correct:> C], line 2: hο παις παις καλ<ος>.

Commentary: = inv. 3032.

Footnotes: {1} in the text of ARV[2] attributed to the manner of the Epeleios Painter; in addenda 1 (p. 1628) withdrawn from the list: the inside recalls the Epeleios Painter, but the outside does not. {2} unclear rendering. Philippart read: hο παις καλ[ος] καλ[ος]. {3} a mock inscription imitating kalos; not retr. CVA, text has: καλα..

Bibliography: BADB: 201359. — *Photos. — ARV[2] (1963), 150/35, 1628. — F.G. Lo Porto, CVA Turin 2, Italy 40 (1969), III I, pls. 3,1-2 and 4,1-3. — Add.[2] (1989), 179.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8094

Int.:     hο παις παις καλ<ος>{2} > hο παι ςλ / ς(o)λ[λ], retro., κα (κ)κα{read from picture} >HO' BAJ SZóL / SZÓLaL oKA KuKA > Hol baj szól / szólal: oka kuka. (Where harm/grief/disease speaks, its cause is speechless/dumpster.)

A:       κλγ(γ)ο(.) > καλαλ{3} > Ki ÁLL ALá > Ki áll alá? (Who will stand underneath?)

hο παις καλος > HO' BAJ SoK ÁLLÓS > Hol baj sok állós! (Whereabouts too many is the bystander!)

B:       hο παις καλος > HO' BAJ SoK ÁLLÓS > Hol baj sok állós? (Where is problem the many bystanders?)

hο παις παις καλ<ος> > HO' BÁJoS BAJ S KALLó > Hol bájos baj s kalló! (Where the charming is trouble and wearing!)

AVI 7811; BAD 302732

Torino, Museo di Antichità 5776. BF stemless cup. Unattributed; Segment Class. 530-520 (CVA).

Decoration: Int.: in the center, a bearded man playing the lyre, and a youth listening; at left, a youth with a spear; at right, a man, seated, with a long stick. The figures are nude except for the one that is seated.

Inscriptions: Int.: in the exergue, horizontal: nonsense: a row of dots imitating an inscription. On the outside of the bowl, in a partial circle around the foot, but at some distance, widely spaced and facing out, Gr.: Ανταγορα ημι{1}.

Commentary: = inv. 3642. The owner's inscription is in the Doric dialect; the alphabet is not Attic.

Footnotes: {1} put on with the cup resting upside down on its lip.

Bibliography: BADB: 302732. — Philippart (1932–3), i, 9/1. — ABV (1956), 214/50. — F.G. Lo Porto, CVA Turin 2, Italy 40 (1969), III H, pl. 2,1-3 (fig. 3 shows the Gr.). — Add.[2] (1989), 57.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8096

Ανταγορα ημι > A NőT AGGÓ uRA HíMI > A nőt aggó ura hími (mentegeti). (The anxious/worried husband exculpates the woman.)

AVI 7819; BAD 29078

Unlocated. BF oinochoe (olpe). From Taman. Unattributed. Second half sixth (Pharmakowsky).

Decoration: Ajax and Cassandra, at a statue of Athena; tendrils between figures.

Inscriptions: Between the two figures, [nonsense]: ασh{1}. On the topside of the mouth, Gr. in two lines: Ἀρίστε̅ | Με̅τρί{2}.

Commentary: A dedication by Ariste to Demeter.

Footnotes: {1} so AA, text. {2} see fig. 34.

Bibliography: *Pharmakowsky (1914), 223/4, figs. 32-34.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8105

ασh > A SZó Hű > A szó hű. (The word is true/faithful.)

Ἀρίστε̅ | Με̅τρί > ÁRJa SZóT E MÉ' TöRI > Árja szót e mé(rt) töri? (Why this breaks the given word of the Aryan?)

AVI 7823; BAD 9017627

Unlocated. Fr. of BF neck amphora. Red-line Painter{1}. Last quarter sixth Ca. 510 (Cahn).

History: Ex Basel Market (H.A.C. Kunst der Antike).

Decoration: A: Heracles and the Lion; behind, Athena; Iolaus. B: Return of Helen [so Cahn]: a woman between two warriors.

Inscriptions: A: above Heracles and the lion: nonsense: εαϙσκδις.

Commentary: Cahn thinks rightly that the inscription imitates hερακλες. Presumably miswritten by an illiterate, although the koppa is remarkable. The writer knew the letters of the alphabet but could not write words.

Footnotes: {1} this vase is connected with the Leagros Group (Cahn).

Bibliography: *HAC (1989), 12/22 (A, B).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8111

εαϙσκδις > É' A KüSZKöDő IS > Él a küszködő is. (The struggler lives also.)

AVI 7832; BAD 9016865

Unlocated. BF lekythos. Unattributed. First quarter fifth (?)

Decoration: A nude hoplite (Diitrephes?) falling back under a shower of arrows.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: to left of the shield, facing: δγιοτ. Below the shield οσδ. To right of the helmet: (ι)τη(γ)οσ{1}. To right of the warrior, starting below his spear: τοστοσ.

Commentary: The inscriptions done after the dr. in JdI 7. For the statue of Diitrephes see Frazer, loc. cit. For the subject, cf. Berlin 2304 and Villa Giulia, ARV[2] 308/3.

Footnotes: {1} some letters are unclear.

Bibliography: *Six (1892), 185-88 (dr.). — Gercke (1893), 113-17. — Frazer (1898), 276, fig. 13 (after Six). — Stevens (1936), 455, fig. 9 (after Frazer).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8119

δγιοτ > eDDiG JÖTT > eddig jött (this far did come)

οσδ > ŐSöD > ősöd (your ancestor)

(ι)τη(γ)οσ > (ι)τηνοσ{1} > ITT HoNOS > itt honos (here the patriotic)

τοστοσ > uTÓ oSZíTÓS > utó oszítós (descendant is instigating)

Eddig jött ősöd, itt honos utó oszítós. (This far did your ancestor come, here the patriotic descendant is instigating.)

AVI 7858; BAD 9017527

Unlocated. BF/WG lekythos. From Locri Epizephyrii{1}. Unattributed. First quarter fifth

Decoration: Komos of three couples (men and hetaerae); the last man plays the flutes, the central one has a lyre; the women have krotala.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: to left of the last man, not facing him: καινετε. On his right: οουσ. At the bottom: πυγοσυγε. At the top: πο(γ)αγει. At right, vertically down and facing the first figure: hυβριγ(γ)εσ.

Commentary: Probably in Reggio Calabria. The above readings are taken from the dr. in NSc. and are no doubt not completely reliable. NSc. thinks the inscriptions hide names; the last is indeed similar to names like Hybridemos, Hybrilides, Hybristes (PA 13,895-97). The gammas may stand for pi's.

Footnotes: {1} tomb 113.

Bibliography: *Orsi (1911), suppl. p. 11, fig. 8 (dr.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8147

καινετε > Ki A JóN E'TE' > ki a jón eltel (who is smitten with the goods)

οουσ > Ő ÓV S > ő óv s (s/he cautions and )

πυγοσυγε > BŰ POS VéGE > bű pos vége (the baggy/loose staleness ends)

πο(γ)αγει > BOGGA' aGG ÉJ > boggal agg éj (the late night with prong)

hυβριγ(γ)εσ > hυβριγνεσ > HíV BáR IGéNYES > hív bár igényes (it calls, although hard to please it.)

Ki a jón eltel ő óv s bű pos vége. Boggal agg éj hív bár igényes. (Who is smitten with the goods, s/he cautions and the baggy/loose staleness ends. The late night calls with prong, although hard to please it.)

AVI 7880; BAD 5172

Urbana, University of Illinois Krannert Museum 70-9-3. BF Tyrrhenian amphora. Painter of Berlin 1686 (A. Perkins); Pointed-Nose Painter (Bothmer); Unattributed, not Tyrrhenian (Kluiver). Third quarter sixth Ca. 550 (CVA).

Decoration: A: a nude horseman with a spear leading a second horse; at left, a bearded man with a spear; at right, a nude youth with a spear. B: two nude young horsemen with spears.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: imitation letters: the inscriptions are placed where one would expect names: A: to right of a spear held up before the man's face: (γ)(ι)ν(σ)ν. Under the horses' bellies: (.)νγσν{1}. In front of the horses: κσνκ(γ)σνε. To right of (behind) the youth's head: six letters. B: to left of (behind) the left rider's chest: seven letters ending in σν. Under the left horse's belly: (κ)σκσ(κ)σ. To left of the right rider's face: γσγσγ. Under the right horse: κσκσγ. To right of the right horse: five letters.

Commentary: `Midwestern' (in index) lists the location as Champaign, not Urbana. The letters are small in the photos. and hard to read. The rightmost inscription on B is de trop, imitating A, where there is an extra horse. The letters are disjointed. These readings are from `Midwestern', but compare the phs. in CVA. Are these mock inscriptions or illiterate attempts?

Footnotes: {1} the first letter is unclear.

Bibliography: *Perkins (1979), 500ff., fig. 30. — *S.U. Wisseman, CVA Urbana-Champaign 1, USA 24 (1989), pl. 9,1-4. — Kluiver (1996), 17 and n. 156 (inscrr. not mentioned).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8171

A:       (γ)(ι)ν(σ)ν > π(ι)ντν > PINTeN > pinten (on a pint)

(.)νγσν{1} > KoNGaSSoN/CSöNGeSSeN > kongasson/csöngessen (should clang/ring)

κσνκ(γ)σνε > κσνκπσνε > Ki SZűNeK BeSZé'NE > ki szűnek beszélne (who intends to speak to the heart)

Pinten kongasson/csöngessen ki szűnek beszélne! (The one who intends to speak to the heart should clang/ring on a pint!)

B:       (κ)σκσ(κ)σ > éKeS KiSKéS > Ékes kiskés. (Ornate small knife.)

γσγσγ > iGaSSáGoSSáG > Igazságosság. (Justice/right.)

κσκσγ > oKoS oKSáG > Okos okság. (Clever causality.)

AVI 7895; BAD 302337

Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum 186. BF lekythos. Leagros Group (Beazley); Manner of Daybreak Painter (Haspels). Last quarter sixth 510-500

Decoration: Amazonomachy: a Greek and two mounted Amazons.

Inscriptions: Above the left horse's head: καλο(ς). Nonsense: below the left horse: λενι. On the Greek's left side: σοσ.

Commentary: There may be more inscriptions at right.

Bibliography: *Photo. — *Haspels (1936), 48, pl. 15,2 (bibl). — ABV (1956), 378/256.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8186

καλο(ς) > καλον > Ki A LÓN > ki a lón (the one on the horse)

σοσ > ηοσ > HŐS > hős (hero)

λενι > eLLENÜ'/eLLENI > ellenül/elleni (makes a stand against / is against)

Ki a lón hős ellenül/elleni. (The one on the horse makes a stand / is against the hero.)

AVI 7920; BAD 205663

Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum 1102. RF calyx krater. Aegisthus Painter. Second quarter fifth Ca. 460 (Eichler).

Decoration: A: a bearded man with a stick handing a naked boy (with a hoop) a piece of meat{1}. B: a youth with his stick to left.

Inscriptions: A: between the heads, nonsense: νοενον μσ νονγσ{2}.

Footnotes: {1} it looks like a whole boned carcass with a hoof (like our `leg of lamb'); Eichler calls it a `Tierlauf'. Beazley does not mention it. {2} so the text of CVA.

Bibliography: Beazley (1916a), 147,4 n. 1. — ARV[2] (1963), 504/5. — *F. Eichler, CVA Vienna 3, Austria 3 (1974), pl. 101,3-4 (bibl.). — Add.[2] (1989), 252.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8211

νοενον μσ νονγσ > νθενθν μσ νθνλσ > iNTSEN CSíNY MáS iNTSeN iLLőS > Intsen csíny, más intsen illős! (Let you caution this mischief, let someone else caution you adequately!)

Look at the picture, in the boy's left hand is a wire trap (not a hoop)! This toil for catching animals was never an accepted hunting tool, so the strong caution from the old man is earned. I hope the above reading cautions the scientists as well how easy is to misinterpret a picture without reading its inscription.

AVI 7943; BAD 200049

Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum 3607. BF/WG neck amphora. From Cerveteri. Unattributed{1}; Class of Cabinet des Médailles 218. First quarter fifth

Decoration: A: Ajax with the body of Achilles. B: a citharode on a bema, between Doric columns and cocks.

Inscriptions: A: To right of the body: ιλεοσ{2}. Between the helmets: ο. On Ajax' right: nonsense: σιυσοσυτυ. B: nonsense: to left of the citharode: τυχναθσιυσ. On his right: υσ[...]σι.

Commentary: The inscriptions after Masner's text. The subject of B seems related to the Panathenaea.

Footnotes: {1} Beazley; not far off the Diosphos Painter in style and decoration, Mock inscriptions in the manner of the Sappho Painter, Haspels. {2} <Αχ>ιλ<λ>εος, as Masner rightly points out. Miswritten in the style of an illiterate. The Sappho Painter has similar near-sense inscriptions among nonsense.

Bibliography: *Masner (1892), 29 (not (ill.). — *Haspels (1936), 102: listed as Oest. Mus. 234. — ABV (1956), 319/10, 507. — ARV[2] (1963), 1618. — Para. (1971), 140/7. — Add.[2] (1989), 86.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8235

A:       ιλεοσ o > JeLLE' ŐS Ó > jellel ős ó (ancestor guards with the sign)

σιυσοσυτυ > SZÍVe SZÓ' SiVíTVa > szíve szól sivítva (his heart speaks whistling)

Jellel ős ó, szíve szól sivítva. (Ancestor guards with the sign, his heart speaks whistling.)

B:       τυχναθσιυσ > ToVa uGYaN DiCSő SZÍVeS > tova ugyan dicső szíves (although glorious rather away ...)

υσ[...]σι > ViSZi … > viszi … (takes him)

Tova ugyan dicső szíves viszi … (Although glorious rather takes him away ...)

AVI 7944; BAD 310145

Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum 3613 (220 Masner). BF hydria. From Cerveteri. Archippe Group (related to Tyrrhenian Group). Third quarter sixth 550-530

Decoration: Shoulder: two warriors fighting between, on each side, a sphinx and a woman holding a wreath. Body : Departure of a chariot (seen frontally), between, on each side, a bearded man and a woman holding a wreath.

Inscriptions: Shoulder: to right of the left sphinx: τελοπυσϝος. Between the left warrior's legs: χιλκες, retr. Between the right warrior's legs: λεοτις. To left of the right woman's head: (κ)ο>(χ)λει, retr.{1}. To left of the right sphinx: σουετπολος{2}. Body: to the lower right of the man at left: Ανφιλοχος. To right of the woman: Αρχιπ<π>ε. To her lower right, close to the horses' legs: ρι(.)ι(.)(.){3}. Between the necks of the left pair of horses, the name of the charioteer: Διομεδες, retr. To left of the right woman's legs, close to the horses' legs (as above): Κ<α>λ<λ>ιπ<π>ος(?), retr.{4}. To left of the right woman's face: Ευμελια, retr.

Commentary: A mixture of sense and nonsense: the nonsense inscriptions on the shoulder mock or imitate names; there are sense inscriptions in the body picture. Bothmer thinks the shoulder picture may be a duel of Achilles and Memnon. "It is, in fact, not impossible to recognize an attempt at writing Achilles in the letters that appear between the legs of the victorious warrior." (Bothmer). [Referring to χιλκες, I assume.]

Footnotes: {1} read differently in Masner's text, dr., and facs. {2} the facs. shows a diagonal stroke preceding the first sigma. {3} the last letter seems to be kappa placed vertically; it should be the name of a horse (Masner). {4} perhaps an unlikely name for a horse; it may possibly pertain to the man at the right. Beazley in AJA points out that the reading is Κλιπος, which should be either for Κ<α>λ<λ>ιπ<π>ος or more probably Κλ<ε>ιπ<π>ος.

Bibliography: *Masner (1892), 23-24, fig. 14 (dr.), pl. (facs.). — *Beazley (1954), 187 (not ill.). — ABV (1956), 106/1. — *Bothmer (1969), 26 (not ill.). — Add.[2] (1989), 29. — AttScr (1990), no. 216.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8236


τελοπυσϝος > íTÉLŐ BŰ/BűVe SZíVÓS > ítélő bű/bűve szívós (judging spell is stubborn)

χιλκες > GYILoK ÉSZ > gyilok ész (poniard/killing mind)

λεοτις > éLE O'T IS > éle olt is (its edge also assuages)

(κ)ο>(χ)λει > ΗO{Λ DőL}(χ)λει* > Ha ÖLDeLő üGY eLÉJe > ha öldelő ügy eléje (if the fronting cause for killing)

σουετπολος > SZÓ VÉTéBŐ' LÖSZ > szó vétéből lösz (made by verbal laps)

Ítélő bű/bűve szívós. Gyilok ész éle olt is, ha öldelő ügy eléje szó vétéből lösz. (Judging spell is stubborn. The edge of poniard/killing mind also assuages, if the fronting cause for killing made by verbal laps.)

* the '>' sign is a lambda (Λ) tilting (DőL) over: {Λ DőL} = {Λ+D+L}


Ανφιλοχος > Ανφιγοχος > ANNYi FI GŐGYÖS > annyi fi gőgyös (fecsegő) (many juveniles are chatterboxes)

Αρχιπ<π>ε > Αρχιπε > ARa üGYIBE’ > ara ügyiben (in fiancé’s affairs)

ρι(.)ι(.)(.) > ρι(.)ι(.)κ{3!} > RÍ(K)Í(Tó)K > rí(k)í(tó)k (ríkatók) (they make one cry)

Διομεδες > De JÓ Mi ÉDES > de jó mi édes (such good is, how sweet)

Κ<α>λ<λ>ιπ<π>ος > Κλιπος > Ki éLI BŐS > ki éli bős (who lives it ample)

Ευμελια > EVVe' MELLéJe Á’ > evvel melléje áll (takes side with this)

Annyi fi gőgyös (fecsegő) ara ügyiben, rí(k)í(tó)k (ríkatók). De jó, mi édes! Ki éli bős, evvel melléje áll. (Many juveniles are chatterboxes in fiancé’s affairs, they make she cry. Such good is, how sweet! Who lives it ample, takes side with this.)

The wreath in many European and Middle-Eastern countries is the symbol of marrying age girls.

AVI 7945; BAD 310144

Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum 3614 (221 Masner). BF hydria. From Cerveteri. Near Tyrrhenian Group, III. Third quarter sixth 550-530

Decoration: Shoulder: Perseus pursued by a Gorgon, between sphinxes. Body: Achilles and Troilos, with Polyxena and an extra male figure holding back the horse on which Troilos(?) sits; at right, a hoplite.

Inscriptions: Shoulder: all retr.: Θ(ε)τες. Ποϙο(μ)ες. Οετος. Θ̣οτες. Χεμεσο. Πε(ρ)<ρ>ευς. Σεποσ(ν)(ε)ς. >(ε)πες. Τεμεο̣θν{1}. Body: Τροιλος, retr. Φοκος, retr. Under the horse's belly: nonsense: λοσιοστ. Above the horse, behind the rider's back: three letters.

Commentary: "The shoulder picture is nearer the Tyrrhenian Group than the chief one," ABV. Cf. Vienna 3613 for the inscriptions. Johnston mentions the reading Πορομος as a parallel to a Corinthian inscription which he reads: Πορο̣[--]. It is the name of a bystander in the scene of Perseus and the Gorgons. One wonders whether on this and Vienna 3613 the inscriptions on the shoulder and the body are by the same hand; they certainly do not follow the same model.

Footnotes: {1} done after Masner's facsimiles. >(ε)πες he thinks to be intended for Ερμης; Οετος is under the right hand of the Gorgo and is intended for κητος [sic]; see Masner for further speculations.

Bibliography: Heydemann (1881), 36, 471 (inscrr.). — Kretschmer (1888), 406 (inscr. [[Οετος, hesitatingly accepting Heydemann's reading]]). — *Masner (1892), 24 and pl. (facs.); not ill. — Kretschmer (1894), 177. — ABV (1956), 106/iii. — Para. (1971), 43. — Johnston (1973b), 181-85. — Add.[2] (1989), 29. — AttScr (1990), no. 1085.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8237

Sh:     Θ(ε)τες > eCSETES > ecsetes (the master of the brush)

Ποϙο(μ)ες > BÓKO' MESe > bókol mese (compliments, his story)

Οετος > Ϙετος > KETTŐS > kettős (dual)

Θ̣οτες > Φοτες > FÖ'TESZi > fölteszi (he assumes)

Χεμεσο > íGY E'MÉS Ő > így elmés ő (he is ingenious this way)

Πε(ρ)<ρ>ευς > PeRRE ViSZ > perre visz (he takes you on suit)

Σεποσ(ν)(ε)ς > SEBÖSeN E SZó > sebösen e szó (quickly, this word)

>(ε)πες > {Λ DőL}(ε)πες > LóDuL EPÉS > lódul epés (flies, virulently)

Τεμεο̣θν > íTÉ' íME ÓCSáN > ítél íme ócsán (look, he judges deprecatory)

Ecsetes bókol, mese kettős: fölteszi így elmés ő, perre visz sebösen, e szó lódul, epés ítél íme ócsán. (The master of the brush compliments, his story is dual: he assumes he is ingenious this way, he takes you on suit quickly, this word flies, look, he virulently judges deprecatory.)

Body: Τροιλος > ToROLJa iLLŐS > torolja illős (dhe avenges duly)

Φοκος > FOKOS > fokos (halberd)

λοσιοστ > éLÖSÜ' OSZT > élösül oszt (deals sharply)

Torolja illős: fokos élösül oszt! (She avenges duly: the halberd deals sharply!)

Polyxena, who could not forgive Achilles for murdering her brother Troilus, made him disclose vulnerability of his heel, since there is no secret that women cannot extract from men in proof of love. At her request he came, bare and unarmed, to ratify the agreement by sacrificing to Thymbraean Apollo; then, while Deiphobus clasped him to his breast in pretended friendship, Paris, hiding behind the god’s image, pierced his heel with a poisoned arrow or, some say, a sword.” (R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 164.k.)

AVI 7988; BAD 330104

Warsaw, National Museum. BG oinochoe (olpe). From Cerveteri. Unattributed; Kriton Group. Last quarter sixth

History: Ex Goluchow, Czartoryski 98.

Decoration: Undecorated.

Inscriptions: Body, in a cartellino: (Κ)ριτον εποιεσεν : λεποσυσ.

Commentary: The end of the inscription is probably nonsense (so Beazley). There are four olpai with a cartellino, 3 of them inscribed with potters’ signatures, the fourth blank: see ABV. Attic alphabet. Kappa miswritten as two loops. Three-stroke sigma, normal (see Para.).

Bibliography: *K. Bulas, CVA Goluchow, Czartoryski, Poland 1 (1932), pl. 16,2. — ABV (1956), 446/2. — Para. (1971), 192.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8280

(Κ)ριτον εποιεσεν : λεποσυσ > KeRÍTŐ Nő ÉPP OLY ESZéN : öLE BŐ SZuVaS > Kerítő nő épp oly eszén: öle bő, szuvas. (Procuress exactly the same on her mind: her lap is baggy/loose, full of cavities.)

AVI 7990; BAD 204084

Warsaw, National Museum. RF plastic rhyton (head vase: ram's head). Brygos Painter. First quarter fifth

History: Ex Goluchow, Czartoryski 119. Hoffmann lists as: Once Goluchow, Czartoryski 119, and says: "Stolen during the war from the Museum Narodowe.".

Decoration: Neck: A: twice: a satyr attacking a sleeping maenad. B: a satyr playing the flute and Dionysus sacrificing at an altar.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: neck: A: σν(h). νι. Above the satyr at right: υνονσ. B: ν[.]σνοι. σνοσ{2}. "Nonsense inscriptions in field" (Hoffmann).

Commentary: For the irregular heta cf. Boston 01.8038, which has S 3 sideways.

Footnotes: {1} said to be now lost [not mentioned as ever in Warsaw]. Listed as `once Goluchow' in ARV[2], but as Warsaw, once Goluchow, in Add.[2]. Robertson (1992), 305 n. 328, lists as `Once Goluchow, Czartoryski'; on p. 100 he says it is lost. {2} all inscriptions, except the third, from CVA, text, only.

Bibliography: *Photo. — V.Pol. (1928), pls. 10 and 11,2. — *K. Bulas, CVA Goluchow, Czartoryski, Poland 1 (1932), pl. 23,4. — Hoffmann (1962), 10/5, pl. 2,1 (does not show inscri[ptions) (bibl.). — ARV[2] (1963), 382/185, 1649. — Para. (1971), 366. — Add.[2] (1989), 228. — Beazley (1989), 82, n. 17{1}.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8282

A:       σν(h) νι υνονσ > aSSZoNY Ha iNNI ViNNe Ő NőS > Asszony ha inni vinne, ő nős. (If a woman takes you to drink, she is married.)

B:       ν[.]σνοι σνοσ > NŐS Nő OLY aSSZoNYOS > Nős nő oly asszonyos. (Married woman is so matronly.)

AVI 7996; BAD 207522

Warsaw, National Museum 142307. RF Nolan amphora Oionokles Painter. Second quarter fifth

History: Ex Goluchow, Czartoryski 34.

Decoration: A: Nike with cithara, fillets and taenia. B: citharode: a young musician, in a flowing robe to right, turns back to receive the lyre.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: γυιοσευι. γυιοσγυοσ. B: to left of her forehead: γυιοσι, retr. Behind her head and back: γυιοεγυιοσ{1}. Under the foot, Gr.: ΔΙ{2}.

Commentary: Beazley cites the inscriptions as parallels to Boston 01.8028 (CB ii, 39/86) by the Briseis Painter.

Footnotes: {1} the inscriptions here mainly after CVA's text; one photo shows on A: γυιο ... to right of Nike's nose (her mouth is closed). The inscriptions on B show partially in another photo in CVA. Serbeti gives nonsense: αλιοσελι. αλιοσε(α)λιοσ. αλιοσιαλοσ. ισοιλ(α). (α) = alpha without cross stroke. She seems to read the gammas as alphas and the upsilons as lambdas. {2} not in Johnston (1979).

Bibliography: V.Pol. (1928), 19. — *CB (1931–63), ii, 40 (mention). — *K. Bulas, CVA Goluchow, Czartoryski, Poland 1 (1932), pl. 22,2. — ARV[2] (1963), 646/10. — Add.[2] (1989), 275. — *Serbeti (1989), 40.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8288

Serbeti's “nonsense” reading makes sense, if we take that “alpha without cross stroke” is Δ:

A:       αλιοσελι αλιοσεΔλιοσ > ÁLL JÓ' eSZELI ÁLJÓS ÉDDeL JÓ SZó > Áll jól, eszeli áljós éddel jó szó. (He stands well, good word advises him with the sweetness of false prophecy.)

B:       αλιοσιαλοσ ισοιλΔ Δ > ÁLL JÓ' SZáJALó ŐS 'ISZ OLY áLDó/oLDó iDő > Áll jól szájaló ős, hisz oly áldó/oldó idő. (The well jawing elder stands/endures, as time is so blessing/forgiving.)

AVI 8013; BAD 725265

Warsaw, National Museum 147362. Fragmentary RF neck amphora. From Nola? Alkimachos Painter. Second quarter fifth

Decoration: A: Eos pursuing Cephalus. B: mostly lost: an old man.

Inscriptions: A: under Eos' wings: (κ)οσλοσ{1}.

Commentary: Nonsense: imitation of καλος, typical of this painter, cf. e.g. Warsaw 142,335: κοσνοσ. Mixed alphabet.

Footnotes: {1} clear in pl. 13,1; not mentioned in CVA.

Bibliography: ARV[2] (1963), 1658/21 bis. — *M. Bernhard, CVA Warsaw 3, Poland 6 (1964), pls. 11,1-2 and 13,1-3 (no bibl.). — Para. (1971), 383.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8306

(κ)οσλοσ > KOSLó ŐS > Kosló ős (The rutting ancestor)

Aphrodite was once vexed to find Ares in Eos’s bed, and cursed her with a constant longing for young mortals, whom thereupon she secretly and shame-facedly began to seduce, one after the other. First, Orion; next, Cephalus; then ...” (R. Graves: The Greek Myths, 40.b.)

AVI 8014; BAD 350955

Warsaw, National Museum 198041. BF skyphos (cup-kotyle). Unattributed. Third quarter sixth 540-520 (CVA).

History: Ex Breslau (Wroclaw).

Decoration: The lip and lower body are BG; the handle zone is reserved, the only decoration being the inscriptions.

Inscriptions: Handle zone: in BG: in large letters: nonsense: A: ουσ(ν)σι. B: οσυπκλ.

Commentary: The inscriptions fill the handle zones.

Bibliography: *M. Bernhard, CVA Warsaw 1, Poland 4 (1960), p. 22, figs. 1-2 (phs. of inscriptions), pl. 38,4-5 (no bibl.).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8307

Looking at the picture, one sees the inscriptions between the two handles, one handle (FüL) in front, the other handle (FüL) after the inscription!

A:       ουσ(ν)σι > {FüL}υσ(ν)σι{FüL} > FéLŐ VéSZeN SiFFeL > Félő vészen siffel (vizslat). (The frightened man on bane/ills noses/scours about.)

B:       οσυπκλ > {FüL}συπκλ{FüL} > FéLŐ SZŰ BéKüLő FéL > Félő szű békülő fél. (The frightened heart is the placating party.)

AVI 8029; BAD 320397

Washington, Smithsonian Institution 136415. Fragmentary BF amphora. From Orvieto. Painter of Berlin 1686. Third quarter sixth 550-530 Ca. 540 (Schwarz).

Decoration: A: the crowning of a victorious athlete: a youth with a taenia; a bearded man (judge), seated, is confronted by a nude youth with branches and a fillet on his head; a draped male carries a tripod; two naked youths. B: fragmentary (the left half is now blank in the ph.: only the right-hand portion remains): Departure of a Warrior(?): upper part of Hermes; a bearded warrior; a draped youth with his staff.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: A: to right of the victor's legs: ετοχειοχειο, retr. Similarly for the youth carrying a tripod: [4-5]χ̣ειοι{1}. B: above the youth's head, curved: χ̣ετνοι{2}. The other inscription is written vertically down, between the youth's legs and the margin; it is retr. and faces out: (.)[...]αοτ̣ονοχν(.), retr.{3}.

Commentary: Much restored; the foot and mouth are genuine (ABV). Compare Philadelphia 3441, by the same painter. Furtwängler (1905), 225 and 232, and Beazley (1929a), 361-62 thought the inscriptions meaningless; Pickard-Cambridge, DTC (1927) 246 thought they were addressed to horses (`giddy-up'), but the type occurs on 6 vases by this painter that have no horses: Berlin (East) 1697; (Once) Northwick Park, Spencer-Churchill (Beazley (1929a), 361, fig. 1); Cab. Méd. 207; Philadelphia 3441; Paris Market (ABV 297/19); Private (Moon and Berge, Midwestern (1979) 54/32. [Also Berlin 1686.] So also on this vase.

Footnotes: {1} readings from photos. My readings differ somewhat. {2} so the ph., pl. 6; the facs. in Schwarz, p. 16 reads: χ̣ετνο. The chi is in a break, partially preserved. {3} so the ph. in Schwarz. The facs. has a dot before the alpha, which is erroneous. There is a trace of a letter, then a missing piece where a second letter should be, then probably a vacat of one letter, then the alpha; the third letter after the alpha is in a break: I read τ̣, the facs. has chi; the last letter is a dot. There is a dot over the first nu, and it and the second nu could be sideways sigmas.

Bibliography: *Beazley (1929a), 362{1}. — *Beazley (1931–2), 11/10, pl. 5,1 (A){1}. — ABV (1956), 297/18. — Para. (1971), 129. — *Neils (1992), 17, fig. 2 (A). — *S.J. Schwarz (1996), 16/1 (with facss. of inscriptions), pls. 3-6 (A, B, side), front of dust jacket (A, color) (the number given as 136415A).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8322

A:       ετοχειοχειο > ETTŐ' íGY E JÓ üGGYE' JŐ > Ettől így e jó üggyel jő. (Hereof he comes with this good cause.)

[4-5]χ̣ειοι > üGGYE' JŐJJ > üggyel jőjj! (… come with the cause!)

B:       χ̣ετνοι > χ̣ετνο{2} > üGYE TűNŐ > ügye tűnő (his cause is diminishing)

(.)[...]αοτ̣ονοχν(.) > [HA ]αοτ̣ονοχν{ToSZ}{3} > [HA] A O'TÓ NŐ üGYöN TáSS > [ha] a oltó nő ügyön táss ([if] the extinguishing/instigating woman on the cause is partner)

Ügye tűnő [ha] a oltó nő ügyön táss (társ). (His cause is diminishing [if] the extinguishing/instigating woman on the cause is partner.)

AVI 8042; BAD 2478

Würzburg, Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität H 5036. Fragmentary lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth 550-530

Decoration: Lip: A and B: no figured decoration.

Inscriptions: A: handle zone: short and well centered: Ϙομαιο(ς){1}. B: Ϙομαιος{2}.

Commentary: The photo (of A) is small, and my own readings are uncertain: ϙο(μ)αιοι (first reading); ϙομαιο(ς) (second reading). The first letter does not look much like a koppa unless the head attaches to the top left of the vertical; but CVA clearly indicates koppa. The mu on A seems to consist of a vertical plus Attic gamma. I originally thought a nonsense inscription more likely. The final sigma resembles iota in the facs., probably so on both sides. Lissarrague reads ϙομαιος and interprets it as `a vase for the komos,' or epithet of Apollo Komaios. LGPN ii has two proper names: Κομαιος (4 BC) and Κωμαιος (4/3 and 2 BC), but does not list the vase under either. Hölscher thinks the name is Komaios, a common name, for which he refers to Simon (1968), 135f, figs. 18-19 who discusses this vase. See further, L. Robert (1934), 26ff.; JHS 25 (1905) 116/32 (dedicatory inscription on a vase fr.). Κομαιος is also an epithet of Apollo: Simon, op. cit. 135f. She herself reads Ϙομαιοι: the known epithet of Apollo Komaios in the dative. Hölscher speculates that since the name recalls κωμος [but is it not from κωμη(?)] it is perhaps an anonymous dedication to the drinker, cf. RE, s.v. komos (Lamer). Could it be a kalos-name without kalos? [[Addenda: I originally thought more likely a nonsense inscription, although Κωμαιος is also a proper name: PA 8952-53 (4-3 BC and 2 BC).]]

Footnotes: {1} Simon reads Ϙομαιοι, but considers it a known epithet of Apollo Komaios. The regular ending would be κομοιος, but cf. σκοτος/σκοταιος, χερσος/χερσαιος. The suggestion is originally Herter's. The last letter is a vertical stroke, which could be a simplified sigma (see above). {2} the last letter looked more like a sigma than that on A.

Bibliography: BADB: 2478. — *Photos in Beazley Archive. — *Simon (1968), 135/12, figs. 18-19. — *F. Hölscher, CVA Würzburg 1, Germany 39 (1975), pl. 40,3 (A), fig. 24 (profile); p. 45, facs. of inscr., prob. of A). — AttScr (1990), no. 1074. — Lissarrague (1990a), 65 and n. 40, fig. 47H (sketch of inscription on A).

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8335

A:       Ϙομαιοι > KOMA JŐJJ > Koma jőjj! (Come, old friend!)

B:       Ϙομαιος > KÖ' MA JÓ SZó > Köll ma jó szó! (Good words are needed today!)

AVI 8072; BAD 306484

Würzburg, Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität (304 L). BF hydria. From Vulci. Unattributed. Anthyle/Anthylle/Anthylla (fem.) (bf.), Rhodon (ntr.-fem.) (bf.), Hegesilla (fem.) (bf.), Myrtale (fem.) (bf.), kale. Ca. 530 (Langlotz).

Decoration: Shoulder: Heracles and the Lion. Body: a fountain scene (five girls).

Inscriptions: Body: between a column and the fountain head, facing the latter: Ανθυλ<λ>ε καλε. Between the heads and backs of the first and second girl: Ροδον ^ καλε. Between the second and third girls: hεγεσιλ<λ>α{2}. Between the backs of the first and second pair: Μυρταλε v. καλε. Between the pair at right: Ανθυλ<λ>α v. καλε. Under the foot,Gr.: ΣΟ, with three-stroke sigma and a compass-drawn omicron. See Johnston (1979), 81/21A,vii 53, and Hackl 32/242.

Commentary: For the social status of the girls, see recently Hannestad; for the names, e.g., Milne–Bothmer. The replica London B 333 (ABV 677/3) is by a different hand (Beazley) and the inscriptions differ in position and include nonsense, although two names recur (Anthylle and Rhodon).

Footnotes: {1} a faulty entry; see Add.(1). {2} see ABV 306.

Bibliography: *Photo. — Kretschmer (1888), 392. — C. Fränkel (1912), 46, n. 1. — *Langlotz (1932), 55/304, pls. 94 and 97. — Milne–Bothmer (1953), 215. — *ABV (1956), 678 (bibl.). — Para. (1971), 319. — Simon (1975b), pl. 30. — Hannestad (1984), 252 ff., fig. 1. — Tölle-Kastenbein (1986), 66, fig. 4 (part). — Add.[2] (1989), 148{1}.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8365

Ανθυλ<λ>ε καλε > A NYiTJáVaL E KALL-E > a nyitjával e kall-e (Does she wear away with her opening?)

Ροδον ^ καλε > íRÓ iDŐN KALL-E > író időn kall-e (Does the writer wear away with passing time?)

hεγεσιλ<λ>α > Ha ÉG E SILA/SZILA' > ha ég e sila/szilaj (if this short-sighted/savage burns)

Μυρταλε v. καλε > Mi VáRaTTA iLL-E KALL-E > mi váratta ill-e kall-e (does what made her wait evaporate, wear away)

Ανθυλ<λ>α v. καλε ΣΟ > Ανθυυα v. καλε ΣΟ > ANNYi CíVóVA' KALL-E SZÓ > annyi cívóval kall-e szó (Do the words wear away with that many nagging?)

A nyitjával e kall-e? Író időn kall-e? Ha ég e sila/szilaj, mi váratta ill-e, kall-e? Annyi cívóval kall-e szó? (Does she wear away with her opening? Does the writer wear away with passing time? If this short-sighted/savage burns, does what made her wait evaporate, wear away? Do the words wear away with that many nagging?)

AVI 8078; 301907

Würzburg, Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität (327 L). BF stamnos. Michigan Painter (Perizoma Group). Last quarter sixth

Decoration: Shoulder: A-B: symposium: four bearded symposiasts; two girls; all reclining. Body: A-B: a chariot race: A: two chariots; a dog. B: a chariot. Under each handle: a meta.

Inscriptions: Body: B: under the horses' bellies: σονο̣σ.

Commentary: = U III 394. Is this nonsense or a miswritten proper name? All letters are clear, although the second omicron is only partially preserved.

Bibliography: *Photo. — *Langlotz (1932), 53/327, pl. 99. — H.R.W. Smith, CVA San Francisco 1, USA 10 (1943), p. 32. — ABV (1956), 343/5. — Add.[2] (1989), 93.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8371

σονο̣σ > iSZONYOS > Iszonyos (Terrific)

AVI 8080; BAD 303249

Würzburg, Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität (345 L). BF oinochoe. Unattributed; Keyside Class. First quarter fifth

Decoration: A woman with a hydria stands before a fountain; another, similar; between them, a tree.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: above the left hydria: νε(ο)ν{1}. To right of the tree trunk: (α)νε v. (.)νε{2}. Above the tree and the girl at right: 4-6 letters, the first perhaps a pi.

Commentary: = U III 412.

Footnotes: {1} the omicron is triangular. The reading is uncertain. {2} the first letter is a triangle; it could be for omicron. The fourth letter is a small black triangle.

Bibliography: *Langlotz (1932), 67/345, pl. 103. — ABV (1956), 426/5.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8373

νε(ο)ν > νεΑν{1}> NE Á'Na > Ne állna! (It should not stand!)

(α)νε v. (.)νε > Δνε Δνε{2} > De NE DŐ'NE > De ne dőlne! (But it should not tumble!)

AVI 8081; BAD 303245

Würzburg, Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität (347 L). BF oinochoe. From Vulci. Unattributed; Keyside Class. First quarter fifth

Decoration: An Amazon archer; another Amazon carrying the body of a dead Amazon.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: imitation letters: between the heads of the two live Amazons: four letters. Between the right Amazon's legs: (κ)σ(h)σ{1}. To right of the right Amazon: another inscription.

Commentary: = U III 413. Key-pattern side-border. Unskilled lettering: semi-literate?

Footnotes: {1} or: σhσκ, read upside down. If read right-side up, the kappa is reversed.

Bibliography: *Langlotz (1932), 67/347, pl. 103. — ABV (1956), 425/1. — Add.[2] (1989), 110.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8374

(κ)σ(h)σ > KéSZ HőS > Kész hős! (An accomplished/perfect hero!)

AVI 8104; BAD 201065

Würzburg, Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität (471 L). RF cup. From Vulci. Unattributed{1}. Pamphaios, potter. Last quarter sixth

Decoration: Int.: a satyr with a pointed amphora. A: six dancing satyrs (four with wineskins). B: six dancing satyrs (the second has a pointed amphora, the third a wineskin).

Inscriptions: Int.: around the figure, in a circle: nonsense: (α)σ(ο)ογοκι(.)(.)υ(δ){2}. A: nonsense inscriptions: on the rightmost wineskin, in BG: οσ{3}. B: nonsense inscriptions (some omicron's can be distinguished in Langlotz). On the reserved upper edge of the foot, in BG: [Παν]φ[αι]ος εποιεσεν.

Commentary: = U III 343. Damaged in WW II: the vase has much deteriorated during the `Nachkriegszeit' and the inscription can only be read partially: a dot that may belong to the first alpha; one diagonal line belonging to the second, and remains of οιεσε.

Footnotes: {1} a slight connection with the Nikosthenes Painter: see ARV[2] 131 and CF, text to pl. 4.46. {2} an uncertain reading from a rather unclear facs. in CVA. Sloppy and casual writing. {3} three-stroke sigma reversed.

Bibliography: BADB: 201065. — *Langlotz (1932), 91/471, pl. 140. — ARV[2] (1963), 129/20, 131. — *F. Hölscher, CVA Würzburg 2, Germany 46 (1980), pls. 1,1-4 and 2,1-2, fig. 1 (profile); p. 9, facs. of Int. inscription (bibl.). — *Immerwahr (1984), 344 n. 20, 350/37. — Add.[2] (1989), 176.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8397

Int.:       (α)σ(ο)ογοκι(.)(.)υ(δ) > (α)σηογοκι(.)(.)υ(δ) > A SuHOGÓ Ki ISSZA VaD > A suhogó ki issza vad. (The fair/chaste is who drinks it wild/untamed (straight).)

AVI 8122; BAD 201654

Würzburg, Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität (507 L). RF amphora with lid. From Vulci. Kleophrades Painter{1}. Ca. 500 Very early: before 500 (Beazley). Ca. 500 (Hölscher).

Decoration: A: a young warrior leaving home (extispicy), with a `Scythian' and a young woman looking on. B: komos of two bearded men with a hetaera.

Inscriptions: Nonsense(?): A: to the Scythian's lower right: τλετυ. To left of the warrior's face: ιτεισ. Above the dog: ειοσ. Above the woman: ισλει. B: above the left komast: ιυι. To right of the amphora: εισ, retr. To left of the hetaera's head: ισυτ. On her right, similar: ισε{2}. Under the foot, Gr.: ϝΙ, retr. Under the lid, Gr.: ϝΙ, the same as that under the foot. ==>> Information given me at a luncheon in Berlin at the time of the Euphronios colloquium 1991 by Dr. Martin Boss at the request of Erika Simon: B: the inscriptions are not senseless: the hetaera is Ανυτε. The middle komast is [...]ες. The left komast is: [...]εμο[...]. [This seems odd, for the nonsense on both A and B would be typical early Kleophrades Painter nonsense.] [Anyte of Tegea was a Hellenistic poetess (Pal. Anth.). Pape has no other person by the name; LGPN ii does not have it. Nothing was said about A.]

Commentary: = U III 318. = HA 120. The vase is now very fragmentary and some letters are now missing. The inscriptions are Euthymidean and the style of lettering is more regular than later. Hölscher thinks it strange that the inscriptions should be meaningless, as the Kleophrades Painter could write, cf. Vatican 16,573(3) and Munich 2305. For ΕΙΟΣ as a dog's name, see Mentz. The two inscriptions by the hetaera (ισυτ and εσι in CVA) on B can be read as [Α]νυτινε (G. Neumann apud CVA); but see above. On the writing skills of the Kleophrades Painter, see also Boardman (1976), 15 and n. 56. Note that reading Anytine presupposes reading the sigmas as nu's which is possible.

Footnotes: {1} attributed to Euthymides by F. Hauser. {2} could be one inscription: ισυτισε(?). But see now the information from Boss, above. {3} Listed in CAVI 6963 as Vatican without number and as having χαιρε as well as a nonsense inscription.

Bibliography: *FR (1904–32), ii, 222-26, pl. 103. — *Langlotz (1932), 100/507, 175 (facs. of Gr.), pl. 175. — Cf. Mentz (1933), .... — Beazley (1933a), no. 1 (and p. 11; not ill.). — Bloesch (1951), 32/D. — ARV[2] (1963), 181/1 (much bibl.). — Para. (1971), 340. — *F. Hölscher, CVA Würzburg 2, Germany 46 (1980), pls. 8,1-2, 9,1-2, 10,1-2, 11,1-8, figs. 7-8 (profile); pp. 18 and 20, facss. of Grr.; p. 19, facs.of Dipp. (vast bibl.). — Add.[2] (1989), 186 (much bibl.). — AttScr (1990), no. 487.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8415

Side A:

ΤΛΕΤΥ > TőLe ÉTŰ’ / éTeL ETTŰ' / éTeLE úTÚ' > Tőle étül. / Étel ettől. / Étele útul (útravalóul). (From him (the Scythian archer) to eat. / Food from this. / Food for the road.)

ΙΤΕΙΣ > ÍTE ŰZ > Íte (ítélete) űz! (His judgement chases me away (holds me for a hungry robber)!)

ΕΙΟΣ > E JÓ űZi > E jó űzi? (This good drives him away?)

ΙΣΛΕΙ > ÍZZeL ÉJJ > Ízzel élj (élj az alkalommal)! (Use the time/opportunity (go in piece)!)

The warrior is getting the food-offer to depart in piece, while the woman reassures him with her double talk, the dog asks wondering how can be someone driven away with good bites. Every word is right on the spot, explains and complements perfectly the picture, contrary to the “translation” offered by the paper Making Sense of Nonsense Inscriptions Associated with Amazons and Scythians on Athenian Vases, Version 2.0 , July 2012 by Adrienne Mayor, John Colarusso and David Saunders which adds nothing to it: “These phrases have an archaic, but natural translation, which appears to reproduce casual speech: The warrior is “standing here” and the dog is “by him.”

Side B:

ιυι; εισ; ισυτ; ισε > IVó Ű; E’ISZi; ISZi ŰT; ISZi E’ > ivó ű; eliszi; iszi űt (az amfóra tartalmát); iszi e’ (Hi is a drinker; drinks it up; s/he drinks this (the content of the amphora); this one drinks it)


It is all about drinking, as is usually the case with komasts (revellers) and komos (merrymaking). If one wonders on what basis I have transcribed υ into V one should think about naming of w (double V) in English. But I think, the first word should be ινι (it is very easy to mix up υ and ν) > INNI > inni (to drink). Which ever is the case, it is drinking anyway.


AVI 8133; BAD 200882

Würzburg, Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität (544 L). RF alabastron. From Boeotia. Group of Paidikos Alabastra (γ) (Manner of Euergides Painter){1}. Last quarter sixth Late (Beazley).

Decoration: A girl conversing with a youth leaning on his stick; on either side a column. On the bottom: a black wheel.

Inscriptions: On the reserved topside of mouth: nonsense: πγιυο(γ){2}. On the columns, nonsense inscriptions{3}.

Footnotes: {1} may be by one hand, Beazley. {2} so Langlotz' text; he wonders if this is miswritten for Παιδικος. {3} Langlotz' rendering of these letters is not repeated here. From his description it is not clear how many columns and inscriptions there are.

Bibliography: *Langlotz (1932), 112/544, pl. 207. — ARV[2] (1963), 100/24.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8426


πγιυο(γ) > πγιυθ(γ) > BuGa IVó CSiGa > Buga ivó csiga (Lame/stumpy drinking shell)

AVI 8134; BAD 203133

Würzburg, Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität (557 L). WG alabastron. From Eretria. Painter of Würzburg 557{1}. Late sixth or early fifth Ca. 510 (Langlotz).

Decoration: Two women washing: a woman, kneeling on a low stool, hands her clothes, shoes and ointment jar to another who is washing.

Inscriptions: Nonsense: above the head of one woman: σμιλχ. Above and to right of the other (horizontal and vertically down, respectively): γυ(ο)υυερλ and γιχρ(ϝ)κ(.)χ(χ)χ{2}.

Commentary: The inscriptions after the drs., which are perhaps inaccurate.

Footnotes: {1} not far from the Sappho Painter. {2} the seventh letter is a short diagonal stroke placed high, which may be accidental.

Bibliography: *drs. — *Langlotz (1932), 113/557, pl. 207. — ARV[2] (1963), 304/1. — EAA vii (1966), 1224. — Para. (1971), 520.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8427

σμιλχ > S MI LáGY > s mi lágy (and what is loose)

γυβυυερλ > GÜBŰVe' VERi Le > gübűvel veri le (she knocks/hammers it out with mangle/roller)

γιχρ(ϝ)κ(.)χ(χ)χ > γιχρ(ϝ)κ χκχ{2} > áG ÍGY RiVi Ki – GYaKoDJa > ág így rivi ki – gyakodja (the stick scares it out – keeps it prodding/crashing)

S mi lágy, gübűvel (mángolóval) veri le, ág így rivi (rivasztja) ki – gyakodja (gyakdossa)! (And what is loose, she knocks/hammers it out with mangle/roller, the stick scares it out – keeps it prodding/crashing!)

AVI 8165; BAD 301039

Zürich, Private: M. Ros. BF amphora. From Vulci. Group E. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: A: Heracles fighting Geryon; between them Eurytios falling. B: Dionysus with a drinking horn; four dancing satyrs.

Inscriptions: A: nonsense: above Eurytios and to right of Heracles' waist and legs: πχ>π(χ)ι(.)σο. Under the foot, Gr.: ΥΣ.

Commentary: Messy letters. Blösch thinks the inscription an `Andeutung' of Eurytios' name, but I doubt it.

Bibliography: *Bloesch (1943), 42/7, pls. 14-17, figs. on pp. 45 and 162. — ABV (1956), 133/5. — Johnston (1979), 84/25A 2.

Author: H.R.I. Internal ID: 8459

πχ>π(χ)ι(.)σο ΥΣ > πχ{DőL Λ}π(χ)ι(.)σο ΥΣ > éPP íGY DőL eL BéKÜLő SZÓ Ű iS > Épp így dől el békülő szó, ű is. (Exactly this way falls conciliatory word, he also.)

AVI 9048

Göttingen, Georg-August-Universität: Archäologisches Institut inv. H 99. Fr. of lip cup. Unattributed. Third quarter sixth

Decoration: Int.: not preserved. Lip: not preserved.

Inscriptions: nonsense: [...].hεσ̣hεϝhϝhο vacat.

Commentary: Some hetas resemble reversed nus.

Bibliography: *Digital photo (E023.jpg).

Author: R.W. Internal ID: 8576

.hεσ̣hεϝhϝhο > ÉHES Ha EVő HíV iHO' > Éhes ha evő hív ihol! (Hungry, here he is, when the feeding calls!)

Mihály Mellár

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The Scythian language resurrects as Scythic-Hun-Magyar.


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The Scythian language resurrects as Scythic-Hun-Magyar.


'Nonsense Inscriptions'?!
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és a betlehemi csillag

A könyv a múlt és a jelen sérthetetlen dogmáit kérdőjelezi meg, fájdalmas sebeket szakitva fel a társadalmi közérzeten, mind a hétköznapokra, a tudományos életre és a hit világára vonatkoztatva. Megtalálta a valódi betlehemi csillagot, szó lesz a történelmi, a pártus Jézusról, a valós keresztrefeszítéséről és egy szörnyű végű összeesküvésről, aminek egyik következménye a téves időszámításunk és a kronológiánk sötét középkora. Talán nem is véltetlen, hogy most íródott meg a könyv - írja - ismét az útkeresés korában járunk. Létezésünk és hitvilágunk alapjai esnek szét, új kérdések jönnek, új válaszok kellenek. Ezek alapjait érinti meg ez az írás, új szemléletet adva eddig érinthetetlennek gondolt tabuknak.

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